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Motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822983/impulsivity-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-altered-subthalamic-but-not-globus-pallidus-internus-activity
#1
Peter Justin Rossi, Jonathan B Shute, Enrico Opri, Rene Molina, Corinna Peden, Oscar Castellanos, Kelly D Foote, Aysegul Gunduz, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: A significant subset of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from impulse control disorders (ICDs). A hallmark feature of many ICDs is the pursuit of rewarding behaviours despite negative consequences. Recent evidence implicates the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) in reward and punishment processing, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of these structures has been associated with changes in ICD symptoms. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that in patients with PD diagnosed with ICD, neurons in the STN and GPi would be more responsive to reward-related stimuli and less responsive to loss-related stimuli...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822924/local-and-landscape-scale-land-cover-affects-microclimate-and-water-use-in-urban-gardens
#2
Brenda B Lin, Monika H Egerer, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha, Peter Bichier, Stacy M Philpott
Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822898/beyond-dichotomies-m-others-structuring-and-the-development-of-toddlers-prosocial-behavior-across-cultures
#3
REVIEW
Joscha Kärtner
Basic elements of prosociality-(pro)social cognition, motivation, and prosocial behavior-emerge during the first and second year of life. These elements are rooted in biological predispositions and the developmental system is complemented by caregivers' structuring. By structuring, (m)others integrate toddlers' unrefined (pro)social sentiments and behavioral inclinations into coherent patterns and align toddlers' experience and behavior with the population's cultural model. These cultural models specify target states for appropriate affective, motivational and behavioral responses regarding toddlers' prosociality and these target states, in turn, inform (m)others' appraisal and guide their structuring...
August 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822867/de-novo-assembly-and-characterization-of-seabass-lateolabrax-japonicus-transcriptome-and-expression-of-hepatic-genes-following-different-dietary-phosphorus-calcium-levels
#4
Kang-Le Lu, Zhong-Li Ji, Samad Rahimnejad, Chun-Xiao Zhang, Ling Wang, Kai Song
Fish farming seriously influences the aquatic environment because most dietary phosphorus (P) is excreted in the effluent. To increase the P utilization in fish, molecular techniques should be explored given the remarkable development of these techniques. Thus, to identify the candidate genes related to P utilization and molecular alterations following administration of a P-deficient diet in seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, we assessed the de novo pituitary, gill, intestine, liver, kidney, scales and vertebra transcriptomes, and we compared the expression of hepatic genes with three diets varying in P and Ca levels: diet I (0...
August 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822541/only-7-of-the-variation-in-feed-efficiency-in-veal-calves-can-be-predicted-from-variation-in-feeding-motivation-digestion-metabolism-immunology-and-behavioral-traits-in-early-life
#5
M S Gilbert, J J G C van den Borne, C G van Reenen, W J J Gerrits
High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822500/into-practice-how-advocate-health-system-uses-behavioral-economics-to-motivate-physicians-in-its-incentive-program
#6
Leah Marcotte, Amanda Hodlofski, Amelia Bond, Pankaj Patel, Lee Sacks, Amol S Navathe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822499/countervailing-incentives-in-value-based-payment
#7
REVIEW
Daniel R Arnold
Payment reform has been at the forefront of the movement toward higher-value care in the U.S. health care system. A common belief is that volume-based incentives embedded in fee-for-service need to be replaced with value-based payments. While this belief is well-intended, value-based payment also contains perverse incentives. In particular, behavioral economists have identified several features of individual decision making that reverse some of the typical recommendations for inducing desirable behavior through financial incentives...
September 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822325/are-there-regional-tendencies-toward-controversial-screening-practices-a-study-of-prostate-and-breast-cancer-screening-in-a-medicare-population
#8
Eric Raffin, Tracy Onega, Julie Bynum, Andrea Austin, Donald Carmichael, Kristen Bronner, Philip Goodney, Elias S Hyams
INTRODUCTION: Prostate and breast cancer screening in older patients continue to be controversial. Balancing the desire for early detection with avoidance of over-diagnosis has led to competing and contradictory guidelines for both practices. Despite similarities, it is not known how these screening practices are related at the regional level. In this study, we examined how screening PSA and mammography are related within healthcare regions, and, to better understand what may be driving these practices, whether they are associated with local intensity of care...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822262/evaluating-the-influence-of-at-risk-alcohol-use-on-factors-associated-with-smoking-cessation-combining-laboratory-and-ecological-momentary-assessment
#9
Joanna R Sells, Andrew J Waters, R Ross MacLean
OBJECTIVE: Most smokers want to quit but most cessation attempts end in failure. Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking behavior and relapse. We examined the associations between severity of drinking and psychological processes during a cessation attempt in the laboratory and during a quit attempt. METHODS: Smokers (N=209) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were followed from 2 weeks pre-quit through 4 weeks post-quit. Participants scoring 0-7 and 8-15 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were classified as low-risk and high-risk drinkers, respectively...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822041/two-species-migration-and-clustering-in-two-dimensional-domains
#10
Lawrence Kurowski, Andrew L Krause, Hanako Mizuguchi, Peter Grindrod, Robert A Van Gorder
We extend two-species models of individual aggregation or clustering to two-dimensional spatial domains, allowing for more realistic movement of the populations compared with one spatial dimension. We assume that the domain is bounded and that there is no flux into or out of the domain. The motion of the species is along fitness gradients which allow the species to seek out a resource. In the case of competition, species which exploit the resource alone will disperse while avoiding one another. In the case where one of the species is a predator or generalist predator which exploits the other species, that species will tend to move toward the prey species, while the prey will tend to avoid the predator...
