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Low carbohydrate diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223292/muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-is-required-for-long-term-systemic-and-local-adaptations-to-a-ketogenic-diet-in-mice
#1
Svenia Schnyder, Kristoffer Svensson, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
Low carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular dietary interventions for body weight control and as treatment for different pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms of action are still poorly understood, in particular in long-term administration. Besides liver, brain and heart, skeletal muscle is one of the major organs involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological ketosis. We now assessed the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle of male wild type control (CTRL) and PGC-1α muscle-specific knockout (PGC-1α mKO) mice upon 12 weeks of LCHF diet feeding...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219317/dietary-fiber-gap-and-host-gut-microbiota
#2
Meng Han, Ping Liu, Defa Li, Yuan Li, Xi Ma
Accumulating evidence are dramatically increasing access to the facts that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host metabolism and health, which revealed the possibility of a plethora of associations between gut bacteria and human diseases. Several functional roles carried out by a major class of host's diet, such as fiber. Fiber is the main source of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate in the diet of humans. In modern diet, it is difficult to intake dietary fiber as enough as recommended standard. The low-fiber diet in the modern life, known as fiber gap, can trigger to a substantial depletion of the human gut microbiota diversity and beneficial metabolites...
February 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218448/chronic-supplementation-with-dietary-proanthocyanidins-protects-from-diet-induced-intestinal-alterations-in-obese-rats
#3
Gil-Cardoso Katherine, Ginés Iris, Pinent Montserrat, Ardévol Anna, Arola Lluís, Blay Mayte, Terra Ximena
SCOPE: Increased attention has been paid to the link between altered intestinal function and elevated incidence of metabolic disorders, such as in obesity. The present study investigated in obese rats the role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) chronic treatment, taken in a low, moderate or high dose, on obesity-associated intestinal alterations in response to a cafeteria diet (CAF). METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the degree of intestinal inflammation, ROS production and MPO activity were measured as well as the expression of inflammatory related genes...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217860/maternal-dietary-intake-during-pregnancy-and-its-association-to-birth-size-in-rural-malawi-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Katrine G Hjertholm, Per Ole Iversen, Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen, Ibrahimu Mdala, Alister Munthali, Kenneth Maleta, Zumin Shi, Elaine Ferguson, Penjani Kamudoni
In low-resource settings, such as rural Malawi, pregnant women are prone to energy and micronutrient deficiencies with the consequence of delivering low-birth weight infants with higher risks of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the association between maternal dietary intakes during pregnancy and infant birth size. Dietary intakes of 203 pregnant women were assessed between 28 and 35 weeks of gestation and their infants' (n = 132) birth size measured. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 11 micronutrients were estimated using a 3-day interactive 24-hr diet recall...
February 19, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216282/smoking-cessation-improves-cardiometabolic-risk-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-treated-with-varenicline-and-dietary-counseling
#5
E Heggen, M Svendsen, S Tonstad
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Weight gain after stopping smoking potentially counteracts improvements in cardiometabolic risks. We investigated changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and homeostasis assessment model insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in smokers given dietary counseling during their quit attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: Smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with BMI 25-40 kg/m(2) were randomized to a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet and treated with a standard course of varenicline for 12 weeks...
January 4, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#6
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#7
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207851/impact-of-levels-of-total-digestible-nutrients-on-microbiome-enzyme-profile-and-degradation-of-feeds-in-buffalo-rumen
#8
Anju Kala, D N Kamra, Avinash Kumar, Neeta Agarwal, L C Chaudhary, C G Joshi
The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199799/the-efficacy-of-protein-supplementation-during-recovery-from-muscle-damaging-concurrent-exercise
#9
Lee Eddens, Sarah Browne, Emma J Stevenson, Brad Sanderson, Ken van Someren, Glyn Howatson
This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to three independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of four days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g•kg<sup>-1</sup>•d<sup>-1</sup> carbohydrate, 1...
