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Motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691975/children-imitate-antisocial-in-group-members
#1
Matti Wilks, James Kirby, Mark Nielsen
Children demonstrate a pervasive in-group bias, preferring their in-group across a range of contexts that encompass measures of liking, imitation, and, in some cases, resource allocation. A growing number of studies have begun to explore whether antisocial in-group behavior reduces the robustness of this bias. However, these studies have focused on transgression evaluations, with only two studies focusing on social learning and none explicitly on imitation. This, therefore, limits the extent to which children's responses to interaction between in-group bias and antisocial behavior can be fully understood...
April 25, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691918/the-relationships-among-aberrant-salience-reward-motivation-and-reward-sensitivity
#2
Suzanne R Neumann, Richard J Linscott
OBJECTIVES: Change in reward processing and motivation may mediate the relationship between dopaminergic dysregulation and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. We sought to investigate the measurement of aberrant salience and its relationship with behavioural measures of reward and motivation. METHODS: Participants (n = 82) completed measures of aberrant salience (Aberrant Salience Inventory and Salience Attribution Task), motivation (Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task), and reinforcer sensitivity (Stimulus Chase Task)...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691831/osteochondral-tissue-engineering-translational-research-and-turning-research-into-products
#3
Victoria Spencer, Erica Illescas, Lorenzo Maltes, Hyun Kim, Vinayak Sathe, Syam Nukavarapu
Osteochondral (OC) defect repair is a significant clinical challenge. Osteoarthritis results in articular cartilage/subchondral bone tissue degeneration and tissue loss, which in the long run results in cartilage/ostecochondral defect formation. OC defects are commonly approached with autografts and allografts, and both these options have found limitations. Alternatively, tissue engineered strategies with biodegradable scaffolds with and without cells and growth factors have been developed. In order to approach regeneration of complex tissues such as osteochondral, advanced tissue engineered grafts including biphasic, triphasic, and gradient configurations are considered...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691790/operation-change-a-new-paradigm-addressing-behavior-change-and-musculoskeletal-health-disparities
#4
Lynne C Jones, Yashika Watkins, Duanny Alva
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the implementation and efficacy of Operation Change, a community-based, culturally sensitive program to stimulate behavioral changes in activity level and improve musculoskeletal health in African-American (AA) and Hispanic/Latina (H/L) women with obesity and early-stage osteoarthritis. METHODS: Sixty-two women (32 AA and 30 H/L), 40-75 years old, with nontraumatic knee pain and body mass index values > 30, participated in a 12-week program of presentations, motivational interviewing, goal setting, and physical activities...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691703/who-are-the-anonymous-involvement-and-predictors-of-gamblers-anonymous-attendance-among-disordered-gamblers-presenting-for-treatment
#5
Daniel S McGrath, Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins, Christine Novitsky, Hermano Tavares
Gamblers Anonymous is the most widely available form of support for disordered gambling. Although chapters exist worldwide, knowledge of how attendees interact with the program is limited. The present study aimed to investigate involvement in Gamblers Anonymous among attendees, motives for attendance, and overall satisfaction with the program. Furthermore, potential gambling-related predictors of attendance versus deciding not to attend Gamblers Anonymous were investigated. A treatment-seeking sample of disordered gamblers (N = 512) from São Paulo, Brazil completed a series of self-report measures including an author-compiled Gamblers Anonymous survey...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691344/women-in-radiography-practice-in-ghana-motivating-and-demotivating-factors
#6
Samuel Anim-Sampong, Lawrence Arthur, Josephine Abena Nkansah, Benard Ohene Botwe
PURPOSE: To investigate and establish reasons for the smaller but increasing population of female radiographers in Ghana, and to evaluate the motivating and demotivating contributory factors associated with women's choice of the profession. METHODS: A descriptive quantitative survey design and a purposive sampling technique were used to recruit participants from hospitals, clinics, and private imaging centers in Ghana. Forty registered female radiographers were invited to participate in the survey, and 30 participants completed and returned the questionnaires...
