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Car accidents

V A Fetisov, A A Gusarov, Eksp Smirenin
The results of analysis of forensic medical expertises carried out by different state institutions of forensic medical expertise of this country are presented. It was shown that the practice of standardized expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger compartment of the car remains to be established. The comprehensive approach to the solution of the problem of the circumstances of the road traffic accident and the positions of its participants in the passenger compartment of the car is possible based only on the multi-faceted investigation...
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
Yunzhu Meng, Wansoo Pak, Berkan Guleyupoglu, Bharath Koya, F Scott Gayzik, Costin D Untaroiu
Child pedestrian protection deserves more attention in vehicle safety design since they are the most vulnerable road users who face the highest mortality rate. Pediatric Finite Element (FE) models could be used to simulate and understand the pedestrian injury mechanisms during crashes in order to mitigate them. Thus, the objective of the study was to develop a computationally efficient (simplified) six-year-old (6YO-PS) pedestrian FE model and validate it based on the latest published pediatric data. The 6YO-PS FE model was developed by morphing the existing GHBMC adult pedestrian model...
October 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Akihisa Okumura, Shinpei Abe, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Michihiko Takasu, Mitsuru Ikeno, Mika Nakazawa, Ayuko Igarashi, Toshiaki Shimizu
To evaluate changes in the attitudes of nonmedical university students toward epilepsy in 2015, the present study compared the results of questionnaire surveys from four different time periods: before media coverage of epilepsy-related car accidents (2008-2010), during a period of abundant media coverage (2011-2012), after media coverage (2013-2014), and after novel media coverage (2015). The nonmedical students that completed the questionnaire were divided into four groups: 2008-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
BACKGROUND: Physicians are usually at the forefront when the issue of driving ability is raised by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients or their family members, even though few have been formally trained in this area. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To identify relevant literature on driving assessment tools in patients with PD by performing a systematic review on this subject in order to provide background information for physicians on what types of driving assessment are available, and to delineate the role of physicians in providing fitness to drive recommendations...
2016: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
Pierluigi Cordellieri, Francesca Baralla, Fabio Ferlazzo, Roberto Sgalla, Laura Piccardi, Anna Maria Giannini
In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudes in 2681 young drivers (1458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22) who filled out several scales assessing attitudes toward road safety issues, driving behavior in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviors are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Marco Degidi, Diego Nardi, Gianluca Sighinolfi, Adriano Piattelli
PURPOSE: The use of the conical coupling connection to support definitive restorations was evaluated in cases involving full acrylic resin or hybrid acrylic resin-composite prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of definitive fixed partial prostheses made with lithium disilicate and supported by coupling connection abutments and healed implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prostheses were placed in the posterior regions of partially edentulous patients; 65 patients received fixed lithium disilicate restorations splinted with conical coupling connections to two implants...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Mikko Malmivuo, Juha Luoma, Markus Porthin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tyres based on fatal road accidents. METHODS: The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. RESULTS: Comparing the proportions of winter tyre type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tyre type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tyres reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%...
October 4, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Sung Ho Jang, Ji Hyun Yi, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: Depression, a prevalent psychiatric disorder, is associated with abnormality in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, we report on a patient with severe depression who showed injury of the dorsolateral prefronto-thalamic tract following mild traumatic brain injury, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A 63-year-old female patient suffered an in-car accident...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xiang Liu, M Rapik Saat, Christopher P L Barkan
Derailments are the most common type of train accident in the United States. They cause damage to infrastructure, rolling stock and lading, disrupt service, and have the potential to cause casualties, and harm the environment. Train safety and risk analysis relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood. Derailment rate - the number of derailments normalized by traffic exposure - is a useful statistic to estimate the likelihood of a derailment. Despite its importance, derailment rate analysis using multiple factors has not been previously developed...
