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Motor learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666634/dynamical-motor-control-learned-with-deep-deterministic-policy-gradient
#1
Haibo Shi, Yaoru Sun, Jie Li
Conventional models of motor control exploit the spatial representation of the controlled system to generate control commands. Typically, the control command is gained with the feedback state of a specific instant in time, which behaves like an optimal regulator or spatial filter to the feedback state. Yet, recent neuroscience studies found that the motor network may constitute an autonomous dynamical system and the temporal patterns of the control command can be contained in the dynamics of the motor network, that is, the dynamical system hypothesis (DSH)...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666565/postnatal-vitamin-d-intake-modulates-hippocampal-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#2
Qiujuan Liang, Chunhui Cai, Dongxia Duan, Xinyu Hu, Wanhao Hua, Peicheng Jiang, Liu Zhang, Jun Xu, Zhengliang Gao
Vitamin D (VD) is a neuroactive steroid crucial for brain development, function and homeostasis. Its deficiency is associated with numerous brain conditions. As such, VD and its variants are routinely taken by a broad of groups with/without known VD deficiency. In contrast, the harmful effects of VD overdose have been poorly studied. Similarly, the developmental stage-specific VD deficiency and overdose have been rarely explored. In the present work, we showed that postnatal VD supplementation enhanced the motor function transiently in the young adult, but not in the older one...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665842/sensory-re-learning-of-the-upper-limb-after-stroke-sensupp-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Håkan Carlsson, Birgitta Rosén, Hélène Pessah-Rasmussen, Anders Björkman, Christina Brogårdh
BACKGROUND: Many stroke survivors suffer from sensory impairments of their affected upper limb (UL). Although such impairments can affect the ability to use the UL in everyday activities, very little attention is paid to sensory impairments in stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this trial is to investigate if sensory re-learning in combination with task-specific training may prove to be more effective than task-specific training alone to improve sensory function of the hand, dexterity, the ability to use the hand in daily activities, perceived participation, and life satisfaction...
April 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665540/information-theoretic-decomposition-of-embodied-and-situated-systems
#4
Federico Da Rold
The embodied and situated view of cognition stresses the importance of real-time and nonlinear bodily interaction with the environment for developing concepts and structuring knowledge. In this article, populations of robots controlled by an artificial neural network learn a wall-following task through artificial evolution. At the end of the evolutionary process, time series are recorded from perceptual and motor neurons of selected robots. Information-theoretic measures are estimated on pairings of variables to unveil nonlinear interactions that structure the agent-environment system...
March 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664942/dietary-cyanogen-exposure-and-early-child-neurodevelopment-an-observational-study-from-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#5
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Marie-Thérèse Sombo, Daniel L Okitundu, Marcel Kunyu, Guy Bumoko Makila-Mabe, Thorkild Tylleskär, Alla Sikorskii, Jean-Pierre Banea, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Désiré Tshala-Katumbay, Michael J Boivin
BACKGROUND: Dietary cyanogen exposure from ingesting bitter (toxic) cassava as a main source of food in sub-Saharan Africa is related to neurological impairments in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored possible association with early child neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional neurodevelopmental assessment of 12-48 month-old children using the Mullen Scale of Early Learning (MSEL) and the Gensini Gavito Scale (GGS). We used the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 (HSCL-10) and Goldberg Depression Anxiety Scale (GDAS) to screen for symptoms of maternal depression-anxiety...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664743/motor-learning-triggers-neuroplastic-processes-while-awake-and-during-sleep
#6
Nicole Wenderoth
Behavioral changes characteristic for motor learning result from synaptic plasticity within the sensorimotor system. This review summarizes how the central nervous system responds rapidly to motor activity while awake. It then discusses evidence for the hypothesis that sleep is essential for both stabilizing previously acquired motor memories and maintaining the brain's efficacy to undergo plastic changes to learn new skills.
