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Motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449268/ventral-but-not-dorsal-hippocampus-inactivation-impairs-reward-memory-expression-and-retrieval-in-contexts-defined-by-proximal-cues
#1
Sadia Riaz, Anett Schumacher, Seyon Sivagurunathan, Matthijs Van Der Meer, Rutsuko Ito
The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively-motivated tasks...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449134/characterizing-exogenous-mrna-delivery-trafficking-cytoplasmic-release-and-rna-protein-correlations-at-the-level-of-single-cells
#2
Jonathan L Kirschman, Sushma Bhosle, Daryll Vanover, Emmeline L Blanchard, Kristin H Loomis, Chiara Zurla, Kathryn Murray, Blaine C Lam, Philip J Santangelo
The use of synthetic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to express specific proteins is a highly promising therapeutic and vaccine approach that avoids many safety issues associated with viral or DNA-based systems. However, in order to optimize mRNA designs and delivery, technology advancements are required to study fundamental mechanisms of mRNA uptake and localization at the single-cell and tissue level. Here, we present a single RNA sensitive fluorescent labeling method which allows us to label and visualize synthetic mRNA without significantly affecting function...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448784/a-motivational-interviewing-intervention-by-pharmacy-students-to-improve-medication-adherence
#3
Susan Abughosh, Xin Wang, Omar Serna, Tara Esse, Amanda Mann, Santhi Masilamani, Marcia McDonnell Holstad, Ekere James Essien, Marc Fleming
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with comorbid hypertension (HTN) are at a higher risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. Through guideline-driven recommendations, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly recommended for these patients. Unfortunately, medication adherence to these products, though crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit, is frequently suboptimal. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered collaborative communication style that is used to strengthen internal motivation for change that may prove effective in enhancing adherence...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448531/application-of-the-transtheoretical-model-to-sedentary-behaviors-and-its-association-with-physical-activity-status
#4
Ho Han, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Harold Willis Kohl
BACKGROUND: The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is a successful framework for guiding behavior change programs for several health behaviors, yet its application to reduce of sedentary behavior has been neglected. In addition, no data exist regarding the association between determinants of sedentary behaviors based on the TTM and physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate college students' stages of motivational readiness to avoid sedentary behaviors and relevant psychological determinants using newly developed TTM questionnaires and to identify the association between current physical activity and sedentary behaviors based on TTM constructs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448175/gaming-your-way-to-health-a-systematic-review-of-exergaming-programs-to-increase-health-and-exercise-behaviors-in-adults
#5
Tamara D Street, Sarah J Lacey, Rebecca R Langdon
OBJECTIVE: Adults who are not engaged by traditional exercise methods require a strategy to achieve and maintain sufficient physical activity for health benefits. Exergames, or active videogames, may motivate some adults to engage in physical activity. This review explored the use of exergaming to promote physical activity behaviors and health in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review of the use of exergaming was conducted. The review included experimental studies with a nonclinical adult population, which measured changes in physical activity behaviors and changes in anthropometric healthy weight indicators...
