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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#1
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777369/adherence-to-special-diets-and-its-association-with-meeting-the-nutrient-recommendations-in-individuals-with-type-1-diabetes
#2
A J Ahola, C Forsblom, Per-Henrik Groop
AIMS: Not much is known about adherence to special diets in type 1 diabetes, characteristics of individuals with special diets, and whether such practices should raise concerns with respect to meeting the dietary recommendations. In this study, we assessed the frequencies of adherence to special diets, in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes, and investigated the association between special diet adherence and dietary intake, measured as dietary patterns and nutrient intakes...
May 18, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777234/prevotella-to-bacteroides-ratio-predicts-body-weight-and-fat-loss-success-on-24-week-diets-varying-in-macronutrient-composition-and-dietary-fiber-results-from-a-post-hoc-analysis
#3
Mads F Hjorth, Trine Blædel, Line Q Bendtsen, Janne K Lorenzen, Jacob B Holm, Pia Kiilerich, Henrik M Roager, Karsten Kristiansen, Lesli H Larsen, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771736/the-role-of-diet-for-prevention-and-management-of-hypertension
#4
Cemal Ozemek, Deepika R Laddu, Ross Arena, Carl J Lavie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regular consumption of a diet high in sodium, energy dense foods, fat content, refined carbohydrates, added sugar and low in fruits and vegetables contributes to an increased risk of developing hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to provide a synopsis of evidence-based dietary approaches that have been effective in lowering blood pressure (BP) in pre-HTN and individuals with HTN. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent dietary recommendations have emphasized overall dietary patterns and its relation between food and BP...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769827/effects-of-a-4-week-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-high-intensity-interval-training-responses
#5
Lukas Cipryan, Daniel J Plews, Alessandro Ferretti, Phil B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of altering from habitual mixed Western-based (HD) to a very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet over a 4-week timecourse on performance and physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen moderately trained males (age 23.8 ± 2.1 years) consuming their HD (48 ± 13% carbohydrate, 17 ± 3% protein, 35 ± 9% fat) were assigned to 2 groups. One group was asked to remain on their HD, while the other was asked to switch to a non-standardized VLCHF diet (8 ± 3% carbohydrate, 29 ± 15% protein, 63 ± 13% fat) for 4 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769748/comparative-ecologic-relationships-of-saturated-fat-sucrose-food-groups-and-a-mediterranean-food-pattern-score-to-50-year-coronary-heart-disease-mortality-rates-among-16-cohorts-of-the-seven-countries-study
#6
Daan Kromhout, Alessandro Menotti, Adalberta Alberti-Fidanza, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Peter Hollman, Anthony Kafatos, Hanna Tolonen, Hisashi Adachi, David R Jacobs
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We studied the ecologic relationships of food groups, macronutrients, eating patterns, and an a priori food pattern score (Mediterranean Adequacy Index: MAI) with long-term CHD mortality rates in the Seven Countries Study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixteen cohorts (12,763 men aged 40-59 years) were enrolled in the 1960s in seven countries (US, Finland, The Netherlands, Italy, Greece, former Yugoslavia: Croatia/Serbia, Japan). Dietary surveys were carried out at baseline and only in a subsample of each cohort...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767079/gluconeogenesis-during-starvation-and-refeeding-phase-is-affected-by-previous-dietary-carbohydrates-levels-and-a-glucose-stimuli-during-early-life-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#7
Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762370/molecular-regulations-of-mucosal-maltase-expressions
#8
Toshinao Goda, Kazue Honma
