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Motor learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431286/age-related-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-and-intracortical-inhibition-after-upper-extremity-motor-learning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Kelly M M Berghuis, John G Semmler, George M Opie, Aylin K Post, Tibor Hortobágyi
It is unclear how old age affects the neuronal mechanisms of motor learning. We reviewed the neuronal mechanisms of how healthy old and young adults acquire motor skills as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Quantitative meta-analyses of 11 studies, involving ballistic and visuomotor tasks performed by upper extremity muscles in 132 healthy old and 128 young adults, revealed that the motor practice-induced increase in corticospinal excitability (CSE) is task-dependent but not age-dependent, with an increase in CSE in both age groups after visuomotor but not ballistic training...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430147/suitability-of-strain-gage-sensors-for-integration-into-smart-sport-equipment-a-golf-club-example
#2
Anton Umek, Yuan Zhang, Sašo Tomažič, Anton Kos
Wearable devices and smart sport equipment are being increasingly used in amateur and professional sports. Smart sport equipment employs various sensors for detecting its state and actions. The correct choice of the most appropriate sensor(s) is of paramount importance for efficient and successful operation of sport equipment. When integrated into the sport equipment, ideal sensors are unobstructive, and do not change the functionality of the equipment. The article focuses on experiments for identification and selection of sensors that are suitable for the integration into a golf club with the final goal of their use in real time biofeedback applications...
April 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423993/lateralization-of-motor-reactions-and-formation-of-behavioural-tactics-during-learning-in-the-eight-arm-radial-maze-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#3
Natalia Kurzina, Irina Aristova, Anna Volnova
The problem of motor lateralization in ontogenesis is important for understanding adaptation development. In our experiment adolescent (P28-P30) and adult (P120) rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze and their motor behaviour compared during training. During learning, the adult rats typically started by moving either left or right direction in the central arena in choosing the way in the maze. The adult rats also developed behavioural tactics to enter maze arms at 45° or 90° relative to the previously visited arm...
April 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422976/reactivation-or-transformation-motor-memory-consolidation-associated-with-cerebral-activation-time-locked-to-sleep-spindles
#4
Stuart Fogel, Genevieve Albouy, Bradley R King, Ovidiu Lungu, Catherine Vien, Arnaud Bore, Basile Pinsard, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Julien Doyon
Motor memory consolidation is thought to depend on sleep-dependent reactivation of brain areas recruited during learning. However, up to this point, there has been no direct evidence to support this assertion in humans, and the physiological processes supporting such reactivation are unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recordings were conducted during post-learning sleep to directly investigate the spindle-related reactivation of a memory trace formed during motor sequence learning (MSL), and its relationship to overnight enhancement in performance (reflecting consolidation)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422641/supporting-stroke-motor-recovery-through-a-mobile-application-a-pilot-study
#5
Sonia Lawson, Ziying Tang, Jinjuan Feng
Neuroplasticity and motor learning are promoted with repetitive movement, appropriate challenge, and performance feedback. ARMStrokes, a smartphone application, incorporates these qualities to support motor recovery. Engaging exercises are easily accessible for improved compliance. In a multiple-case, mixed-methods pilot study, the potential of this technology for stroke motor recovery was examined. Exercises calibrated to the participant's skill level targeted forearm, elbow, and shoulder motions for a 6-wk protocol...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422619/the-role-of-the-school-nurse-in-the-special-education-process-part-i-student-identification-and-evaluation
#6
Catherine F Yonkaitis, Robin A Shannon
Every U.S. student is entitled to a free and appropriate education. School districts must identify and evaluate any child who they find is unable to engage fully in learning as a participant in the general education curriculum. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 requires that these students be assessed by qualified individuals in any areas that may be impacting learning, including health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, communicative status, and motor abilities. The school nurse, as the health expert, has an important role to play as a member of the special education team in evaluating whether a student has health concerns that are impacting learning and how health barriers to learning might be reduced...