March 2018: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691205/developing-sustainable-and-impactful-mobile-phone-hiv-testing-interventions-for-spanish-speaking-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-lessons-learned-from-informative-interviews
#7
Jason Mitchell, Maria Beatriz Torres, Lucy Asmar, Thu Danh, Keith J Horvath
BACKGROUND: Although many men who have sex with men (MSM) test for HIV at least once in their lifetime, opportunities to improve regular HIV testing, particularly among Hispanic or Latino MSM, is needed. Many mHealth interventions in development, including the ones on HIV testing, have primarily focused on English-speaking white, black, and MSM of other races. To date, no studies have assessed app use, attitudes, and motivations for downloading and sustaining use of mobile apps and preferences with respect to HIV prevention among Spanish-speaking, Hispanic MSM in the United States...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691204/perceptions-about-disseminating-health-information-among-mommy-bloggers-quantitative-study
#8
Amelia Burke-Garcia, Gary L Kreps, Kevin B Wright
BACKGROUND: Social media are potentially powerful channels for communicating relevant health information in culturally sensitive and influential ways to key audiences. Moreover, these channels hold promise for promoting awareness and knowledge of health risks, prevention, and treatment by utilizing opinion leaders for message dissemination. Despite limited empirical evidence to-date, early promising results suggest that blogs are a form of social media that should be examined as worthy channels for health communication...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691197/a-community-pharmacy-intervention-for-opioid-medication-misuse-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Gerald Cochran, Craig Field, Jordan Karp, Amy L Seybert, Qi Chen, Whitney Ringwald, Valerie Hruschak, Sunita Chickering, Joelle Kincman, Amanda Jaber, Ralph Tarter
OBJECTIVES: Community pharmacy continues to play a crucial role in the national response to the opioid epidemic. The purpose of this article is to describe the protocol for a pilot study that is examining the feasibility and acceptability of the Motivational Intervention-Medication Therapy Management (MI-MTM) model. This study also examines the preliminary clinical effect of MI-MTM for improving opioid medication misuse and patient activation in self-management of health conditions that increase risk for misuse...
April 21, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691161/experiences-and-perspectives-of-dietary-management-among-patients-on-hemodialysis-an-interview-study
#10
Jessica Stevenson, Allison Tong, Talia Gutman, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, Mark A Brown, Vincent W Lee
OBJECTIVES: Diet and fluid management can reduce mortality, serious comorbidities, and debilitating symptoms in patients on hemodialysis, but restrictions may also be a major burden, and nonadherence remains high. We aimed to describe the perspectives and experiences of patients on hemodialysis regarding their dietary management to understand both facilitators and barriers to adherence and to identify strategies to improve care. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 people on maintenance hemodialysis from six dialysis units in New South Wales, Australia...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690944/appropriate-use-criteria-for-paediatric-echocardiography-in-an-outpatient-practice-a-validation-study
#11
Mark J Cartoski, Meghan Kiley, Philip J Spevak
BACKGROUND: Although transthoracic echocardiography is the dominant imaging modality in CHD, optimal utilisation is unclear. We assessed whether adherence to the paediatric Appropriate Use Criteria for outpatient transthoracic echocardiography could reduce inappropriate use without missing significant cardiac disease. METHODS: Using the Appropriate Use Criteria, we determined the indication and appropriateness rating for each initial echocardiogram performed at our institution during calendar year 2014 (N=1383)...
April 25, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690790/neuroscience-of-addiction-relevance-to-prevention-and-treatment
#12
Nora D Volkow, Maureen Boyle
Addiction, the most severe form of substance use disorder, is a chronic brain disorder molded by strong biosocial factors that has devastating consequences to individuals and to society. Our understanding of substance use disorder has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies, including tools to interrogate molecular changes in specific neuronal populations in animal models of substance use disorder, as well as brain imaging devices to assess brain function and neurochemistry in humans...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690652/genome-guided-analysis-of-clostridium-ultunense-and-comparative-genomics-reveal-different-strategies-for-acetate-oxidation-and-energy-conservation-in-syntrophic-acetate-oxidising-bacteria
#13
Shahid Manzoor, Anna Schnürer, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Bettina Müller
Syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium and very little is known about the participating organisms and their metabolism. Clostridium ultunense is one of the most abundant syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria (SAOB) that are found in engineered biogas processes operating with high ammonia concentrations. It has been proven to oxidise acetate in cooperation with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. There is evidence that the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway plays an important role in acetate oxidation...