February 15, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193599/an-online-intervention-comparing-a-very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-versus-a-plate-method-diet-in-overweight-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Laura R Saslow, Ashley E Mason, Sarah Kim, Veronica Goldman, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Hovig Bayandorian, Jennifer Daubenmier, Frederick M Hecht, Judith T Moskowitz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193517/obesity-energetics-body-weight-regulation-and-the-effects-of-diet-composition
#11
Kevin D Hall, Juen Guo
Weight changes are accompanied by imbalances between calorie intake and expenditure. This fact is often misinterpreted to suggest that obesity is caused by gluttony and sloth and can be treated by simply advising people to eat less and move more. However, various components of energy balance are dynamically interrelated and weight loss is resisted by counterbalancing physiological processes. While low carbohydrate diets have been suggested to partially subvert these processes by increasing energy expenditure and promoting fat loss, our meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies with isocaloric substitution of carbohydrate for fat found that both energy expenditure (26 kcal/d; p<0...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187365/low-glycemic-load-diets-protect-against-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-male-nile-rat
#12
Julia Bolsinger, Michelle Landstrom, Andrzej Pronczuk, Andrew Auerbach, K C Hayes
BACKGROUND: Dietary modification helps prevent and manage Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in humans and Nile rats. Specifically fibrous legumes, like lentils, benefit humans, but whether this reflects a specific change in the Glycemic Load (GLoad) remains controversial. Accordingly, low-GLoad foods were tested in the glucose-sensitive Nile rat. METHODS: 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months were challenged during four experiments with 15 dietary exposures that varied Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183444/effects-of-lifestyle-interventions-on-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#13
Christina N Katsagoni, Michael Georgoulis, George V Papatheodoridis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Meropi D Kontogianni
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although lifestyle modifications remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the optimal lifestyle intervention is still controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise and/or dietary interventions, type or intensity of exercise and type of diet, on liver function outcomes (liver enzymes, intrahepatic fat and liver histology), as well as on anthropometric and glucose metabolism parameters in NAFLD patients...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178059/less-restrictive-food-intake-during-labor-in-low-risk-singleton-pregnancies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Andrea Ciardulli, Gabriele Saccone, Hannah Anastasio, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177386/defining-risk-for-low-reticuloruminal-ph-during-the-diet-transition-period-in-a-commercial-feedlot-in-western-canada
#15
B I Wiese, S Hendrick, J G Campbell, J J McKinnon, K A Beauchemin, T A McAllister, G B Penner
The objective of the current study was to measure reticuloruminal pH in cattle in a commercial feedlot setting to determine the incidence and extent of low reticuloruminal pH for steers and heifers as they transition to a high-concentrate finishing diet. Reticuloruminal pH was measured in 16 "mixed breed" steers (4 steers/pen with 4 pens) and 16 "mixed breed" heifers (4 heifers/pen with 4 pens) housed in commercial feedlot pens, with 227 ± 13 and 249 ± 6 cattle/pen cohort steers and heifers, respectively, for the diet transition period...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166253/effects-of-a-very-high-saturated-fat-diet-on-ldl-particles-in-adults-with-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Sally Chiu, Paul T Williams, Ronald M Krauss
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162106/chronic-administration-of-grape-seed-polyphenols-attenuates-the-development-of-hypertension-and-improves-other-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-associated-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-cafeteria-diet-fed-rats
#17
Zara Pons, Maria Margalef, Francisca I Bravo, Anna Arola-Arnal, Begoña Muguerza
The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard (STD) or CAF diets for 12 weeks. The CAF diet-fed rats were administered different doses of a low-molecular-weight grape-seed polyphenol extract (LM-GSPE) (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg per d) or vehicle daily, and the STD diet-fed rats were administered LM-GSPE (100 mg/kg per d) or vehicle using ten animals per group...
February 6, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150350/nutrient-intakes-and-compliance-with-nutrient-recommendations-in-children-aged-1-4-years-in-ireland
#18
J Walton, L Kehoe, B A McNulty, A P Nugent, A Flynn
BACKGROUND: The early childhood years represent a period of rapid growth and development characterised by unique requirements for energy and individual nutrients. METHODS: The present study uses data from the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative sample of Irish children (1-4 years) (n = 500), aiming to estimate energy and nutrient intakes across age and compliance with recommendations (UK and European). A 4-day weighed food-record was used to collect dietary data and statistical modelling (National Cancer Institute method) was applied to estimate usual nutrient intakes...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149429/physiological-nutritional-and-performance-profiles-of-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-athletes
#19
Leonardo V Andreato, Jonatas Fs Santos, João Vdc Esteves, Valeria Lg Panissa, Ursula F Julio, Emerson Franchini
This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148682/dietary-protein-modifies-the-effect-of-the-mc4r-genotype-on-2-year-changes-in-appetite-and-food-craving-the-pounds-lost-trial
#20
Tao Huang, Yan Zheng, Adela Hruby, Donald A Williamson, George A Bray, Yiru Shen, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior. Variants in the MC4R gene have been related to appetite and obesity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine whether weight-loss diets modified the effect of the "obesity-predisposing" MC4R genotype on appetite-related measures in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 811 overweight and obese subjects [25 ≤ body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) ≤ 40] aged 30-70 y were included in the 2-y POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) trial...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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