April 27, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447922/are-you-being-served-the-relationship-between-school-climate-for-service-and-teachers-engagement-satisfaction-and-intention-to-leave-a-moderated-mediation-model
#6
Liat Eldor, Anat Shoshani
The notion of service has been receiving increasing attention in organizational psychology literature in recent years, due to the client-oriented managerial movement. Yet, little to no attention has been paid to the service notion in educational psychology despite its high relevance to educational settings, given the pressure to be more service-oriented and possess a client-focused state of mind. The present study explores the notion of service in school domains by examining the joint effects of climate for service and the internal service in schools on teachers' work attitudes: work engagement, job satisfaction, and intention to leave their work...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447841/examining-depletion-theories-under-conditions-of-within-task-transfer
#7
Gene A Brewer, Kevin K H Lau, Kimberly M Wingert, B Hunter Ball, Chris Blais
In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of motivational and executive control processes in mental fatigue. In typical laboratory paradigms, participants complete a task that places demand on these self-control processes and are later given a subsequent task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of motivational and executive functions...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447838/in-defense-of-commitment-the-curative-power-of-violated-expectations
#8
Sandra L Murray, Veronica M Lamarche, Sarah Gomillion, Mark D Seery, Cheryl Kondrak
A new model of commitment defense in romantic relationships is proposed. It assumes that relationships afford a central resource for affirming meaning and purpose in the world. Consequently, violating expectations about the world outside the relationship can precipitate commitment defense inside the relationship. A meta-analysis of 5 experiments, 2 follow-up correlational studies, and a longitudinal study of the transition to first parenthood supported the model. Experimentally violating conventional expectations about the world (e...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447836/the-goldilocks-contract-the-synergistic-benefits-of-combining-structure-and-autonomy-for-persistence-creativity-and-cooperation
#9
Eileen Y Chou, Nir Halevy, Adam D Galinsky, J Keith Murnighan
Contracts are commonly used to regulate a wide range of interactions and relationships. Yet relying on contracts as a mechanism of control often comes at a cost to motivation. Integrating theoretical perspectives from psychology, economics, and organizational theory, we explore this control-motivation dilemma inherent in contracts and present the Contract-Autonomy-Motivation-Performance-Structure (CAMPS) model, which highlights the synergistic benefits of combining structure and autonomy. The model proposes that subtle reductions in the specificity of a contract's language can boost autonomy, which increases intrinsic motivation and improves a range of desirable behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447834/perspectives-of-low-income-chronically-ill-patients-on-complex-care-management
#10
Alice Y Mao, Rachel Willard-Grace, Leslie Dubbin, Louise Aronson, Alicia Fernandez, Nancy J Burke, Julia Finch, Elizabeth Davis
INTRODUCTION: Low-income, chronically ill adults disproportionately experience poor health outcomes despite increased health care use and costs. Complex care management (CCM) programs are an innovative approach to improving outcomes for these patients, but little is known about the patients' experiences in CCM programs in safety net primary care settings. METHOD: The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 13 CCM participants in a safety net primary care clinic to explore their perceptions of their health and their experiences with CCM...
April 27, 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447613/guilty-repair-sustains-cooperation-angry-retaliation-destroys-it
#11
Anya Skatova, Alexa Spence, Caroline Leygue, Eamonn Ferguson
Sustained cooperative social interactions are key to successful outcomes in many real-world contexts (e.g., climate change and energy conservation). We explore the self-regulatory roles of anger and guilt, as well as prosocial or selfish social preferences in a repeated social dilemma game framed around shared electricity use at home. We explore the proposal that for sustained cooperation, guilty repair needs to override angry retaliation. We show that anger is damaging to cooperation as it leads to retaliation and an increase of defection, while, through guilt, cooperation is repaired resulting in higher levels of cooperation...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447373/avoiding-a-crisis-of-motivation-for-ocean-management-under-global-environmental-change
#12
REVIEW
Peter J Mumby, James N Sanchirico, Kenneth Broad, Michael W Beck, Peter Tyedmers, Megan Morikawa, Thomas A Okey, Larry B Crowder, Elizabeth A Fulton, Denny Kelso, Joanie A Kleypas, Stephan B Munch, Polita Glynn, Kathryn Matthews, Jane Lubchenco
Climate change and ocean acidification are altering marine ecosystems and, from a human perspective, creating both winners and losers. Human responses to these changes are complex, but may result in reduced government investments in regulation, resource management, monitoring and enforcement. Moreover, a lack of peoples' experience of climate change may drive some towards attributing the symptoms of climate change to more familiar causes such as management failure. Taken together, we anticipate that management could become weaker and less effective as climate change continues...