May 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421540/maternal-folic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-improves-neurobehavioral-development-in-rat-offspring
#7
Xinyan Wang, Wen Li, Shou Li, Jing Yan, John X Wilson, Guowei Huang
Maternal folate status during pregnancy may influence central nervous system (CNS) development in offspring. However, the recommended intakes of folic acid for women of childbearing age differ among countries and there is still no consensus about whether folic acid should be supplemented continuously throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation may be more beneficial for offspring's neurobehavioral development if prolonged throughout pregnancy instead of being limited to the periconceptional period...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421528/postnatal-lps-challenge-impacts-escape-learning-and-expression-of-plasticity-factors-mmp9-and-timp1-in-rats-effects-of-repeated-training
#8
Alexander Trofimov, Tatyana Strekalova, Niall Mortimer, Olga Zubareva, Alexander Schwarz, Evgeniy Svirin, Aleksei Umriukhin, Andrei Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Victor Klimenko
Bacterial intoxication associated with inflammatory conditions during development can impair brain functions, in particular evolutionarily novel forms of memory, such as explicit learning. Little is known about the dangers of early-life inflammation on more basic forms of learning, for example, the acquisition of motor escape abilities, which are generally better preserved under pathological conditions. To address this limitation in knowledge, an inflammatory response was elicited in Wistar pups by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections (25 μg/kg) on postnatal days P15, P18 and P21...
April 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421032/spasticity-motor-recovery-and-neural-plasticity-after-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Sheng Li
Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. However, the relation between the two remains poorly understood among clinicians and researchers. Recovery of strength and motor function is mainly attributed to cortical plastic reorganization in the early recovery phase, while reticulospinal (RS) hyperexcitability as a result of maladaptive plasticity, is the most plausible mechanism for poststroke spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420976/improving-robot-motor-learning-with-negatively-valenced-reinforcement-signals
#10
Nicolás Navarro-Guerrero, Robert J Lowe, Stefan Wermter
Both nociception and punishment signals have been used in robotics. However, the potential for using these negatively valenced types of reinforcement learning signals for robot learning has not been exploited in detail yet. Nociceptive signals are primarily used as triggers of preprogrammed action sequences. Punishment signals are typically disembodied, i.e., with no or little relation to the agent-intrinsic limitations, and they are often used to impose behavioral constraints. Here, we provide an alternative approach for nociceptive signals as drivers of learning rather than simple triggers of preprogrammed behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420970/single-session-anodal-tdcs-with-small-size-stimulating-electrodes-over-frontoparietal-superficial-sites-does-not-affect-motor-sequence-learning
#11
Fahimeh Hashemirad, Paul B Fitzgerald, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Due to the potential of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) for enhancement of fine sequenced movements and increasing interest in achieving high level of fine movements in the trained and untrained hands especially at initial stage of learning, we designed this study to investigate whether the application of single-session a-tDCS with small-size stimulating electrodes over FPN sites, such as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), primary motor cortex (M1) or posterior parietal cortex (PPC) could enhance sequence learning with the trained hand and these effects are transferred into the untrained hand or not...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420954/multiple-kernel-based-region-importance-learning-for-neural-classification-of-gait-states-from-eeg-signals
#12
Yuhang Zhang, Saurabh Prasad, Atilla Kilicarslan, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
With the development of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) systems, people with motor disabilities are able to control external devices to help them restore movement abilities. Longitudinal validation of these systems is critical not only to assess long-term performance reliability but also to investigate adaptations in electrocortical patterns due to learning to use the BMI system. In this paper, we decode the patterns of user's intended gait states (e.g., stop, walk, turn left, and turn right) from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals and simultaneously learn the relative importance of different brain areas by using the multiple kernel learning (MKL) algorithm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420951/shared-neural-mechanisms-for-the-prediction-of-own-and-partner-musical-sequences-after-short-term-piano-duet-training
#13
Claudia Lappe, Sabine Bodeck, Markus Lappe, Christo Pantev
Predictive mechanisms in the human brain can be investigated using markers for prediction violations like the mismatch negativity (MMN). Short-term piano training increases the MMN for melodic and rhythmic deviations in the training material. This increase occurs only when the material is actually played, not when it is only perceived through listening, suggesting that learning predictions about upcoming musical events are derived from motor involvement. However, music is often performed in concert with others...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420599/use-of-machine-learning-classifiers-and-sensor-data-to-detect-neurological-deficit-in-stroke-patients
#14
Eunjeong Park, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Hyo Suk Nam
BACKGROUND: The pronator drift test (PDT), a neurological examination, is widely used in clinics to measure motor weakness of stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a PDT tool with machine learning classifiers to detect stroke symptoms based on quantification of proximal arm weakness using inertial sensors and signal processing. METHODS: We extracted features of drift and pronation from accelerometer signals of wearable devices on the inner wrists of 16 stroke patients and 10 healthy controls...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416144/feasibility-of-spirography-features-for-objective-assessment-of-motor-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Aleksander Sadikov, Vida Groznik, Martin Možina, Jure Žabkar, Dag Nyholm, Mevludin Memedi, Dejan Georgiev
OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently incurable, however proper treatment can ease the symptoms and significantly improve the quality of life of patients. Since PD is a chronic disease, its efficient monitoring and management is very important. The objective of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using the features and methodology of a spirography application, originally designed to detect early Parkinson's disease (PD) motoric symptoms, for automatically assessing motor symptoms of advanced PD patients experiencing motor fluctuations...
