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Motor learning

Lucía Vaquero, Neus Ramos-Escobar, Clément François, Virginia Penhune, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Music learning has received increasing attention in the last decades due to the variety of functions and brain plasticity effects involved during its practice. Most previous reports interpreted the differences between music experts and laymen as the result of training. However, recent investigations suggest that these differences are due to a combination of genetic predispositions with the effect of music training. Here, we tested the relationship of the dorsal auditory-motor pathway with individual behavioural differences in short-term music learning...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Min Liu, Jie Ran, Jun Zhou
Kinesins are widely expressed, microtubule-dependent motors that play vital roles in microtubule-associated cellular activities, such as cell division and intracellular transport. Eg5, also known as kinesin-5 or kinesin spindle protein, is a member of the kinesin family that contributes to the formation and maintenance of the bipolar mitotic spindle during cell division. Small-molecule compounds that inhibit Eg5 activity have been shown to impair spindle assembly, block mitotic progression, and possess anti-cancer activity...
June 21, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Mei-Na Wu, Lin-Lin Kong, Jun Zhang, Meng-Ming Hu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Hong-Yan Cai, Jin-Shun Qi
The specific loss of cholinergic neurons and the progressive deficits of cognitive function are the most primary characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the neurotoxicity of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in AD has been investigated extensively, it is still unclear whether the Aβ aggregated in the medial septum (MS), a major cholinergic nucleus projecting to the hippocampus, could affect hippocampal synaptic plasticity and further impair the memory behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of Aβ injection into the MS on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and cognitive behaviors of rats by using Morris water maze (MWM), Y maze and in vivo hippocampal LTP recording...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Madhur Mangalam
How patterns of covariance in motor output and neural activity emerge over the course of learning is a topic of ongoing investigation. Vaidya et al. (J Neurophysiol 119: 1291-1304, 2018) investigate the emergence of patterns of covariance in the motor output and neural activity in chronically amputated macaques learning reach-to-grasp movements with a brain-machine interface. The authors' findings have implications for uncovering general principles of how neural coordination unfolds while learning a different motor behavior...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Montserrat Barcos-Martínez, Isabel Espejo-Portero, Maite Fernández-Urquiza, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodríguez-Perales, Ma Salud Jiménez-Romero
The chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome (OMIM# 612475) is characterized by head anomalies, mild facial dysmorphisms, and cognitive problems, including autistic features, mental retardation, developmental delay, and learning disabilities. Speech and language development are sometimes impaired, but no detailed characterization of language problems in this condition has been provided to date. We report in detail on the cognitive and language phenotype of a child who presents with a duplication in 1q21.1 (arr[hg19] 1q21...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lorena Santamaria, Christopher James
Phase synchronisation between different neural groups is considered an important source of information to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain cognition. This Letter investigated phase-synchronisation patterns from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from ten healthy participants performing motor imagery (MI) tasks using schematic emotional faces as stimuli. These phase-synchronised states, named synchrostates, are specific for each cognitive task performed by the user. The maximum and minimum number of occurrence states were selected for each subject and task to extract the connectivity network measures based on graph theory to feed a set of classification algorithms...
June 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Yuan Gao, Ming-Yang Zhang, Tao Wang, Yan-Yan Fan, Lin-Sheng Yu, Guang-Hua Ye, Zu-Feng Wang, Cheng Gao, Hao-Chen Wang, Cheng-Liang Luo, Lu-Yang Tao
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family and an extracellular ligand for the orphan IL-1 receptor ST2. Accumulated evidence shows that the IL-33/ST2 axis plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of the IL-33/ST2 axis after TBI remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-33/ST2 signaling in mouse TBI-induced brain edema and neurobehavioral deficits, and further exploited underlying mechanisms, using salubrinal (SAL), the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor and anti-ST2L...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Louis-Solal Giboin, Markus Gruber, Andreas Kramer
OBJECTIVES: We wanted to verify if the "learning to learn" effect observed in the learning of visuomotor tasks is also present when learning a balance task, i.e., whether the learning rate of a balance task is improved by prior practice of similar balance tasks. DESIGN: Single centre, parallel group, controlled training study. METHODS: 32 young healthy participants were divided into a control and a training group. The training group's practice consisted of 90 trials of three balance tasks...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Francesca Cortese, Francesco Pierelli, Flavia Pauri, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Chiara Lepre, Giulia Malavolta, Chiara Merluzzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Gianluca Coppola
Objective To study the effects of trains of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the motor cortex in patients with chronic migraine (CM) with or without medication overuse (MOH). Subjects and methods Thirty-two patients (CM [n = 16]; MOH [n = 16]) and 16 healthy volunteers (HVs) underwent rTMS recording. Ten trains of 10 stimuli each (120% resting motor threshold) were applied over the left motor cortex at 1 Hz or 5 Hz in random order. The amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) was evaluated from electromyographic recording in the first dorsal interosseous muscle...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Melanie Kleynen, Anna Beurskens, Huub Olijve, Jip Kamphuis, Susy Braun
Learning motor skills is an essential part of most rehabilitation processes. Facilitating and supporting motor learning is particularly challenging in neurological rehabilitation: patients who suffer from neurological diseases experience both physical limitations and difficulties of cognition and communication that affect and/or complicate the motor learning process. Therapists (e.g. physiotherapists and occupational therapists) who work in neurorehabilitation are therefore continuously searching for the best way to facilitate patients during these intensive learning processes...