April 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662213/encoding-of-error-and-learning-to-correct-that-error-by-the-purkinje-cells-of-the-cerebellum
#7
David J Herzfeld, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Reza Shadmehr
The primary output cells of the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells, make kinematic predictions about ongoing movements via high-frequency simple spikes, but receive sensory error information about that movement via low-frequency complex spikes (CS). How is the vector space of sensory errors encoded by this low-frequency signal? Here we measured Purkinje cell activity in the oculomotor vermis of animals during saccades, then followed the chain of events from experience of visual error, generation of CS, modulation of simple spikes, and ultimately change in motor output...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661833/no-is-required-for-memory-formation-and-expression-of-memory-and-for-minor-behavioral-changes-during-training-with-inedible-food-in-aplysia
#8
Valeria Briskin-Luchinsky, Shlomit Tam, Shlomit Shabbat, Itay Hurwitz, Abraham J Susswein
A learning experience may lead to changes in behavior during the experience, and also to memory expressed at a later time. Are signals causing changes in behavior during the learning experience related to the formation and expression of memory? We examined this question, using learning that food is inedible in Aplysia Treatment of an isolated buccal ganglia preparation with an NO donor elicited rejection-like motor programs. Rejection initiated by NO production is consistent with aspects of behavioral changes seen while animals learn, and with memory formation...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660812/tremor-severity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cortical-changes-of-areas-controlling-movement-sequencing-a-preliminary-study
#9
Julián Benito-León, J Ignacio Serrano, Elan D Louis, Ales Holobar, Juan P Romero, P Povalej-Bržan, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, M Dolores Del Castillo, Ignacio J Posada, Eduardo Rocon
There remains much to learn about the changes in cortical anatomy that are associated with tremor severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). For this reason, we used a combination of structural neuroimaging to measure cortical thickness and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether PD tremor was associated with cortex integrity. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented PD patients (9 women, 69.2%) with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis software...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658509/-experimental-approaches-to-the-investigation-of-behavioral-disorders-associated-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#10
E V Razumkina, P K Anokhin, T V Proskuryakova, I Yu Shamakina
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term which covers a wide range of deficits in prenatal and postnatal growth, anatomy and CNS functions produced by prenatal alcohol exposure. The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) characterized by additional specific craniofacial and brain malformations. Despite a high prevalence and extensive clinical studies, the fundamental mechanisms of FASD are still poorly understood. Thereby, experimental models, which allow better control for both socio-environmental and genetic factors, are critical to our understanding of FASD...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653127/evaluation-of-early-chronic-functional-outcomes-and-their-relationship-to-pre-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-pathology-following-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Alina Arulsamy, Jason Teng, Holly Colton, Frances Corrigan, Lyndsey Collins-Praino
TBI is a significant risk factor for the development of dementia, with the interaction between structural damage from TBI and neuroinflammation potentially driving this relationship. This study investigated the early chronic post-TBI neuroinflammatory response and its relationship to both neurodegenerative pathology and functional impairment up to 3 months post-injury. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or the Marmarou model of diffuse moderate-severe TBI. At 1-month and 3-months post-injury, a functional battery encompassing motor function, depressive-like behaviour, anxiety and cognition was performed...
