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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241144/the-diverse-reasons-for-using-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-qualitative-study-of-the-users-own-perspectives
#1
Christophe Soussan, Martin Andersson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively...
December 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241143/perceptions-about-supervised-injection-facilities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-philadelphia
#2
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241142/unmet-needs-burden-of-treatment-and-patient-engagement-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-perspective-from-the-ms-in-the-21st-century-steering-group
#3
Peter Rieckmann, Diego Centonze, Irina Elovaara, Gavin Giovannoni, Eva Havrdová, Jurg Kesselring, Gisela Kobelt, Dawn Langdon, Sarah A Morrow, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Sven Schippling, Christoph Thalheim, Heidi Thompson, Patrick Vermersch, Karen Aston, Birgit Bauer, Christy Demory, Maria Paz Giambastiani, Jana Hlavacova, Jocelyne Nouvet-Gire, George Pepper, Maija Pontaga, Emma Rogan, Chrystal Rogalski, Pieter van Galen, Ali-Frédéric Ben-Amor
BACKGROUND: Patient engagement is vital in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to optimise outcomes for patients, society and healthcare systems. It is essential to involve all stakeholders in potential solutions, working in a multidisciplinary way to ensure that people with MS (PwMS) are included in shared decision-making and disease management. To start this process, a collaborative, open environment between PwMS and healthcare professionals (HCPs) is required so that similarities and disparities in the perception of key areas in patient care and unmet needs can be identified...
November 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241082/the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-and-working-memory-training-on-cocaine-use-craving-and-inhibition-in-regular-cocaine-users-correspondence-of-lab-assessments-and-ecological-momentary-assessment
#4
Mieke H J Schulte, Reinout W Wiers, Wouter J Boendermaker, Anna E Goudriaan, Wim van den Brink, Denise S van Deursen, Malte Friese, Emily Brede, Andrew J Waters
INTRODUCTION: Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data...
December 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240986/the-essential-elements-of-a-risk-governance-framework-for-current-and-future-nanotechnologies
#5
Vicki Stone, Martin Führ, Peter H Feindt, Hans Bouwmeester, Igor Linkov, Stefania Sabella, Finbarr Murphy, Kilian Bizer, Lang Tran, Marlene Ågerstrand, Carlos Fito, Torben Andersen, Diana Anderson, Enrico Bergamaschi, John W Cherrie, Sue Cowan, Jean-Francois Dalemcourt, Michael Faure, Silke Gabbert, Agnieszka Gajewicz, Teresa F Fernandes, Danail Hristozov, Helinor J Johnston, Terry C Lansdown, Stefan Linder, Hans J P Marvin, Martin Mullins, Kai Purnhagen, Tomasz Puzyn, Araceli Sanchez Jimenez, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, George Streftaris, Martie van Tongeren, Nicolas H Voelcker, George Voyiatzis, Spyros N Yannopoulos, P Marijn Poortvliet
Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues that occur in this rapidly evolving research and development area...
December 14, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240929/the-genome-and-adult-somatic-transcriptome-of-the-mormyrid-electric-fish-paramormyrops-kingsleyae
#6
Jason R Gallant, Mauricio Losilla, Chad Tomlinson, Wesley C Warren
Several studies have begun to elucidate the genetic and developmental processes underlying major vertebrate traits. Few of these traits have evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, preventing the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying these traits comparatively. Electric organs have evolved multiple times among vertebrates, presenting a unique opportunity to understand the degree of constraint and repeatability of the evolutionary processes underlying novel vertebrate traits. As there is now a completed genome sequence representing south american electric eels, we were motivated to obtain genomic sequence from a linage that independently evolved electric organs to facilitate future comparative analyses of the evolution and development of electric organs...
