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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156449/nutrition-in-the-management-of-gastrointestinal-diseases-and-disorders-the-evidence-for-the-low-fodmap-diet
#1
REVIEW
Shanti Eswaran, Jeremy P Farida, Jessica Green, Jesse D Miller, William D Chey
A growing interest from both physicians and patients is fueling research in the interaction of symptoms related to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and diet, particularly the low FODMAP diet. Recent studies further define the role of these short-chain fermentable carbohydrates on IBS symptoms and their effects in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Mounting evidence supports the use of a low FODMAP diet in the clinical setting, but this dietary approach is not without potential drawbacks. This review illustrates the mechanisms by which the low FODMAP diet leads to improvement in IBS symptoms, summarizes the available clinical evidence, and offers practical advice regarding implementation of this dietary strategy...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150275/ketogenic-diet-and-anorexia-nervosa
#2
Barbara Scolnick
This hypothesis suggest that starvation-induced ketosis, which leads to a fundamental biochemical change in the metabolic fuel supply of the brain, is uniquely anxiolytic and rewarding to patients prone to AN. Ketosis can easily be replicated by a unique diet marked by high fat, moderate protein, and very low carbohydrate. This diet, known as a ketogenic diet (KGD) mimics starvation, thus allowing the patient to experience the anxiolytic state of ketosis, and yet avoid the morbidity of starvation.
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149029/kappaphycus-alvarezii-as-a-food-supplement-prevents-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#3
Stephen Wanyonyi, Ryan du Preez, Lindsay Brown, Nicholas A Paul, Sunil K Panchal
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140289/cats-and-carbohydrates-the-carnivore-fantasy
#5
REVIEW
Adronie Verbrugghe, Myriam Hesta
The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131494/antimicrobial-emulsifier-glycerol-monolaurate-induces-metabolic-syndrome-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-in-low-fat-diet-fed-mice
#6
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) was widely consumed worldwide in food industry, and considered as safe, yet for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study was to investigate whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations and systemic low-grade inflammation were investigated. Our results demonstrated that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight and HDL, compared to the CON group...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129737/endotoxemia-is-modulated-by-quantity-and-quality-of-dietary-fat-in-older-adults
#7
Javier Lopez-Moreno, Sonia Garcia-Carpintero, Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Rosa Jimenez-Lucena, Cristina Vals-Delgado, Juan F Alcala-Diaz, Irene Roncero-Ramos, Oriol A Rangel-Zuñiga, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Maria M Malagon, Jose M Ordovas, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Antonio Camargo
BACKGROUND: Aging is an important determinant of the rate of atherosclerosis development, mainly through low-grade inflammation. Diet, and particularly its fat content, modulates the inflammatory response in fasting and postprandial states. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the effects of dietary fat on endotoxemia in healthy older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy older adults were randomized to three diets, lasting three-weeks each, using a crossover design: 1...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124044/index-based-dietary-patterns-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Ji Hyun Kim, Jeongseon Kim
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause for cancer incidence in male. Although this high incidence is due to prostate specific antigen screening, other risk-factors, such as diet, might also be involved. The results of previous studies on the association between prostate cancer risk and individual dietary components have been conflicting. Thus, evaluation by dietary pattern analysis rather than individual dietary factors is suggested. The purpose of this study was to review the association of prostate cancer with a priori dietary indices, which are less studied and reviewed to date compared to a posteriori indices...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121861/transcriptomics-metabolomics-and-histology-indicate-that-high-carbohydrate-diet-negatively-affects-the-liver-health-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#9
Wassana Prisingkorn, Panita Prathomya, Ivan Jakovlić, Han Liu, Yu-Hua Zhao, Wei-Min Wang
BACKGROUND: Global trend of the introduction of high levels of relatively cheap carbohydrates to reduce the amount of costly protein in the aquatic animal feed production has affected the aquaculture of an economically important cyprinid fish, blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). This dietary shift has resulted in increased prevalence of metabolic disorders, often causing economic losses. High dietary intake of carbohydrates, associated with obesity, is one of the major causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117620/the-effects-of-a-modified-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-on-metabolic-syndrome-parameters-in-male-rats
#10
Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, Farihah Hj Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A previous study has established that high-carbohydrate high-fat diet (HCHF) can induce MetS in rats. In this study, we modified components of the diet so that it resembled the diet of Southeast Asians. This study aimed to determine the effects of this modified HCHF diet on metabolic parameters in rats. Male Wistar rats (n=14) were randomised into two groups. The normal group was given standard rat chow...
November 8, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116584/use-of-50-50-premixed-insulin-analogs-in-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-clinical-recommendations
#11
REVIEW
Gary Deed, Gary Kilov, Trisha Dunning, Richard Cutfield, Jane Overland, Ted Wu
INTRODUCTION: Premixed insulin analogs represent an alternative to basal or basal-bolus insulin regimens for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). "Low-mix" formulations with a low rapid-acting to long-acting analog ratio (e.g., 25/75) are commonly used, but 50/50 formulations (Mix50) may be more appropriate for some patients. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the efficacy and safety of Mix50, compared with low-mix, basal, or basal-bolus therapy, for insulin initiation and intensification...
December 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115390/anti-hypoglycemic-and-hepatocyte-protective-effects-of-hyperoside-from-zanthoxylum-bungeanum-leaves-in-mice-with-high-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-and-alloxan-induced-diabetes
#12
Yali Zhang, Mimi Wang, Huanhuan Dong, Xiaomin Yu, Jingfang Zhang
The development of diabetes mellitus (DM) is accompanied by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Hyperoside is a major bioactive component in Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves (HZL) and is a natural antioxidant. However, the effects of HZL on DM and its mechanisms of action remain undefined. The present study evaluated the anti-hypoglycemic and hepatocyte-protective effects of HZL in mice with diabetes induced by a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD) and alloxan. We also aimed to eludicate the underlying mechanisms...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113519/does-the-low-fodmap-diet-improve-symptoms-of-radiation-induced-enteropathy-a-pilot-study
#13
Trine Larsen, Trygve Hausken, Synne Otteraaen Ystad, Nils Hovdenak, Bernd Mueller, Gülen Arslan Lied
RATIONALE: Patients with radiation-induced enteropathy (RE) after cancer treatment show similar symptoms as patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) is a widespread management strategy for IBS. We aimed to investigate if there may be a positive effect of LFD on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with RE. METHODS: In an open non-controlled pilot study, 11 patients (all female) with RE-related IBS symptoms were recruited largely based on own initiative...
November 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112626/effects-of-ad-libitum-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-dieting-in-middle-age-male-runners
#14
Alexander J Heatherly, Lauren G Killen, Ashton F Smith, Hunter S Waldman, Angela Hollingsworth, Christie L Seltmann, Eric K O'Neal
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a 3-week ad libitum high fat (~70% of calories), low carbohydrate (<50 g/day) diet (LCHF) on markers of endurance performance in middle-aged, recreationally competitive male runners. METHODS: All subjects (n = 8) following their normal HC diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed 5, 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological, metabolic variables and perceptual responses were recorded...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110065/fungi-in-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-human-and-mice-from-community-to-functions
#15
REVIEW
Jiayan Li, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Gang Tian, Zhiqing Huang, Yuheng Luo
Fungi are often ignored in studies on gut microbes because of their low level of presence (making up only 0.1% of the total microorganisms) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of monogastric animals. Recent studies using novel technologies such as next generation sequencing have expanded our understanding on the importance of intestinal fungi in humans and animals. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on the fungal community, the so-called mycobiome, and their functions from recent studies in humans and mice...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108901/keto-adaptation-enhances-exercise-performance-and-body-composition-responses-to-training-in-endurance-athletes
#16
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108031/beef-steers-with-average-dry-matter-intake-and-divergent-average-daily-gain-have-altered-gene-expression-in-the-jejunum
#17
A P Foote, B N Keel, C M Zarek, A K Lindholm-Perry
The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing diet containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% dry-rolled corn, 20% wet distillers grains with solubles, 8% alfalfa hay, and 4.2% vitamin/mineral supplement. From the cohort, a subset of steers with DMI within ±0.32 SD of the mean for DMI and the greatest (high) and least (low) ADG were chosen for slaughter and jejunum mucosa collection ( = 8 for each group)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105526/effect-of-omnivorous-and-vegan-diets-with-different-protein-and-carbohydrate-content-on-growth-and-metabolism-of-growing-rats
#18
Gianluca Giuberti, Mauro Morlacchini, Luca Crippa, Jessica Capraro, Beatrice Paganini, Antonio Gallo, Filippo Rossi
The purpose of this study was to observe, in a rat animal model, the short and medium term effects of vegan (VEG) or omnivorous (OMNI) diets with different energy partition between nutrients (zone or classic). Six different diets were administered, for 72 days to 120 growing male Sprague-Dawley rats: (i) VEG zone diet; (ii) VEG classic diet; (iii) OMNI zone diet; (iv) OMNI classic diet; (v) OMNI zone diet with added fibre and (vi) OMNI classic diet with added fibre. Zone diets (high protein and low carbohydrates), resulted in better growth , feed efficiency, lower blood glucose and insulin responses...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102534/food-and-beverage-consumption-and-food-addiction-among-women-in-the-nurses-health-studies
#19
Adina R Lemeshow, Eric B Rimm, Deborah S Hasin, Ashley N Gearhardt, Alan J Flint, Alison E Field, Jeanine M Genkinger
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have not addressed a fundamental component of a food addiction disorder: the compulsive relationship between eating and potentially positively reinforcing foods. We aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption and food addiction. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted cross-sectional analyses merging data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 58,625) and Nurses' Health Study II (n = 65,063), two prospective cohort studies of female nurses in the United States...
November 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096866/monascus-purpureus-for-statin-and-ezetimibe-intolerant-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-patients-a-clinical-study
#20
Claudia Stefanutti, Fabio Mazza, Dario Mesce, Claudia Morozzi, Serafina Di Giacomo, Marco Vitale, Mario Pergolini
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and requires effective therapy in affected patients. Statins, the mainstay of lipid-lowering therapy, can cause side effects, including myalgia, in some patients. Ezetimibe, is frequently used as an add-on therapy for statins, and is also used as a monotherapy in statin-intolerant patients, however elevations in liver transaminases can occur. We examined the lipid-lowering efficacy of the natural fungal product Monascus purpureus (MP), which contains the natural statin monacolin K...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
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