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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048368/the-structure-of-human-neuromuscular-junctions-some-unanswered-molecular-questions
#1
REVIEW
Clarke R Slater
The commands that control animal movement are transmitted from motor neurons to their target muscle cells at the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The NMJs contain many protein species whose role in transmission depends not only on their inherent properties, but also on how they are distributed within the complex structure of the motor nerve terminal and the postsynaptic muscle membrane. These molecules mediate evoked chemical transmitter release from the nerve and the action of that transmitter on the muscle...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048256/skiping-with-head-start-teachers-influence-of-t-skip-on-object-control-skills
#2
Ali Brian, Jacqueline D Goodway, Jessica A Logan, Sue Sutherland
PURPOSE: Children from disadvantaged settings are at risk for delays in their object-control (OC) skills. Fundamental motor skill interventions, such as the Successful Kinesthetic Instruction for Preschoolers (SKIP) Program, are highly successful when led by motor development experts. However, few preschools employ such experts. This study examined the extent to which Head Start teachers delivering an 8-week teacher-led SKIP (T-SKIP) intervention elicited learning of OC skills for Head Start children...
October 19, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048235/role-of-constant-random-and-blocked-practice-in-an-electromyography-based-oral-motor-learning-task
#3
Ramesh Kaipa, Roha Mariam Kaipa
PURPOSE: The role of principles of motor learning (PMLs) in speech has received much attention in the past decade. Oral motor learning, however, has not received similar consideration. This study evaluated the role of three practice conditions in an oral motor tracking task. METHOD: Forty-five healthy adult participants were randomly and equally assigned to one of three practice conditions (constant, blocked, and random) and participated in an electromyography-based task...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043656/from-eyes-to-hands-transfer-of-learning-in-the-simon-task-across-motor-effectors
#4
Ashika Verghese, Jason B Mattingley, Phoebe E Palmer, Paul E Dux
Inhibition of irrelevant and conflicting information and responses is crucial for goal-directed behaviour and adaptive functioning. In the Simon task, for example, responses are slowed if their mappings are spatially incongruent with stimuli that must be discriminated on a nonspatial dimension. Previous work has shown that practice with incongruent spatial mappings can reduce or even reverse the Simon effect. We asked whether such practice transfers between the manual and oculomotor systems and if so to what extent this occurs across a range of behavioural tasks...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040533/hippocampal-phosphorylated-tau-induced-cognitive-decline-dendritic-spine-loss-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Rui Wang, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the toxic effects of hippocampal phosphorylated tau in tau mice. Using rotarod and Morris Water Maze tests, immunoblotting & immunofluorescence, Golgi-cox staining and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed cognitive behavior, measured protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, MAP2, total & phosphorylated tau, and quantified dendritic spines and mitochondrial number and length in 12-month-old tau mice with P301L mutation. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038562/interacting-learning-processes-during-skill-acquisition-learning-to-control-with-gradually-changing-system-dynamics
#6
Nicolas Ludolph, Martin A Giese, Winfried Ilg
There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036636/genetic-reduction-of-nrf2-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Caterina Branca, Eric Ferreira, Thuy-Vi Nguyen, Kristian Doyle, Antonella Caccamo, Salvatore Oddo
Aging is the major risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms by which aging contributes to neurodegeneration remain elusive. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of a vast number of genes by binding to the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 levels decrease as a function of age, and reduced Nrf2 levels have been reported in postmortem human brains and animal models of AD...
September 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#8
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035999/effects-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-brain-glucose-metabolism-in-rectal-cancer-patients-undergoing-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#9
Alexei M C Machado, Theara C Fagundes, Arnoldo Mafra, Rodrigo G Silva, Ana Carolina G Castro, Marcelo Mamede
PURPOSE: Retrospective study of the effects of anticancer treatment on the brain metabolism of patients diagnosed with rectal cancer based on a large and homogeneous sample of 40 paired F-FDG PET/CT volumes taken from 20 patients. The results are compared to the ones presented by related works to help elucidating the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated to a decrease in memory, learning and motor skills. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with rectal adenocarcinoma were scanned before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation based exclusively on 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035220/robot-training-with-vector-fields-based-on-stroke-survivors-individual-movement-statistics
#10
Zachary A Wright, Emily Lazzaro, Kelly O Thielbar, James L Patton, Felix C Huang
The wide variation in upper extremity motor impairments among stroke survivors necessitates more intelligent methods of customized therapy. However, current strategies for characterizing individual motor impairments are limited by the use of traditional clinical assessments (e.g. Fugl-Meyer) and simple engineering metrics (e.g. goal-directed performance). Our overall approach is to statistically identify the range of volitional movement capabilities, and then apply a robot-applied force vector field intervention that encourages under-expressed movements...