June 19, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Rubina Aktar, Madusha Peiris, Asma Fikree, Vincent Cibert-Goton, Maxim Walmsley, Iain R Tough, Paulo Watanabe, Eduardo J A Araujo, Sahar D Mohammed, Jean-Marie Delalande, David C Bulmer, S Mark Scott, Helen M Cox, Nicol C Voermans, Qasim Aziz, L Ashley Blackshaw
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is not only an integral structural molecule, but is also critical for a wide range of cellular functions. The glycoprotein tenascin-X (TNX) predominates in the ECM of tissues like skin and regulates tissue structure through anti-adhesive interactions with collagen. Monogenic TNX deficiency causes painful joint hypermobility and skin hyperelasticity, symptoms characteristic of hypermobility-Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (hEDS). hEDS patients also report consistently increased visceral pain and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Alli Gokeler, Romain Seil, Gino Kerkhoffs, Evert Verhagen
Efficacy studies have demonstrated decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates for athletes participating in injury prevention programs. Typically, ACL injury prevention programs entail a combination of plyometrics, strength training, agility and balance exercises. Unfortunately, improvements of movement patterns are not sustained over time. The reason may be related to the type of instructions given during training. Encouraging athletes to consciously control knee movements during exercises may not be optimal for the acquisition of complex motor skills as needed in complex sports environments...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Anna M Borghi, Laura Barca, Ferdinand Binkofski, Luca Tummolini
The problem of representation of abstract concepts, such as 'freedom' and 'justice', has become particularly crucial in recent years, owing to the increased success of embodied and grounded views of cognition. We will present a novel view on abstract concepts and abstract words. Since abstract concepts do not have single objects as referents, children and adults might rely more on input from others to learn them; we, therefore, suggest that linguistic and social experience play an important role for abstract concepts...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Alberto Antonietti, Jessica Monaco, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Claudia Casellato
During natural learning, synaptic plasticity is thought to evolve dynamically and redistribute within and among subcircuits. This process should emerge in plastic neural networks evolving under behavioral feedback and should involve changes distributed across multiple synaptic sites. In eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), the cerebellum learns to predict the precise timing between two stimuli, hence EBCC represents an elementary yet meaningful paradigm to investigate the cerebellar network functioning. We have simulated EBCC mechanisms by reconstructing a realistic cerebellar microcircuit model and embedding multiple plasticity rules imitating those revealed experimentally...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
Johan Hambræus, Hans Westergren
Introduction Patients exposed to whiplash trauma are at risk of developing pain and dysfunction of the neck and shoulder. Although rarely discussed in the literature, some patients also develop autonomic dysfunction. Case presentation A previously healthy 41-year-old woman was involved in a "head-on" car crash. During the following 3 years she developed severe and complex post-traumatic pain syndrome, which consisted of neck pain, lumbar pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and myoclonic muscular contractions...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
B Rittig-Rasmussen, H Kasch, A Fuglsang-Frederiksen, T S Jensen, P Svensson
Objective To test the effect of different neck training methods on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the trapezius muscle. We hypothesized that training of the trapezius muscle would significantly increase MEPs, indicating facilitation of the corticomotor pathways. Additional experiments investigated the influence of muscle strength, muscle fatigue, and correlations between MEP amplitudes and behavioral aspects of motor learning. Methods Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit MEPs from the trapezius muscle and the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle in 60 healthy subjects in three conditions: (1) specific trapezius training, (2) coordination training of the neck, and (3) no training...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Historic background and development of our somatocognitive approach Mensendieck physiotherapy of the Oslo School is a tradition of physiotherapy founded by the American physician Bess Mensendieck, a contemporary and fellow student of Sigmund Freud at the Paris School of Neurology. It builds on the principles of functional anatomy and the theories of motor learning. We have further developed the theory and practice from this physiotherapy tradition, challenged by the enormous load of patients with longstanding, incapacitating pain on western health care systems, by seeking to incorporate inspirational ideas from body oriented dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Marianna Manes, Mariana de Souza Aranha Garcia-Gomes, Thaísa Meira Sandini, J Zaccarelli-Magalhães, J C Florio, Sandra Regina Alexandre-Ribeiro, Danilo Wadt, Maria Martha Bernardi, Silvia Maria Gomes Massironi, Claudia Madalena Cabrera Mori
Otoconia are crucial for the correct processing of positional information and orientation. Mice lacking otoconia cannot sense the direction of the gravity vector and cannot swim properly. This study aims to characterize the behavior of mergulhador (mlh), otoconia-deficient mutant mice. Additionally, the central catecholamine levels were evaluated to investigate possible correlations between behaviors and central neurotransmitters. A sequence of behavioral tests was used to evaluate the parameters related to the general activity, sensory nervous system, psychomotor system, and autonomous nervous system, in addition to measuring the acquisition of spatial and declarative memory, anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and swimming behavior of the mlh mutant mice...
June 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Brandy A Briones, Vincent D Tang, Amanda E Haye, Elizabeth Gould
Increases in the number and/or the size of dendritic spines, sites of excitatory synapses, have been linked to different types of learning as well as synaptic plasticity in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, sensory cortex, motor cortex, and cerebellum. By contrast, a previous study reported that training on a maze task that requires the dorsal striatum has no effect on medium spiny neuron dendritic spines in the dorsal striatum. These findings might suggest brain region-specific differences in levels of plasticity as well as different cellular processes underlying different types of learning...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Sonia Singh, Anne M Walk, Christopher M Conway
Previous research suggests that individuals with developmental dyslexia perform below typical readers on non-linguistic cognitive tasks involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a deficit have not been well examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of sequence processing in a sample of children diagnosed with dyslexia using a non-linguistic visual statistical learning paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
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