December 12, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240838/recognized-focused-practice-does-sub-specialty-designation-offer-value-to-the-neurosurgeon
#7
Maya A Babu, Linda M Liau, Fredric B Meyer
Vehicles for life-long assessment such as Maintenance of Certification tend to focus on generalist neurosurgical knowledge. However, as neurosurgeons advance in their careers, they tend to narrow their practice and increase volumes in certain specific types of operations. Failing to test the type of procedures most relevant to the practitioner is a lost opportunity to improve the knowledge and practice of the individual neurosurgeon. In this study, we assess the neurosurgical community's appetite for designations of board-recognized Recognized Focused Practice (RFP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240796/improving-the-quality-of-child-anthropometry-manual-anthropometry-in-the-body-imaging-for-nutritional-assessment-study-bina
#8
Joel Conkle, Usha Ramakrishnan, Rafael Flores-Ayala, Parminder S Suchdev, Reynaldo Martorell
Anthropometric data collected in clinics and surveys are often inaccurate and unreliable due to measurement error. The Body Imaging for Nutritional Assessment Study (BINA) evaluated the ability of 3D imaging to correctly measure stature, head circumference (HC) and arm circumference (MUAC) for children under five years of age. This paper describes the protocol for and the quality of manual anthropometric measurements in BINA, a study conducted in 2016-17 in Atlanta, USA. Quality was evaluated by examining digit preference, biological plausibility of z-scores, z-score standard deviations, and reliability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240655/evaluation-of-a-person-centered-theory-based-intervention-to-promote-health-behaviors
#9
Chiraporn Worawong, Mary Jo Borden, Karen M Cooper, Oscar A Pérez, Diane Lauver
BACKGROUND: Effective promotion of health behaviors requires strong interventions. Applying person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from two motivational theories could strengthen the effects of such interventions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to report the effect sizes, fidelity, and acceptability of a person-centered, health behavior intervention based on self-regulation and self-determination theories. METHODS: Using a pre- and postintervention design, with a 4-week follow-up, advanced practice registered nurses made six weekly contacts with 52 volunteer participants...
January 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240454/a-comparison-of-the-expectations-and-experiences-of-medical-students-from-high-middle-and-low-income-countries-participating-in-global-health-clinical-electives
#10
Michael J Peluso, Adam Rodman, Douglas A Mata, Anne T Kellett, Susan van Schalkwyk, Robert M Rohrbaugh
Phenomenon: Global health education (GHE) is expanding to include socioculturally and resource-different settings, with the goal of developing a workforce with members who can promote health equity locally and globally. GHE is also no longer limited to students from high-income countries (HICs). However, it is unknown whether the motivations and experiences of medical students from HICs and from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) participating in GHE clinical electives through institutional partnerships are similar or different...
December 14, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240401/reduction-of-graphene-oxide-thin-films-by-cobaltocene-and-decamethylcobaltocene
#11
Molly M MacInnes, Sofiya Hlynchuk, Saurabh Acharya, Nicolai Lehnert, Stephen Maldonado
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films have been prepared by immersion of graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature in non-aqueous solutions containing simple, outer-sphere metallocene reductants. Specifically, solutions of cobaltocene, cobaltocene & trifluoroacetic acid, and decamethylcobaltocene each showed activity for the rapid reduction of GO films cast on a wide variety of substrates. Each reactant increased the conductivity of the films by several orders of magnitude, with RGO films prepared with either decamethylcobaltocene or with cobaltocene & trifluoroacetic acid possessing the highest conductivities (~ 104 S m-1)...
December 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239870/factors-motivating-medical-students-in-selecting-a-career-specialty-relevance-for-a-robust-orthopaedic-pipeline
#12
David Segal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239799/occupational-determinants-of-successful-aging-in-older-physicians
#13
Chanaka Wijeratne, Carmelle Peisah, Joanne Earl, Georgina Luscombe
OBJECTIVES: Demographic, physical and psychological associations of successful aging (SA) have been evaluated, but occupational factors have not. Nor has SA been evaluated in a specific occupational group. The aims of this study were to examine the occupational associations of SA in older physicians, and to explore the concept of occupational SA. METHODS: Physicians aged 55+ years completed self-ratings of occupational and personal SA on a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS; 1 being "least successful" and 10 "most successful")...
November 24, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239702/a-brief-introduction-to-mass-migration-then-and-now
#14
Charlotte Kahn
To provide a context, this introduction presents a bird's-eye view of migration history, of some differences between voluntary and forced motivation for leaving home territories, and the significance of large group relocations.(mass migrations). The challenges of adjustment and acculturation as well as the interactional effects on migrants and host populations, including mental health issues and facilities, are considered.
December 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239635/-will-i-know-more-in-the-future-than-i-know-now-preschoolers-judgments-about-changes-in-general-knowledge
#15
Cristina M Atance, Julian S Caza
An important aspect of perspective-taking ability is the appreciation that mental states such as beliefs, desires, and knowledge change over time. The current study focused specifically on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds' understanding that they will have knowledge in the future that they do not currently possess-for example, that when they are grown-ups, they will know what the words on a newspaper say. We also compared this understanding to children's understanding that adults have knowledge that children do not...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239499/oligothienylenevinylene-polarons-and-bipolarons-confined-between-hostile-electron-accepting-perchlorotriphenylmethyl-radicals
#16
Juan Casado, Paula Mayorga Burrezo, Carlos Franco, Ruben Caballero, Marta Mas, Fernando Langa, Juan T Lopez Navarrete, Concepció Rovira, Jaume Veciana
: A detailed analysis of positive charged species generated on a series of thienylenevinylene (nTV) wires terminally substituted with two perchlorotriphenylmethyl (*PTM) radical acceptors groups, *PTM-nTV-PTM* (n = 2-7), has been carried out. Motivated by the counterintuitively key role played by holes in the nTV bridges on the operating mechanism of electron transfer in their radi-cal-anion mixed-valence derivatives, a wide combination of experimental and theoretical techniques have been used, aiming to get further insights on their structural location...
December 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239478/the-effect-of-emotionally-valenced-eye-region-images-on-visuocortical-processing-of-surprised-faces
#17
Shuaixia Li, Ping Li, Wei Wang, Xiangru Zhu, Wenbo Luo
In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression...
December 14, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239442/hydrodynamics-mediated-trapping-of-micro-swimmers-near-drops
#18
Nikhil Desai, Vaseem A Shaik, Arezoo M Ardekani
In this paper, we investigate the swimming characteristics and dynamics of a model micro-swimmer in the vicinity of a clean drop, and of a surfactant covered drop. We model the swimmer as a force dipole and utilize the image-singularity system to study the dynamical behavior of the swimmer. Motivated by bacterial bio-remediation of insoluble hydrocarbons (HCs) released during oil spills, we report the 'trapping characteristics' - critical trapping radius, basin of attraction and trapping time distribution - of deterministic and stochastic swimmers, as a function of viscosity ratio, and dimensionless surface viscosity...
December 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239267/a-retrospective-study-of-predictors-of-return-to-duty-vs-medical-retirement-in-an-active-duty-military-population-with-blast-related-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Philip A Cook, Thomas M Johnson, Suzanne G Martin, Philip R Gerhman, Seema Bhatnagar, James C Gee
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), has been described as the "signature injury" of the Global War on Terror. Explosive blast TBI has become a leading cause of injury as a result of the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan. We present a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with blast-related mild TBI (N=303) seen at the Intrepid Spirit Concussion Recovery Center at Naval Medical Center Camp Lejeune. The objective was to predict outcomes of return to duty (RTD) vs. medical retirement via medical evaluation board (MEB), based on brain imaging, neuropsychological data and history of mTBI...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238894/a-nonparametric-maximum-likelihood-approach-for-survival-data-with-observed-cured-subjects-left-truncation-and-right-censoring
#20
Jue Hou, Christina D Chambers, Ronghui Xu
We consider observational studies in pregnancy where the outcome of interest is spontaneous abortion (SAB). This at first sight is a binary 'yes' or 'no' variable, albeit there is left truncation as well as right-censoring in the data. Women who do not experience SAB by gestational week 20 are 'cured' from SAB by definition, that is, they are no longer at risk. Our data is different from the common cure data in the literature, where the cured subjects are always right-censored and not actually observed to be cured...
December 13, 2017: Lifetime Data Analysis
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