April 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652955/-neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-patients-with-congenital-hypothyroidism
#12
Alicia Núñez, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Becerra, Francisca Grob L
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common cause of preventable cognitive disability worldwide. Generally, it is produced by an alteration in the embryogenesis of the thyroid gland or by an alteration in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which determine that affected patients have low or absent thyroid hormone concentrations. The importance of this fact is that brain development during the first three years of life is highly dependent on thyroid hormones. Prior to the implementation of national neonatal screening programs around the world, 8 to 27% of children with CH had an IQ lower than 70...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652596/effect-of-concurrent-visual-feedback-frequency-on-postural-control-learning-in-adolescents
#13
Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Alexis Sánchez-Tormo, José A García-Pérez, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis M González, Xavier García-Massó
The purpose was to find better augmented visual feedback frequency (100% or 67%) for learning a balance task in adolescents. Thirty subjects were divided randomly into a control group, and 100% and 67% feedback groups. The three groups performed pretest (3 trials), practice (12 trials), posttest (3 trials) and retention (3 trials, 24 hours later). The reduced feedback group showed lower RMS in the posttest than in the pretest (p = 0.04). The control and reduced feedback groups showed significant lower median frequency in the posttest than in the pretest (p < 0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652042/-motor-learning-of-the-post-stroke-patients-presenting-with-upper-limb-paresis-on-the-mechanotherapeutic-system
#14
A E Khizhnikova, A S Klochkov, A M Kotov-Smolensky, L A Chernikova, N A Suponeva, M A Piradov
BACKGROUND: the relevance of this study arises from the high prevalence of upper limb motor impairment and pathological synergy in the post-stroke patients; these conditions are very difficult to correct with the use of the traditional rehabilitation methods. A promising but insufficiently studied approaches are the virtual reality (VR) technology as well as its combination with other techniques. AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the training making use of the mechanotherapeutic system on the motor function of the paretic hand...
April 9, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651236/substrates-for-neuronal-cotransmission-with-neuropeptides-and-small-molecule-neurotransmitters-in-drosophila
#15
REVIEW
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650698/credit-assignment-in-a-motor-decision-making-task-is-influenced-by-agency-and-not-sensorimotor-prediction-errors
#16
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650483/solid-cystic-and-tubular-novice-ultrasound-skills-training-using-a-versatile-affordable-practice-model
#17
Shruti Sevak, Benjamin Lurvey, Ashley A Woodfin, Zachary Hothem, Rose E Callahan, James Robbins, Kathryn Ziegler
OBJECTIVE: In spite of the recognized benefits of ultrasound, many physicians have little experience with using ultrasound to perform procedures. Many medical schools and residency programs lack a formal ultrasound training curriculum. We describe an affordable ultrasound training curriculum and versatile, inexpensive practice model. DESIGN: Participants underwent a didactic session to teach the theory required to perform ultrasound-guided procedures. Motor skills were taught using a practice model incorporating analogs of common anatomic and pathologic structures into an opacified gelatin substrate...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649977/development-of-fine-motor-skills-is-associated-with-expressive-language-outcomes-in-infants-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Boin Choi, Kathryn A Leech, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests that fine motor abilities are associated with skills in a variety of domains in both typical and atypical development. In this study, we investigated developmental trajectories of fine motor skills between 6 and 24 months in relation to expressive language outcomes at 36 months in infants at high and low familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants included 71 high-risk infants without ASD diagnoses, 30 high-risk infants later diagnosed with ASD, and 69 low-risk infants without ASD diagnoses...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649513/neurofeedback-control-of-the-human-gabaergic-system-using-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#19
Satoko Koganemaru, Yusuke Mikami, Hitoshi Maezawa, Satoshi Ikeda, Katsunori Ikoma, Tatsuya Mima
Neurofeedback has been a powerful method for self-regulating brain activities to elicit potential ability of human mind. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that can evaluate the GABAergic system within the primary motor cortex (M1) using paired-pulse stimuli, short intracortical inhibition (SICI). Herein we investigated whether neurofeedback learning using SICI enabled us to control the GABAergic system within the M1 area...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644888/motor-skill-training-in-musculoskeletal-pain-a-case-report-in-chronic-low-back-pain
#20
Vanessa M Lanier, Catherine E Lang, Linda R Van Dillen
PURPOSE: Low back pain is a chronic condition that limits function. The chief reason individuals with low back pain seek care is difficulty performing functional activities. A novel approach to improving performance of painful and limited functional activities is motor skill training, defined as challenging practice of activities to learn or relearn a skill. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and application of a motor skill training intervention in a 26-year-old man with a 10-year history of low back pain...
April 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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