October 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033643/dandy-walker-malformation-presenting-with-affective-symptoms
#12
Mert Batmaz, Zeynep Ezgi Balçik, Ürün Özer, Burcu Hamurişçi Yalçin, Şakir Özen
Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by enlarged posterior fossa, cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Although developmental delay and mental retardation are common in Dandy-Walker malformation cases, other comorbid psychiatric conditions have been rarely reported. There are limited numbers of case reports about comorbidity of bipolar disorder with Dandy-Walker malformation in the literature. Herein, a Dandy-Walker malformation case presenting affective symptoms is reported, and psychiatric symptoms which might be seen in this rare malformation are discussed along with diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up processes...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032428/usability-operations-on-touch-mobile-devices-for-users-with-autism
#13
Angeles Quezada, Reyes Juárez-Ramírez, Samantha Jiménez, Alan Ramírez Noriega, Sergio Inzunza, Arnulfo Alanis Garza
The Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a cognitive disorder that affects the cognitive and motor skills; due that, users cannot perform digital and fine motor tasks. It is necessary to create software applications that adapt to the abilities of these users. In recent years has been an increase in the research of the use of technology to support autistic users to develop their communication skills and to improve learning. However, the applications' usability for disable users is not assessed objectively as the existing models do not consider interaction operators for disable users...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031813/song-practice-as-a-rewarding-form-of-play-in-songbirds
#14
REVIEW
Lauren V Riters, Jeremy A Spool, Devin P Merullo, Allison H Hahn
In adult songbirds, the primary functions of song are mate attraction and territory defense; yet, many songbirds sing at high rates as juveniles and outside these primary contexts as adults. Singing outside primary contexts is critical for song learning and maintenance, and ultimately necessary for breeding success. However, this type of singing (i.e., song "practice") occurs even in the absence of immediate or obvious extrinsic reinforcement; that is, it does not attract mates or repel competitors. Here we review studies that support the hypothesis that song practice is stimulated and maintained by intrinsic reward mechanisms (i...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031616/factors-affecting-the-selection-of-an-inhaler-device-for-copd-and-the-ideal-device-for-different-patient-profiles-results-of-epoca-delphi-consensus
#15
Marc Miravitlles, Juan José Soler-Cataluña, Bernardino Alcázar, José Luis Viejo, Francisco García-Río
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the relevant factors for the choice of an inhaler device by physicians and the selection of the most important characteristics of a device according to different characteristics of patients with COPD. METHOD: In this two-round Delphi survey, 96 Spanish COPD-expert pulmonologists completed an internet-based, self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of a first part with 19 items related to the prioritization of the drug or the device, the experience, ability and preference of the patient, and the experience and preferences of the healthcare professional...
October 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031601/enhancing-generalization-of-visuomotor-adaptation-by-inducing-use-dependent-learning
#16
Yuming Lei, Shancheng Bao, Monica A Perez, Jinsung Wang
Learning a motor task in one condition typically generalizes to another, although it is unclear why it generalizes substantially in certain situations, but only partially in other situations (e.g., across movement directions and motor effectors). Here, we demonstrate that generalization of motor learning across directions and effectors can be enhanced substantially by inducing use-dependent learning, that is, by having subjects experience motor actions associated with a desired trajectory repeatedly during reaching movements...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031467/action-skilled-observation-issues-for-the-study-of-sport-expertise-and-the-brain
#17
April Karlinsky, Karen Zentgraf, Nicola J Hodges
With a growing body of research devoted to uncovering regions of the brain implicated in action observation following various action-related experiences, including sport, we ask what we know from this research, and what we still need to know, as it pertains to sport and the brain. To do this, we review and integrate knowledge garnered from developmental work, short-term motor learning studies, and most significantly sport athletes across varying skill levels. We consider various neurophysiological methods, including TMS, fMRI, and EEG, which have been used to help uncover brain regions involved in action-skilled observation...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031463/changes-in-brain-activity-during-action-observation-and-motor-imagery-their-relationship-with-motor-learning
#18
Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Kazuyuki Kanosue
Many studies have demonstrated that training utilizing action observation and/or motor imagery improves motor performance. These two techniques are widely used in sports and in the rehabilitation of movement-related disorders. Motor imagery has also been used for brain-machine/computer interfaces (BMI/BCI). During both action observation and motor imagery, motor-related regions such as the premotor cortex and inferior parietal lobule are activated. This is common to actual execution and are involved with the underlying mechanisms of motor learning without execution...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030593/fish-perform-like-mammals-and-birds-in-inhibitory-motor-control-tasks
#19
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Elia Gatto, Angelo Bisazza
Inhibitory control is an executive function that positively predicts performance in several cognitive tasks and has been considered typical of vertebrates with large and complex nervous systems such as primates. However, evidence is growing that some fish species have evolved complex cognitive abilities in spite of their relatively small brain size. We tested whether fish might also show enhanced inhibitory control by subjecting guppies, Poecilia reticulata, to the motor task used to test warm-blooded vertebrates...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030077/corticomuscular-coherence-reflects-somatosensory-feedback-gains-during-motor-adaptation
#20
Shoko Kasuga, Natsumi Momose, Junichi Ushiyama, Junichi Ushiba
Beta-band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) observed between the sensorimotor cortex activity and contracting muscle is declaratively described as a neurophysiological reflection of sensorimotor binding. However, much remains unknown about the functional meaning of 'sensorimotor binding.' The efficacy of information binding in the sensorimotor system is assumed to be influenced by the gain of the feedback controller, which is regulated through a process that may in part be implemented in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1)...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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