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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644921/targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep-but-not-wake-enhances-sensorimotor-skill-performance-a-pilot-study
#1
Brian P Johnson, Steven M Scharf, Kelly P Westlake
The benefits of sleep on memory consolidation have been enhanced for declarative and motor sequence learning through replaying classically conditioned auditory stimuli during sleep, known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). However, it is unknown if TMR can influence performance of a sensorimotor skill, in the absence of the cognitive requirements of sequence learning. Here, young adults performed a nondominant arm throwing task separated by a full night of sleep or a full day of wake, with half of all participants receiving TMR between sessions...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643052/the-spaced-learning-concept-significantly-improves-training-for-laparoscopic-suturing-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-study
#2
Michael Boettcher, Johannes Boettcher, Stefan Mietzsch, Thomas Krebs, Robert Bergholz, Konrad Reinshagen
BACKGROUND: Spaced learning has been shown to be effective in various areas like traditional knowledge or motor skill acquisition. To evaluate the impact of implementation of the spaced learning concept in laparoscopic training was the aim of this study. METHODS: To evaluate the effectiveness of spaced learning, subjects were asked to perform four surgeon's square knots on a bowel model prior and post 3 h of hands-on training. All subjects were medical students and novice in laparoscopic suturing...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641538/glt-1-upregulation-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-brain-injury
#3
Yu-Yan Hu, Li Li, Xiao-Hui Xian, Min Zhang, Xiao-Cai Sun, Shu-Qin Li, Xin Cui, Jie Qi, Wen-Bin Li
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, which plays an important role in many aspects of normal brain function such as neural development, motor functions, learning and memory etc. However, excessive accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular fluid will induce excitotoxicity which is considered to be a major mechanism of cell death in brain ischemia. There is no enzyme to decompose the glutamate in extracellular fluid, so extracellular glutamate homeostasis within the central nervous system is mainly regulated by the uptake activity of excitatory amino acid transporters...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639422/medaka-and-zebrafish-contactin1-mutants-as-a-model-for-understanding-neural-circuits-for-motor-coordination
#4
Miki Takeuchi, Chikako Inoue, Akiko Goshima, Yusuke Nagao, Koichi Shimizu, Hiroki Miyamoto, Takashi Shimizu, Hisashi Hashimoto, Shigenobu Yonemura, Atsuo Kawahara, Yutaka Hirata, Masayuki Yoshida, Masahiko Hibi
A spontaneous medaka ro mutant shows abnormal wobbling and rolling swimming behaviors. By positional cloning, we mapped the ro locus to a region containing the gene encoding Contactin1b (Cntn1b), which is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-superfamily domain-containing membrane-anchored protein. The ro mutant had a deletion in the cntn1b gene that introduced a premature stop codon. Furthermore, cntn1b mutants generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system and trans-heterozygotes of the CRISPR mutant allele and ro had abnormal swimming behavior, indicating that the cntn1b gene was responsible for the ro-mutant phenotype...
June 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638591/replicable-in-vivo-physiological-and-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-shank3b-null-mutant-mouse-model-of-autism
#5
Sameer C Dhamne, Jill L Silverman, Chloe E Super, Stephen H T Lammers, Mustafa Q Hameed, Meera E Modi, Nycole A Copping, Michael C Pride, Daniel G Smith, Alexander Rotenberg, Jacqueline N Crawley, Mustafa Sahin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition characterized by social, repetitive, and sensory behavioral abnormalities. No treatments are approved for the core diagnostic symptoms of ASD. To enable the earliest stages of therapeutic discovery and development for ASD, robust and reproducible behavioral phenotypes and biological markers are essential to establish in preclinical animal models. The goal of this study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes that are replicable between independent cohorts in a mouse model of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638333/switching-adaptability-in-human-inspired-sidesteps-a-minimal-model
#6
Keisuke Fujii, Yuki Yoshihara, Hiroko Tanabe, Yuji Yamamoto
Humans can adapt to abruptly changing situations by coordinating redundant components, even in bipedality. Conventional adaptability has been reproduced by various computational approaches, such as optimal control, neural oscillator, and reinforcement learning; however, the adaptability in bipedal locomotion necessary for biological and social activities, such as unpredicted direction change in chase-and-escape, is unknown due to the dynamically unstable multi-link closed-loop system. Here we propose a switching adaptation model for performing bipedal locomotion by improving autonomous distributed control, where autonomous actuators interact without central control and switch the roles for propulsion, balancing, and leg swing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638085/differential-regulations-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-and-optokinetic-response-by-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-in-the-cerebellar-flocculus
#7
Ryo Wakita, Soshi Tanabe, Kazunari Tabei, Asako Funaki, Takuma Inoshita, Tomoo Hirano
Norepinephrine modulates synaptic plasticity in various brain regions and is implicated in memory formation, consolidation and retrieval. The cerebellum is involved in motor learning, and adaptations of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and optokinetic response (OKR) have been studied as models of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Previous studies showed the involvement of adrenergic systems in the regulation of VOR, OKR and cerebellar synaptic functions. Here, we show differential contributions of β- and α2-adrenergic receptors in the mouse cerebellar flocculus to VOR and OKR control...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637152/how-physical-therapists-instruct-patients-with-stroke-an-observational-study-on-attentional-focus-during-gait-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#8
Elmar Kal, Henrieke van den Brink, Han Houdijk, John van der Kamp, Paulien Helena Goossens, Coen van Bennekom, Erik Scherder
PURPOSE: People without neurological impairments show superior motor learning when they focus on movement effects (external focus) rather than on movement execution itself (internal focus). Despite its potential for neurorehabilitation, it remains unclear to what extent external focus strategies are currently incorporated in rehabilitation post-stroke. Therefore, we observed how physical therapists use attentional focus when treating gait of rehabilitating patients with stroke. METHODS: Twenty physical therapist-patient couples from six rehabilitation centers participated...
February 24, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636677/contextual-imitation-of-intransitive-body-actions-in-a-beluga-whale-delphinapterus-leucas-a-do-as-other-does-study
#9
José Z Abramson, Mª Victoria Hernández-Lloreda, José-Antonio Esteban, Fernando Colmenares, Francisco Aboitiz, Josep Call
Cetaceans are remarkable for exhibiting group-specific behavioral traditions or cultures in several behavioral domains (e.g., calls, behavioral tactics), and the question of whether they can be acquired socially, for example through imitative processes, remains open. Here we used a "Do as other does" paradigm to experimentally study the ability of a beluga to imitate familiar intransitive (body-oriented) actions demonstrated by a conspecific. The participant was first trained to copy three familiar behaviors on command (training phase) and then was tested for her ability to generalize the learned "Do as the other does" command to a different set of three familiar behaviors (testing phase)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634887/aberrant-connections-between-climbing-fibres-and-purkinje-cells-induce-alterations-in-the-timing-of-an-instrumental-response-in-the-rat
#10
Lorena Gaytán-Tocavén, Miguel Ángel López-Vázquez, Miguel Ángel Guevara, María Esther Olvera-Cortés
Cerebellar participation in timing and sensory-motor sequences has been supported by several experimental and clinical studies. A relevant role of the cerebellum in timing of conditioned responses in the range of milliseconds has been demonstrated, but less is known regarding the role of the cerebellum in supra-second timing of operant responses. A dissociated role of the cerebellum and striatum in timing in the millisecond and second range had been reported, respectively. The climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapse is crucial in timing models; thus, the aberrant connection between these cellular elements is a suitable model for evaluating the contribution of the cerebellum in timing in the supra-second range...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633996/effects-of-monoaminergic-drugs-on-training-induced-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-older-adults
#11
Trisha M Kesar, Samir R Belagaje, Paola Pergami, Marc W Haut, Gerald Hobbs, Cathrin M Buetefisch
Primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is involved in motor learning and stroke motor recovery, and enhanced by increasing monoaminergic transmission. Age impacts these processes but there is a paucity of systematic studies on the effects of monoaminergic drugs in older adults. Here, in ten older adults (age 61+ 4 years, 4 males), we determine the effects of a single oral dose of carbidopa/levodopa (DOPA), d-amphetamine (AMPH), methylphenidate (MEPH) and placebo (PLAC) on M1 excitability and motor training-induced M1 plasticity...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#12
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631965/short-term-test-retest-reliability-of-the-impact-in-healthy-young-athletes
#13
Amanda M O'Brien, Joseph E Casey, Rachel M Salmon
The present study examined the short-term test-retest reliability of the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) variables with healthy 11- to 14-year-old athletes. 53 young athletes (Mage = 12.4 years, 9 female) were administered the ImPACT on two separate occasions two weeks apart. Participants were instructed to complete the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) and the baseline computerized neurocognitive test during both the baseline and retest phases. Intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and reliable change index (RCI) were used as reliability metrics...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#14
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628592/genetic-variation-and-neuroplasticity-role-in-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#15
Jill Campbell Stewart, Steven C Cramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In many neurologic diagnoses, significant interindividual variability exists in the outcomes of rehabilitation. One factor that may impact response to rehabilitation interventions is genetic variation. Genetic variation refers to the presence of differences in the DNA sequence among individuals in a population. Genetic polymorphisms are variations that occur relatively commonly and, while not disease-causing, can impact the function of biological systems. The purpose of this article is to describe genetic polymorphisms that may impact neuroplasticity, motor learning, and recovery after stroke...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627281/mirroring-meaningful-actions-sensorimotor-learning-modulates-imitation-of-goal-directed-actions
#16
Caroline Catmur, Cecilia Heyes
Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626441/teaching-improvisation-through-processes-applications-in-music-education-and-implications-for-general-education
#17
REVIEW
Michele Biasutti
Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625683/a-developmental-and-clinical-perspective-of-rhythmic-interpersonal-coordination-from-mimicry-toward-the-interconnection-of-minds
#18
Jean Xavier, Julien Magnat, Alain Sherman, Soizic Gauthier, David Cohen, Laurence Chaby
Imitation plays a critical role in the development of intersubjectivity and serves as a prerequisite for understanding the emotions and intentions of others. In our review, we consider spontaneous motor imitation between children and their peers as a developmental process involving repetition and perspective-taking as well as flexibility and reciprocity. During childhood, this playful dynamic challenges developing visuospatial abilities and requires temporal coordination between partners. As such, we address synchrony as form of communication and social signal per se, that leads, from an experience of similarity, to the interconnexion of minds...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625547/contextual-fear-conditioning-is-enhanced-in-mice-lacking-functional-sphingosine-kinase-2
#19
Mona Lei, Adeena Shafique, Kani Shang, Timothy A Couttas, Hua Zhao, Anthony S Don, Tim Karl
The lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent neuroprotective signalling molecule that signals through its own family of five G-protein coupled receptors. S1P signalling enhances presynaptic glutamate release and is essential for neural development. S1P is synthesized by the enzymes sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and SphK2), of which SphK2 mRNA and activity is more abundant in the brain. In this study we investigated the consequences of global SphK2 knockout (SphK2(-/-)) on basic motor capabilities, anxiety, learning, and memory in mice, using a range of tests including the elevated plus maze, the cheeseboard, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and fear extinction...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624316/reversal-learning-in-c58-mice-modeling-higher-order-repetitive-behavior
#20
Cristina M Whitehouse, Lisa S Curry-Pochy, Robin Shafer, Joseph Rudy, Mark H Lewis
Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule...
June 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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