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Low carbohydrate diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348821/glycan-microarray-reveal-induced-iggs-repertoire-shift-against-a-dietary-carbohydrate-in-response-to-rabbit-anti-human-thymocyte-therapy
#1
Ron Amon, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Limor Engler, Hai Yu, Noha Lim, Ludmilla Le Berre, Kristina M Harris, Mario R Ehlers, Stephen E Gitelman, Xi Chen, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Vered Padler-Karavani
Humans have circulating antibodies against diverse glycans containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to function-loss mutation of the CMAH gene. This xenogenic non-human carbohydrate is abundant in red meat, xenografts and biotherapeutics. Low levels of diet-derived Neu5Gc is also present on normal human endothelial cells, and together with anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could potentially mediate "xenosialitis" chronic-inflammation. Rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a drug containing polyclonal IgG glycoproteins commonly used as an immunosuppressant in human transplantation and autoimmune diseases...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#2
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339035/the-effect-of-dietary-carbohydrate-on-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#3
Keng-Liang Wu, Chung-Mou Kuo, Chih-Chien Yao, Wei-Chen Tai, Seng-Kee Chuah, Chee-Sang Lim, Yi-Chun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. METHODS: Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337071/lower-protein-and-higher-carbohydrate-intake-is-related-with-altering-metabolic-syndrome-components-in-elderly-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Hellen C G Nabuco, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Paulo Junior Sugihara, Rodrigo Dos Reis Fernandes, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Melissa Antunes, Roberto Carlos Burini, Danielle Venturini, Décio S Barbosa, Analiza Mônica Silva, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is an energy-disturbance disease associated with insulin resistance. Hence, the intake of energy-rich macronutrients might affect some MetS components. The aim of this study was to explore the association of ingested macronutrients with MetS components in older women. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in 245 older women (≥60 years). Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess total body fat, percentage body fat (absolute and relative), and skeletal muscle mass...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334718/-diet-and-nutrition-interventions-prevent-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Z Y Yang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, with rising trend over the years. Dietary nutrient intake (protein, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D, vitamin E, iron, zinc, selenium and inositol et al.), dietary pattern and probiotics may be related to GDM occurrence. Dietary factors are modifiable factors for preventing GDM. The study reviewed the roles of these dietary factors in preventing GDM. Results showed that plant-based dietary pattern may lower the risk of GDM and dietary pattern characterized with high animal protein, high fat and low carbohydrate may increase the risk of GDM...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329923/different-protein-composition-of-low-calorie-diet-differently-impacts-adipokine-profile-irrespective-of-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-women
#6
R Mateo-Gallego, I Lamiquiz-Moneo, S Perez-Calahorra, V Marco-Benedí, A M Bea, L Baila-Rueda, M Laclaustra, J L Peñalvo, F Civeira, A Cenarro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High-protein (HP) diets have shown benefits in cardiometabolic markers such as insulin or triglycerides but the responsible mechanisms are not known. We aimed to assess the effect of three energy-restricted diets with different protein contents (20%, 27%, and 35%; ∼80% coming from animal source) on plasma adipokine concentration and its association with changes in cardiometabolic markers. METHODS: Seventy-six women (BMI 32.8 ± 2.93) were randomized to one of three calorie-reduced diets, with protein, 20%, 27%, or 35%; carbohydrates, 50%, 43%, or 35%; and fat, 30%, for 3 months...
November 4, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329254/low-carbohydrate-high-protein-high-fat-diets-rich-in-livestock-poultry-and-their-products-predict-impending-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-chinese-individuals-that-exceed-their-calculated-caloric-requirement
#7
Ruiqi Shan, Wei Duan, Lei Liu, Jiayue Qi, Jian Gao, Yunlong Zhang, Shanshan Du, Tianshu Han, Xiuyu Pang, Changhao Sun, Xiaoyan Wu
The evidence on the association between long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is controversial. Until now, data is limited for Chinese populations, especially in considering the influence of extra energy intake. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the association of low-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in populations consuming extra calories and those with normal caloric intake, We also determined whether the association is mediated by insulin resistance (IR) or β-cell dysfunction...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325772/the-association-of-snp276g-t-at-adiponectin-gene-with-insulin-resistance-and-circulating-adiponectin-in-response-to-two-different-hypocaloric-diets
#8
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller, A Ortola, E Gómez, J J Lopez
BACKGROUND: Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism and dietary intake on total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance after two hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Caucasian population of 284 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two hypocaloric diets (I: moderate carbohydrates vs II: low fat)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324859/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-detects-differential-lipid-composition-in-mammary-glands-on-low-fat-high-animal-fat-versus-high-fructose-diets
#9
Dianning He, Devkumar Mustafi, Xiaobing Fan, Sully Fernandez, Erica Markiewicz, Marta Zamora, Jeffrey Mueller, Joseph R Sachleben, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Gregory S Karczmar
The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319785/diagnostic-accuracy-and-prognostic-value-of-simultaneous-hybrid-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#10
Eleanor C Wicks, Leon J Menezes, Anna Barnes, Saidi A Mohiddin, Neha Sekhri, Joanna C Porter, Helen L Booth, Emily Garrett, Riyaz S Patel, Menelaos Pavlou, Ashley M Groves, Perry M Elliott
Aims: Cardiac death is the leading cause of mortality in patients with sarcoidosis, yet cardiac involvement often remains undetected. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) have been used to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) yet never simultaneously in a cohort. This study sought to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of simultaneous hybrid cardiac PET/MR. Methods and results: Fifty-one consecutive patients with suspected CS (age 50 ± 13 years, 31 males) underwent simultaneous PET/MR following a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet and 12-h fast...
January 8, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308616/okra-abelmoscus-esculentus-improved-islets-structure-and-down-regulated-ppars-gene-expression-in-pancreas-of-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#11
Naeem Erfani Majd, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Ali Shahriari, Zahra Soleimani
OBJECTIVES: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a tropical vegetable that is rich in carbohydrates, fibers, proteins and natural antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Okra powder on pancreatic islets and its action on the expression of PPAR-γ and PPAR-α genes in pancreas of high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, diabetes was induced by feeding HFD (60% fat) for 30 days followed by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg)...
April 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307147/internist-anesthesiologist-and-surgeon-use-of-ketogenic-diet
#12
Lorenzo Cenci, Antonio Paoli, Hesham R Omar, Prachiti Dalvi, Enrico M Camporesi, Devanand Mangar, Silvia Quartesan, Alberto Fiorito, Gerardo Bosco
Ketogenic diet is being increasingly utilized in recent decades because of its success as an effective tool for short and intermediate-term weight loss. Promoting physiological ketosis from a drastically low carbohydrate diet is the fundamental basis for this diet regime. Though debated, these diets have been demonstrated to be effective, at least in the short- to medium terms, to manage excess weight, hyperlipidemia, and other cardiovascular risk factors. We reviewed the cardiovascular, metabolic, anesthetic, and postsurgical profiles in the literature and summarized technical issues of anesthesia and surgery along with long-term changes from published papers...
March 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302846/a-network-meta-analysis-on-the-comparative-efficacy-of-different-dietary-approaches-on-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing
The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a systematic review of the literature. Electronic and hand searches were performed until July 2017. The inclusion criteria were defined as follows: (1) randomized trial with a dietary approach; (2) adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus; (3) outcome either HbA1c (%) and/or fasting glucose (mmol/l); (4) minimum intervention period of 12 weeks. For each outcome measure, random effects network meta-analysis was performed in order to determine the pooled effect of each intervention relative to each of the other interventions...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290357/glycemic-index-and-glycemic-load-of-the-diets-of-japanese-adults-the-2012-national-health-and-nutrition-survey-japan
#14
Kentaro Murakami, Satoshi Sasaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of Japanese adults, as well as their nutritional correlates, in the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan. METHOD: Dietary data from 15 618 adults aged ≥20 y, collected using a 1-d weighed dietary record, were analyzed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a stepwise published strategy using values from common GI databases. RESULTS: Mean (SD) dietary GI and GL were 65...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290352/a-shift-toward-a-high-fat-diet-in-the-current-metabolic-paradigm-a-new-perspective
#15
Hunter S Waldman, Benjamin M Krings, JohnEric W Smith, Matthew J McAllister
OBJECTIVE: Investigations into the relationship between dietary carbohydrate restriction and health are mixed. Current guidelines for nutrition promote low-fat foods and higher carbohydrate consumption for optimal health and weight loss. However, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets are revealing both intra- and extracellular adaptations that have been shown to elicit favorable cardiometabolic changes associated with obesity. Moreover, dietary fat is associated with higher satiety levels from the hormones adiponectin, leptin, and cholecystokinin...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290214/dietary-management-of-dyslipidaemias-is-there-any-evidence-for-cardiovascular-benefit
#16
REVIEW
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Stavroula A Paschou, Dimitrios G Goulis, Vasilios G Athyros, Asterios Karagiannis
Specific dietary strategies are the mainstay of management in most cases of dyslipidaemia, prior to or simultaneously with the initiation of a lipid-lowering agent. The exact approach differs according to the type of dyslipidaemia. In particular, a reduction in carbohydrates (mainly foods with a high glycaemic index) and their substitution with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids is the main strategy in patients with high levels of triglycerides (Tg) and/or low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)...
February 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288247/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-visceral-adipose-tissue-estimates-reproducibility-and-impact-of-pre-assessment-diet
#17
Grant M Tinsley, Jeffrey S Forsse, Elisa Morales, Peter W Grandjean
We examined the reproducibility of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimates as well as the impact of pre-assessment diet. In a counterbalanced design, 41 adults received 6 DXA scans, while consuming standardized high- and low-carbohydrate (LC) diets. The impact of pre-assessment diet was examined via repeated-measures analysis of variance and reproducibility of VAT estimates was evaluated by technical error of measurement (TEM) and s.e. of a single determination (SESD)...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287787/digestibility-and-nutritional-value-of-fresh-and-stored-pollen-for-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-scutellata
#18
Susan W Nicolson, Susana Da Silva Das Neves, Hannelie Human, Christian W W Pirk
Pollen, the main protein source for honey bees, is mixed with regurgitated nectar or honey during collection and then stored as 'bee bread' before its consumption, mainly by young nurse workers. It has been suggested that storage of pollen improves its nutritional value and digestibility, but there is little evidence for such changes. We fed two fresh pollen types of different protein content (aloe and sunflower), and two stored pollen types (sunflower and a mixed pollen), to young caged worker bees. We measured daily consumption of pollen and sucrose solution, and survival after 14 days...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286159/maternal-chromium-restriction-induces-insulin-resistance-in-adult-mice-offspring-through-mirna
#19
Qian Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Zhixin Wang, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Increasing evidence suggests that undernutrition during the fetal period may lead to glucose intolerance, impair the insulin response and induce insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, the present study aimed to determine the effects of maternal low Cr (LC) on glucose metabolism in C57BL mice offspring, and the involved mechanisms. Weaned C57BL mice were born from mothers fed a control diet or LC diet, and were then fed a control or LC diet for 13 weeks...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282051/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-silico-investigation-of-the-oxygen-hypothesis
#20
Michael A Henson, Poonam Phalak
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, cause chronic inflammation of the digestive tract in approximately 1.6 million Americans. A signature of IBD is dysbiosis of the gut microbiota marked by a significant reduction of obligate anaerobes and a sharp increase in facultative anaerobes. Numerous experimental studies have shown that IBD is strongly correlated with a decrease of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and an increase of Escherichia coli...
December 28, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
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