April 23, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690577/an-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-the-learning-process-and-learning-motivation-profiles-of-japanese-pharmacy-students-using-structural-equation-modeling
#14
Shigeo Yamamura, Rieko Takehira
Pharmacy students in Japan have to maintain strong motivation to learn for six years during their education. The authors explored the students’ learning structure. All pharmacy students in their 4th through to 6th year at Josai International University participated in the survey. The revised two factor study process questionnaire and science motivation questionnaire II were used to assess their learning process and learning motivation profiles, respectively. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine a causal relationship between the latent variables in the learning process and those in the learning motivation profile...
April 23, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690490/review-of-the-steatiticus-species-group-of-the-cuskeel-genus-neobythites-ophidiidae-from-the-indo-pacific-with-description-of-two-new-species
#15
Franz Uiblein, JØrgen G Nielsen
This review was motivated by the recent collection of a specimen of the specious cuskeel genus Neobythites (Ophidiidae) off Myanmar and difficulties to identify it based on the available literature. This specimen has an ocellus consisting of a dark oval spot and a concentric white ring placed on the dorsal fin at mid-body, typical for many Neobythites species. It belongs to a group of single-ocellus bearing species which have no or only one weakly developed, flat preopercular spine which we term here the "steatiticus-species group"...
February 26, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689689/motivational-profiles-and-their-relationships-with-basic-psychological-needs-academic-performance-study-strategies-self-esteem-and-vitality-in-dental-students-in-chile
#16
Cesar A Orsini, Vivian I Binnie, Jorge A Tricio
Purpose: To determine dental students' motivational profiles through a person-centred approach and to analyse the associations of those profiles with the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs, study strategies, academic performance, self-esteem, and vitality. Methods: A total of 924 students from year 1 to 6 from the University of San Sebastian (Chile) participated in this cross-sectional correlational study in spring 2016. Data were collected through 5 self-reported Spanish paper-and-pencil instruments, and students' concurrent academic performance was provided by the administrative department...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689471/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-young-adult-smokers-in-the-u-s-in-the-precontemplation-stage-of-smoking-cessation
#17
Mary E Andrews, Melanie Sabado, Kelvin Choi
INTRODUCTION: The precontemplation stage of smoking cessation refers to having no intention to quit smoking in the next six months. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation among U.S. young adult smokers to inform the development of targeted interventions. METHODS: We analyzed data in 2017 from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult (18-29 years old) daily and non-daily smokers were included (n = 1809)...
April 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689422/consequences-of-a-double-hit-of-stress-during-the-perinatal-period-and-midlife-in-female-rats-mismatch-or-cumulative-effect
#18
Gilles Van Camp, Jenny Cigalotti, Hammou Bouwalerh, Jérôme Mairesse, Eleonora Gatta, Paola Palanza, Stefania Maccari, Sara Morley-Fletcher
The interplay between experiences during critical developmental periods and later adult life is crucial in shaping individual variability in stress coping strategies. Exposure to stressful events in early life has strongly programs an individual's phenotype and adaptive capabilities. Until now, studies on programming and reversal strategies in early life stress animal models have been essentially limited to males. By using the perinatal stress (PRS) rat model (a model more sensitive to aging changes) in middle-aged females, we investigated the behavioral and endocrine responses following exposure in later life to an unpredictable chronic mild stress (uCMS) condition for six weeks...
April 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689319/experiences-of-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-while-using-alcohol-and-recreational-drugs-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-ipa-of-semi-structured-interviews
#19
Adam Pastor, Casey L O'Brien, Jessie Teng, Jennifer Conn, Margaret Loh, Lisa Collins, Richard MacIsaac, Yvonne Bonomo
AIMS: Alcohol and recreational drug use is common in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and may account for increased morbidity and mortality. This study explores the motivations and experiences unique to this population while using alcohol and recreational drugs. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews focusing on substance use were performed with 16 young adults aged 18-35 with T1DM who drink alcohol (at least 50 grams, 5 Australian standard drinks, in a single session) and/or used recreational drugs...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689183/manual-feeding-device-experiences-of-people-with-a-neurodisability
#20
Anne Mandy, Tara Sims, Graham Stew, Dominic Onions
OBJECTIVE: Neurological bilateral upper limb weakness can result in self-feeding difficulties and reliance on care providers. Mealtimes become time consuming and frustrating. In this exploratory inquiry, we examined the experiences of users of a feeding device. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were either conducted by telephone or administered via email to explore quality of life, changes to independence, benefits and limitations, and psychological impact of the equipment...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
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