August 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#11
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821539/what-motivates-biology-instructors-to-engage-and-persist-in-teaching-professional-development
#12
Jill S McCourt, Tessa C Andrews, Jennifer K Knight, John E Merrill, Ross H Nehm, Karen N Pelletreau, Luanna B Prevost, Michelle K Smith, Mark Urban-Lurain, Paula P Lemons
We conducted a study of 19 biology instructors participating in small, local groups at six research-intensive universities connected to the Automated Analysis of Constructed Response (AACR) project (www.msu.edu/∼aacr). Our aim was to uncover participants' motivation to persist in a long-term teaching professional development effort, a topic that is understudied in discipline-based educational research. We interviewed each participant twice over a 2-year period and conducted qualitative analyses on the data, using expectancy-value theory as a framework for considering motivation...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821530/whisper-or-shout-study-protocol-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-assessing-mhealth-sexual-reproductive-health-and-nutrition-interventions-among-female-sex-workers-in-mombasa-kenya
#13
Frances H Ampt, Collins Mudogo, Peter Gichangi, Megan S C Lim, Griffins Manguro, Matthew Chersich, Walter Jaoko, Marleen Temmerman, Marilyn Laini, Liz Comrie-Thomson, Mark Stoové, Paul A Agius, Margaret Hellard, Kelly L'Engle, Stanley Luchters
INTRODUCTION: New interventions are required to reduce unintended pregnancies among female sex workers (FSWs) in low- and middle-income countries and to improve their nutritional health. Given sex workers' high mobile phone usage, repeated exposure to short messaging service (SMS) messages could address individual and interpersonal barriers to contraceptive uptake and better nutrition. METHODS: In this two-arm cluster randomised trial, each arm constitutes an equal-attention control group for the other...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821473/feasibility-of-a-facebook-intervention-for-exercise-motivation-and-cardiac-rehabilitation-adherence-study-protocol
#14
Lee Anne Siegmund, Haitham M Ahmed, Michael Todd Crawford, James Frank Bena
BACKGROUND: While cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to be effective at improving coronary heart disease (CHD), participation is generally poor. Attempts to increase uptake and adherence often fail. Use of a Facebook intervention for this population may be a unique opportunity to support self-determined motivation and affect adherence. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a Facebook intervention on motivation for exercise and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation in patients with CHD during a 12-week, Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program...
August 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821436/carbon-quantum-dot-tailored-calcium-alginate-hydrogel-for-ph-responsive-controlled-delivery-of-vancomycin
#15
Niladri Sarkar, Gyanaranjan Sahoo, Rashmita Das, Gyanaranjan Prusty, Sarat K Swain
Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of highly luminescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from Aloe vera leaf gel; in just 2h at 250°C through carbonization pathway. The prepared CQDs are structurally characterized with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), hydrodynamic diameter and surface polarity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The functional carbon nanoparticles are observed as non-cytotoxic materials...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821256/-provoking-conversations-case-studies-of-organizations-where-option-grid%C3%A2-decision-aids-have-become-normalized
#16
Peter Scalia, Glyn Elwyn, Marie-Anne Durand
BACKGROUND: Implementing patient decision aids in clinic workflow has proven to be a challenge for healthcare organizations and physicians. Our aim was to determine the organizational strategies, motivations, and facilitating factors to the routine implementation of Option Grid™ encounter decision aids at two independent settings. METHOD: Case studies conducted by semi-structured interview, using the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a framework for thematic analysis...
August 18, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820970/utility-of-the-comprehensive-marijuana-motives-questionnaire-among-medical-cannabis-patients
#17
Kipling M Bohnert, Erin E Bonar, J Todd Arnedt, Deirdre A Conroy, Maureen A Walton, Mark A Ilgen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. METHODS: Study participants were adults ages 21years or older with scheduled appointments to obtain new or renewed medical cannabis certification from clinics in one Midwestern state (n=1116)...
August 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820760/theory-driven-integrative-process-outcome-evaluation-of-a-concept-based-nursing-curriculum
#18
Rosemary F Fromer
The study aim was to evaluate the effects of concept-based learning by comparing ATI Nursing Education test scores for a traditional curriculum and a concept-based curriculum. The study also examined effects of the concept-based curriculum on critical thinking and motivation. No statistically significant differences were noted in ATI scores for the two groups; students neither agreed nor disagreed that they were engaged in critical thinking but did agree with motivation statements. Faculty were surveyed about their approach to teaching...
September 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820699/in-vitro-testing-of-potential-entamoeba-histolytica-pyruvate-phosphate-dikinase-inhibitors
#19
Syazwan Saidin, Nurulhasanah Othman, Rahmah Noordin
Adverse effects and resistance to metronidazole have motivated the search for new antiamoebic agents against Entamoeba histolytica. Control of amoeba growth may be achieved by inhibiting the function of the glycolytic enzyme and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). In this study, we screened 10 compounds using an in vitro PPDK enzyme assay. These compounds were selected from a virtual screening of compounds in the National Cancer Institute database. The antiamoebic activity of the selected compounds was also evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and IC50 values using the nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction assay...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820618/college-women-s-responses-to-a-celebrity-health-disclosure
#20
Julia H Drizin, