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Low carbohydrate diet

Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
M Armeno, C Araujo, B Sotomontesano, R H Caraballo
INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment that has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the management of refractory epilepsy since 1921. It is a diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which is used to treat paediatric refractory epilepsy, and is effective in around 50% of the patients that begin to follow it. It is a nutrition plan that is imbalanced in terms of both macro- and micro-nutrients, which can give rise to nutritional deficits in energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as an excess of lipids...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Vajihe Izadi, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Parisa Moosavian, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: There are no investigations regarding the effects of consuming low-energy-dense diets rich in multiple functional foods on weight-loss maintenance, inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors simultaneously. METHOD: This randomized controlled trial design was conducted on 90 men and women who were under a previous weight loss diet. Three months of intervention with recruitment at Allzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, was done. Intervention was conducted following achieving 7-11 kg weight loss...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Matthew R Panasevich, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, R Scott Rector
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome plays a critical role in the onset and progression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, it is not well documented whether the cecal versus the fecal microbiome is more relevant when assessing its contribution to these diseases. Here, we amplified the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from cecal and fecal samples of female Ossabaw swine fed a low fat control diet (10.5% fat; n=4) or Western diet (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol; n=3) for 36 weeks...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Shiori Ito, Toshio Hosaka, Wataru Yano, Takahiro Itou, Misako Yasumura, Yukari Shimizu, Hideyuki Kobayashi, Takashi Nakagawa, Keisuke Inoue, Sohei Tanabe, Takuma Kondo, Hitoshi Ishida
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) exert their antidiabetic effects by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Nutrition therapy is obviously important, but little is known about the interactions between SGLT2i agents and carbohydrate restriction. Therefore, we studied these interactions using an obese diabetic animal model. KK-Ay mice were pair-fed normal chow [NC; carbohydrate: fat: protein = 65:15:20], low carbohydrate [LC; 43:42:15] or severely carbohydrate restricted diets [SR; 12:45:43] for 12 weeks...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Piers R Boshier, Matyas Fehervari, Sheraz R Markar, Sanjay Purkayastha, Patrik Spanel, David Smith, George B Hanna
BACKGROUND: Dietary restriction together with alteration of the gastrointestinal tract results in major metabolic changes and significant weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Current methods of measuring these changes are often inaccurate and lack a molecular basis. The objective of this study was to determine the role of exhaled ketones as non-invasive markers of nutritional status in patients undergoing surgical treatment of obesity. METHODS: Patients at different stages of treatment for obesity were recruited to this single-centre cross-sectional study...
March 7, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Sara Ahmed, Dhanveer Singh, Shereen Khattab, Jessica Babineau, Dinesh Kumbhare
Background: There is an increasing trend in the consumption of poor-quality diets worldwide, contributing to the increase of non-communicable diseases. Diet directly influences physiological composition and subsequently physical health. Studies have shown that dietary macronutrient and energy content can influence the proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), which mediates various metabolic and endocrine dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify evidence in the literature assessing the association between different dietary interventions on the proportion of IMF in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Tuula Tyry, Amber Salter, Stacey S Cofield, Gary Cutter, Robert J Fox, Ruth Ann Marrie
INTRODUCTION: Dietary approaches to management of MS has been proposed for several decades, yet very little is known concerning dietary composition or adherence to specialized diets in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We conducted a survey of participants in the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry assessing diet composition and the prevalence of 19 different diets. We characterized prevalence of different diets and compared diet composition with estimated intakes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey respondents and across demographics and MS clinical characteristics...
February 27, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Rita Schüler, Nicole Seebeck, Martin A Osterhoff, Veronica Witte, Agnes Flöel, Andreas Busjahn, Alexander Jais, Jens C Brüning, Turid Frahnow, Stefan Kabisch, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Michael Kruse, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
OBJECTIVE: Reduction of brain glucose transporter GLUT1 results in severe neurological dysfunction. VEGF is required to restore and maintain brain glucose uptake across the blood brain barrier via GLUT1, which was shown to be acutely diminished in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice. The genetic and HFD-related regulation and association of VEGF and GLUT1 (SLC2A1) in humans was investigated in the NUtriGenomic Analysis in Twins (NUGAT) study. METHODS: 92 healthy and non-obese twins were standardized to a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet for 6 weeks before switched to a 6-week HFD under isocaloric conditions...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Ruey Leng Loo, Xin Zou, Lawrence J Appel, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes
Background: Interindividual variation in the response to diet is common, but the underlying mechanism for such variation is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to use a metabolic profiling approach to identify a panel of urinary metabolites representing individuals demonstrating typical (homogeneous) metabolic responses to healthy diets, and subsequently to define the association of these metabolites with improvement of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Magdalena Smyka, Barbara Grzechocinska, Miroslaw Wielgos
Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrinopathy of the reproductive age. Heterogenity of its clinical symptoms is related to the presence of a number of phenotypes of this disfunction, hence the necessity for individualized treatment is needed. A change of a lifestyle, well-balanced diet and physical activity are the most effective medical way contributing to the improvement of carbohydrate metabolism parameters and weight reduction which reactivates regular ovulation and facilitates getting pregnant...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
E Verduci, F Moretti, G Bassanini, G Banderali, V Rovelli, M C Casiraghi, G Morace, F Borgo, E Borghi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet, combined with Phe-free l-amino acid supplementation, is the mainstay of treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). Being the diet a key factor modulating gut microbiota composition, the aim of the present paper was to compare dietary intakes, gut microbiota biodiversity and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in children with PKU, on low-Phe diet, and in children with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP), on unrestricted diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 21 PKU and 21 MHP children matched for gender, age and body mass index z-score...
January 31, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
EunSeok Cha, Sudeshna Paul, Betty J Braxter, Guillermo Umpierrez, Melissa Spezia Faulkner
Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the associations between dietary behaviors and glucose metabolism in high-risk young adults to increase the precision of nutrition education to prevent early onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). Method Using a descriptive, cross-sectional study design, 106 overweight or obese sedentary young adults ages 18-29 years from the Atlanta metropolitan area were recruited to screen diabetes risk. Survey questionnaires, anthropometric assessment, blood pressure (BP), and laboratory data were collected in a clinical research unit...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes Educator
Amy J Osborne, Peter K Dearden
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis predicts that early-life environmental exposures can be detrimental to later-life health and that mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment may contribute to the growing non-communicable disease epidemic. Within this is an increasingly recognized role for epigenetic mechanisms; for example, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by nutrition and can alter gene expression in mothers and offspring. Currently, there are few whole-genome transcriptional studies of response to nutritional alteration...
October 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Katherine E Black, Alistair D Black, Dane F Baker
Rugby is a worldwide intermittent team sport, players tend to be heavier than the majority of similar team sport athletes on whom the dietary guidelines have been developed. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to describe the intakes of rugby union players. Article databases were searched up to February 2017 and were included if they were published in English and reporting dietary intakes of male rugby union players. Of the research articles found energy intakes were lower than four of the five studies which reported intakes and expenditure, which would suggest the players were losing weight which is somewhat supported by the decreases in skinfolds seen during pre-season...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Derrick Ssewanyana, Amina Abubakar, Anneloes van Baar, Patrick N Mwangala, Charles R Newton
Unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are among the key modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although such diseases often only appear in adulthood, these behaviors are typically initiated or reinforced already during adolescence. However, knowledge on underlying factors for adolescents' unhealthy dieting and physical inactivity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is poor. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore the perceptions of a diverse group of 78 young people of 10-19 years of age, which also included some adolescents living with HIV, as this is an emerging group in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in many parts of SSA...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Charlotte Andriessen, Pia Christensen, Lone Vestergaard Nielsen, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, J Alfredo Martinez, Wim H M Saris, Marleen A van Baak, Angeliki Papadaki, Marie Kunesova, Susan Jebb, John Blundell, Clare Lawton, Anne Raben
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD)...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
Erika Meroni, Nadia Papini, Franca Criscuoli, Maria C Casiraghi, Luca Massaccesi, Nicoletta Basilico, Daniela Erba
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz, Jacek Jamiołkowski, Bartosz Pędziński, Michalina Krzyżak, Dominik Maślach, Andrzej Szpak, Wioleta Justyna Omeljaniuk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study was carried out to evaluate the changes in the eating habits and lipid parameters in a 21-year follow-up on a group of 435 men living in Poland. METHODS: The studied population was composed of the same subjects: a group of men who were first studied in the years 1987-1989 and in 2008-2010. The following data was gathered: body mass, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration in blood serum...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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