March 31, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414105/functional-reorganization-after-hemispherectomy-in-humans-and-animal-models-what-can-we-learn-about-the-brain-s-resilience-to-extensive-unilateral-lesions
#16
REVIEW
Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Alexandra Taylor, Francesco Brigo, Wolfgang Nothdurfter, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Raffaele Nardone
Hemispherectomy (HS) is an effective surgical procedure aimed at managing otherwise intractable epilepsy in cases of diffuse unihemispheric pathologies. Neurological recovery in subjects treated with HS is not limited to seizure reduction, rather, sensory-motor and behavioral improvement is often observed. This outcome highlights the considerable capability of the brain to react to such an extensive lesion, by functionally reorganizing and rewiring the cerebral cortex, especially early in life. In this narrative review, we summarize the animal studies as well as the human neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies dealing with the reorganizational processes that occur after HS...
April 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413060/stuttering-treatment-and-brain-research-in-adults-a-still-unfolding-relationship
#17
REVIEW
Roger J Ingham, Janis C Ingham, Harald A Euler, Katrin Neumann
PURPOSE: Brain imaging and brain stimulation procedures have now been used for more than two decades to investigate the neural systems that contribute to the occurrence of stuttering in adults, and to identify processes that might enhance recovery from stuttering. The purpose of this paper is to review the extent to which these dual lines of research with adults who stutter have intersected and whether they are contributing towards the alleviation of this impairment. METHOD: Several areas of research are reviewed in order to determine whether research on the neurology of stuttering is showing any potential for advancing the treatment of this communication disorder: (a) attempts to discover the neurology of stuttering, (b) neural changes associated with treated recovery, and (c) direct neural intervention...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410884/the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-motor-sequence-learning-and-upper-limb-function-after-stroke
#18
Melanie K Fleming, John C Rothwell, Laszlo Sztriha, James T Teo, Di J Newham
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of electrode arrangement on the efficacy of tDCS in stroke survivors and determine whether changes in transcallosal inhibition (TCI) underlie improvements. METHODS: 24 stroke survivors (3-124months post-stroke) with upper limb impairment participated. They received blinded tDCS during a motor sequence learning task, requiring the paretic arm to direct a cursor to illuminating targets on a monitor. Four tDCS conditions were studied (crossover); anodal to ipsilesional M1, cathodal to contralesional M1, bihemispheric, sham...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410583/short-term-motor-learning-through-non-immersive-virtual-reality-task-in-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#19
Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro, Talita Dias da Silva, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Felipe Fregni, Luciano Vieira de Araujo, Fernando Henrique Inocêncio Borba Ferreira, Claudio Leone
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) has unique physical, motor and cognitive characteristics. Despite cognitive and motor difficulties, there is a possibility of intervention based on the knowledge of motor learning. However, it is important to study the motor learning process in individuals with DS during a virtual reality task to justify the use of virtual reality to organize intervention programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the motor learning process in individuals with DS during a virtual reality task...
April 14, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410404/novel-behavioral-indicator-of-explicit-awareness-reveals-temporal-course-of-frontoparietal-neural-network-facilitation-during-motor-learning
#20
Regan R Lawson, Jordan O Gayle, Lewis A Wheaton
Deficits in sequential motor learning have been observed in many patient populations. Having an understanding of the individual neural progression associated with sequential learning in healthy individuals may provide valuable insights for effective interventions with these patients. Due to individual variability in motor skill acquisition, the temporal course of such learning will be vary, suggesting a need for a more individualized approach. Knowing when a subject becomes aware of movement patterns may provide a marker with which to identify each individual's learning time course...
2017: PloS One
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