Two major α-glucosidase (maltase) genes, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), respectively, are expressed in the small intestine. In this review, we have summarized whether jejunal expression of these maltase genes is regulated by dietary manipulations, which may affect carbohydrate availability from the luminal side, through changes in the binding of transcription factors and/or histone code on these genes. Studies using a model of mice fed either a low-starch or a high-starch diet for 7 days, found the mRNA levels of SI, MGAM, and Na-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) genes in the jejunum to be increased in parallel by feeding a high-starch diet...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757053/applying-a-low-fodmap-dietary-intervention-to-a-female-ultra-endurance-runner-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-during-a-multi-stage-ultra-marathon
#9
Stephanie K Gaskell, Ricardo J S Costa
Malabsorption of Fermentable Oligo- Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs) in response to prolonged exercise may increase incidence of upper- and lower-gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), which are known to impair exercise performance. The case-study aimed to explore the impact of a low-FODMAP diet on exercise-associated GIS in a female ultra-endurance runner diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), competing in a six-day 186.7 km mountainous multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM). IBS symptom severity score at diagnosis was 410 and following a low-FODMAP diet (3...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756574/dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function
#10
Jianfei Zhao, Xiaoya Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Michael A Brown, Shiyan Qiao
Dietary protein and its metabolites, amino acids are essential nutrients for human and animals. Accumulated researches revealed that the gut microbiota mediate the crosstalk between protein metabolism and host immune response. Gut microbes are involved in the digestion, absorption, metabolism and transformation process of dietary protein in the gastrointestinal tract. Amino acids can be metabolized into numerous microbial metabolites, and these metabolites participate in various physiological functions related to host health and diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751248/evaluation-of-glucose-and-insulin-response-to-haylage-diets-with-different-content-of-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-2-breeds-of-horses
#11
S Lindåse, C Müller, K Nostell, J Bröjer
Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT)...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746789/effect-of-carbohydrate-restriction-induced-weight-loss-on-aortic-pulse-wave-velocity-in-overweight-men-and-women
#12
Majid M Syed-Abdul, Qiong Hu, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Jaume Padilla, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Colette Heimowitz, Elizabeth J Parks
Increased aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and past data have shown that low-fat and low-energy diets, fed for 8-24 wks lower PWV. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a reduction in PWV would be achieved by dietary carbohydrate (CHO) restriction, shown to bring about weight loss over a shorter timeframe. Men [n=10, age: 41.8 ± 3.2 y, BMI: 34.2 ± 1.0 kg/m2 (mean±SE)] and women (n=10, age: 38...
May 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743883/treatment-of-diabetic-mice-with-a-combination-of-ketogenic-diet-and-aerobic-exercise-via-modulations-of-ppars-gene-programs
#13
Qiang Zhang, Lingyan Xu, Jie Xia, Dongmei Wang, Min Qian, Shuzhe Ding
Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease arising as a serious public health problem worldwide. Diet intervention is considered to be a critical strategy in glycemic control of diabetic patients. Recently, the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet is shown to be effective in glycemic control and weight loss. However, hepatic lipid accumulation could be observed in mice treated with ketogenic diet. On the other hand, exercise is a well-known approach for treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We thus hypothesize that the combination of ketogenic diet and exercise could improve insulin sensitivity, while minimizing adverse effect of hepatic steatosis...
2018: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737587/the-glycaemic-benefits-of-a-very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-may-be-opposed-by-increased-hypoglycaemia-risk-and-dyslipidaemia
#14
Z Z X Leow, K J Guelfi, E A Davis, T W Jones, P A Fournier
AIMS: To investigate whether very-low-carbohydrate high-fat diets, typical of ketogenic diets, can improve glycaemic control without causing any ill health effects in adults with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In this observational study, 11 adults with Type 1 diabetes (seven men, four women, mean ± sd age 36.1± 6.8 years, mean ± sd duration of diabetes 12.8 ± 10.3 years), who followed a ketogenic diet (< 55 g carbohydrate per day) for a mean ± sd of 2.6 ± 3...
May 8, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735610/reduction-in-secretion-of-very-low-density-lipoprotein-triacylglycerol-by-a-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-in-a-rat-model-of-diet-induced-hypertriglyceridemia
#15
Yoichi Kawashima, Yoshihiro Eguchi, Tohru Yamazaki, Minako Karahashi, Hiroshi Kawai, Naomi Kudo
Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) reduced serum triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and Zucker fa/fa rats in our previous study. However, the mechanisms underlying TAG reduction by MMPIs remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which F81-1144b, a MMPI, lowers serum TAG levels in an animal model of high sucrose diet (HSD)-induced hypertriglyceridemia. F81-1144b was repeatedly administered to rats fed HSD, and its effects were evaluated on TAG levels in serum and the liver, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis in the liver, and the expression of genes regulating the metabolism of FA, TAG, and VLDL in the liver and serum...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735574/management-of-type-1-diabetes-with-a-very-low-carbohydrate-diet
#16
Belinda S Lennerz, Anna Barton, Richard K Bernstein, R David Dikeman, Carrie Diulus, Sarah Hallberg, Erinn T Rhodes, Cara B Ebbeling, Eric C Westman, William S Yancy, David S Ludwig
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate glycemic control among children and adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who consume a very low-carbohydrate diet (VLCD). METHODS: We conducted an online survey of an international social media group for people with T1DM who follow a VLCD. Respondents included adults and parents of children with T1DM. We assessed current hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (primary measure), change in HbA1c after the self-reported beginning of the VLCD, total daily insulin dose, and adverse events...
May 7, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730653/intake-of-carbohydrate-to-fiber-ratio-is-a-useful-marker-for-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Muhei Tanaka, Akane Miki, Yukiko Kobayashi, Sayori Wada, Masashi Kuwahata, Yasuhiro Kido, Masahiro Yamazaki, Michiaki Fukui
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of low carbohydrate diet on human health is still controversial. Whole grain, which is carbohydrate rich in fiber, has protective effects on human health. Thus, we assumed that intake of carbohydrate to fiber ratio has an important role in human health. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study of 164 patients with type 2 diabetes. Habitual food and nutrient intake were assessed and estimated by a self-administered diet history questionnaire...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729189/ad-libitum-mediterranean-and-low-fat-diets-both-significantly-reduce-hepatic-steatosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Catherine Properzi, Therese A O'Sullivan, Jill L Sherriff, Helena L Ching, Garry P Jeffrey, Rachel F Buckley, Jonathan Tibballs, Gerry C MacQuillan, George Garas, Leon A Adams
Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF)...
May 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728114/development-of-a-dietary-index-based-on-the-brazilian-cardioprotective-nutritional-program-balance
#19
Jacqueline Tereza da Silva, Ângela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Bernardete Weber, Renata Bertazzi Levy
BACKGROUND: The diet of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE) classifies food into four groups and sets the daily amount to be consumed. The dietary approach of BALANCE is different from other dietary recommendations; therefore, it is not possible to use existing dietary indexes (DI) to assess patient's adequacy to BALANCE diet. For this reason, it is important to develop a specific dietary index based on BALANCE diet. This study aims to describe the development of the BALANCE DI, evaluate its internal consistency, construct and content validity and population characteristics associated with the index...
May 4, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725543/dietary-pattern-and-macronutrients-profile-on-the-variation-of-inflammatory-biomarkers-scientific-update
#20
REVIEW
Brenda Kelly Souza Silveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva Oliveira, Patrícia Amaro Andrade, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
It is known that the dietary pattern and macronutrients profile may influence the expression and secretion of inflammatory biomarkers, and the low-grade inflammation is associated with the manifestation of noncommunicable chronic diseases. Therefore, this review aimed to present and discuss the role of dietary patterns and macronutrients on the variation of inflammatory markers related to NCD risk. Scientific evidences within the last five years based on clinical trials, case-controls, cohorts, and cross-sectional studies indicate that normocaloric, carbohydrate-moderated, low-glycemic index, protein-moderated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich, omega-3, and low-saturated fat diets display positive effects on the inflammatory state, both in healthy individuals and in those with cardiovascular risk, although the second group seems to benefit more from changes in the dietary profile...
2018: Cardiology Research and Practice
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