September 24, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Natalie Behrle, Peter Dyke, Abdallah Dalabih
Motor vehicle accident is the most common cause of blunt cardiac injury (BCI) in children (85.3%) due to the height of the child in relation to proper restraints and the compliant pediatric rib cage (J Trauma. 1996;40:200-202). Trauma to the chest wall may lead to injury of the myocardium, resulting in myocardial contusion, ventricular septal defect (VSD), ventricular free wall rupture, or valve compromise (J Trauma. 1996;40; 200-202; Heart Lung. 2012;41:200-202; J Inj Violence Res. 2012;4:98-100). There are several proposed mechanisms for the formation of VSD after blunt chest trauma including rupture of ischemic myocardium related to the initial trauma and reopening of a spontaneously closed congenital VSD...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Maya Kumar, Sheila Gahagan, Bretten Pickering, Jeffrey Gold, Martin T Stein
Jennifer is a 16-year-old Latina girl who is new to your practice. During her first well visit, she mentions that she has had daily headaches for 2 years. They began after sustaining a concussion in a car accident. Typically, her headaches are bilateral and "squeezing"; they occur in the afternoons and last for a few hours. Her concussion also resulted in depressed mood, which has improved over time.When you ask if her headaches have changed recently, she says that they have been worse for the last few days...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
P Brinas, C Bréhin, S Breinig, P Galinier, I Claudet, P Micheau, O Abbo
Tracheal injuries are a rare but potentially lethal entity, most particularly in pediatrics. While standardized management allows quick therapeutic decisions in adults, based on the results of the initial bronchoscopy, the use of diagnostic exams remains unclear during childhood. We describe the case of a 6-year-old patient with a posterior tracheal wall injury due to a car accident, which was managed without tracheal endoscopy. Based on our experience and on a literature review, we suggest clarifying the management of tracheal injury in children, defining the place of computerized tomodensitometry and endoscopy in the decision process...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Willian Augusto de Melo, Ana Carolina Jacinto Alarcão, Analice Paula Rocha de Oliveira, Sandra Marisa Pelloso, Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of non-fatal traffic accidents regarding age. METHODS: A retrospective, transversal and analytical study was carried out in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil based on data from Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito ("Police Occurrence Bulletins") (BOATs). Following probability sampling, the sociodemographic aspects, logistics, environmental conditions and time of occurrence of 418 cases of accidents...
September 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Simon Sternlund, Johan Strandroth, Matteo Rizzi, Anders Lie, Claes Tingvall
Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle Lane Departure Warning (LDW) and Lane Keeping Aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. Methods The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA sensitive and non-sensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year and technical equipment i.e. low speed Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS)...
September 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jacopo Cambi, Paola Staffa, Maria Carla Spinosi
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnoea Syndrome (OSAHS) is a common disorder characterized by partial (hypopnoea) or total (apnea) closure of the upper airways during sleep. It is associated with hypertension, stroke, car accidents, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and depression. Although this disease is related to major morbidity and mortality(1) , the prevalence of OSAHS is underestimated. The physiopathology of OSAHS is multifactorial and not yet fully understood. Numerous pathophysiological risk factors have been recognized: anatomical abnormalities, impaired upper airway dilators, unstable respiratory control and diminished arousal threshold...
September 7, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
F Auriault, L Thollon, J Pérès, M Behr
This study documents the development of adverse fetal outcome predictors dedicated to the analysis of road accidents involving pregnant women. To do so, a pre-existing whole body finite element model representative of a 50th percentile 26 weeks pregnant woman was used. A total of 8 accident scenarios were simulated with the model positioned on a sled. Each of these scenarios was associated to a risk of adverse fetal outcome based on results from real car crash investigations involving pregnant women from the literature...
September 2, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Reza Safaeian, Valiollah Hassani, Hamid Reza Faiz
BACKGROUND Diaphragmatic rupture can be seen in up to 5% of car accidents, and 80%-100% of diaphragmatic hernias are associated with other vital organ injuries. Brain, pelvis, long bones, liver, spleen, and aorta are some other organs that can be severely damaged and need different anesthetic managements. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old male victim of a head-on collision who was suffering diaphragmatic rupture and corneal laceration was prepared for an emergency operation 11 hours after the car accident. Gastric decompression, pre-oxygenation, rapid sequence induction with succinylcholine, immediate use of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant, and mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume after intubation were used in anesthetic management of the patient...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Grzegorz Juszczyk, Aleksandra Czerw, Tomasz Tatara, Aneta Duda-Zalewska, Joanna Walusiak-Skorupa, Robert Słoniewski, Anna Staniszewska, Dominik Olejniczak, Urszula Religioni
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine the cost intensity of identifying contraindications to fleet car driving in preventive care. BACKGROUND: The objective of a psychological examination is to identify impaired psychomotor function as well as any intellectual, cognitive or emotional incapacities, which may seriously impede safety. METHOD: Real-world data were collected from the healthcare provider in Poland. A total of 8111 anonymous records from psychomotor tests performed between January 1 and December 31, 2012 were analysed...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Rui Li, Wencheng Su, Zhangping Lu
OBJECTIVE: We studied the changes of driving fatigue levels for experienced and inexperienced drivers at three periods of the day: 9:00-12:00, 12:00-14:00, and 16:00-18:00. METHODS: 30 drivers were involved in 120 min real-car driving, and sleepiness ratings ((Stanford Sleepiness Scale , SSS), electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and heart rates (HR) were recorded. Together with principal component analysis, the relationship between EEG signals and HR was explored and used to determine a comprehensive indicator of driving fatigue...
September 2, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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