April 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447363/tobacco-packaging-design-for-reducing-tobacco-use
#13
REVIEW
Ann McNeill, Shannon Gravely, Sara C Hitchman, Linda Bauld, David Hammond, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447335/positive-alcohol-expectancies-mediate-associations-between-adhd-behaviors-and-alcohol-related-problems-among-college-students
#14
Alexis Elmore, Molly Nikolas, Will Canu
An increasing percentage of college students report being affected by ADHD behaviors, and this population is at increased risk of experiencing negative consequences associated with alcohol consumption. However, specific factors motivating alcohol consumption and contributing to negative outcomes among these individuals are not well understood. Recent work suggests alcohol expectancies may interact with ADHD behaviors to influence negative drinking-related outcomes among those with elevated inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity...
April 26, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447285/hydrogen-sulfide-and-ionic-liquids-absorption-separation-and-oxidation
#15
REVIEW
Cinzia Chiappe, Christian Silvio Pomelli
Economical and environmental concerns are the main motivations for development of energy-efficient processes and new eco-friendly materials for the capture of greenhouse gases. Currently, H2S capture is dominated by physical and/or chemical absorption technologies, which are, however, energy intensive and often problematic from an environmental point of view due to emission of volatile solvent components. Ionic liquids have been proposed as a promising alternative to conventional solvents because of their low volatility and other interesting properties...
June 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447133/-digital-media-as-laypeople-s-source-of-information-about-the-environment-and-health
#16
REVIEW
Kai Sassenberg
Over the last two decades, the Internet has become the primary source of information. Thanks to the Internet, laypeople have access to information from the health and the environmental sector, which was for a long time available only to experts (e. g. scientific publications, statistics). Information on the Internet varies in quality, as generally anybody can publish online, without any quality control. At the same time, Internet use comes with specific situational characteristics. Given that the amount of information is nearly unlimited and that this information is easily available via search engines, users are not restricted to one or just a few texts, but can choose between multiple sources depending on their motivation and interest...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446892/the-effect-of-coaches-controlling-style-on-the-competitive-anxiety-of-young-athletes
#17
Yago Ramis, Miquel Torregrosa, Carme Viladrich, Jaume Cruz
Framed on a Self-Determination Theory perspective, the purpose of this study was to explore the predictive capacity of coaches' interpersonal controlling style on the competitive anxiety of young athletes, considering the mediating effect of the athletes' controlled motivation on this relationship. The sample consisted of 1166 athletes, aged between 9 and 18, who ranked their perceptions of coaches' controlling style, as well as the reasons for participating in sport and their competitive anxiety before or during competition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446885/the-impact-of-inattention-hyperactivity-impulsivity-symptoms-and-executive-functions-on-learning-behaviors-of-children-with-adhd
#18
Carla Colomer, Carmen Berenguer, Belén Roselló, Inmaculada Baixauli, Ana Miranda
Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446839/awareness-of-blood-borne-infections-and-burden-of-occupational-exposures-to-blood-and-body-fluids-among-health-care-personnel-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#19
Swetharani, K V Vinod, Abdoul Hamide, Tarun K Dutta, K T Harichandrakumar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposures (OEs) to blood and body fluids (BBFs) pose significant risk of transmission of blood-borne infections (BBIs) to health care personnel (HCP) and are grossly underreported. We aimed to study the awareness of BBIs and their prevention, burden of OEs, assess factors contributing to them and their poor reporting and assess the practices for their prevention among HCP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital located in south India used a self-administered questionnaire to assess the awareness of BBIs, attitude and practice of HCP for prevention of OEs, and to quantify the burden of exposures...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446419/the-smartphone-peer-physical-activity-counseling-sppac-program-for-manual-wheelchair-users-protocol-of-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Krista L Best, François Routhier, Shane N Sweet, Kelly P Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Jaimie F Borisoff, Luc Noreau, Kathleen A Martin Ginis
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) must be performed regularly to accrue health benefits. However, the majority of manual wheelchair users do not meet PA recommendations. Existing community-based PA programs for manual wheelchair users appear to work, but effect sizes are small and retention is low. Existing PA programs may not fully implement some psychosocial factors that are strongly linked with PA (eg, autonomy). The use of peers and mobile phone technology in the Smartphone Peer PA Counseling (SPPAC) program represents a novel approach to cultivating a PA-supportive environment for manual wheelchair users...
April 26, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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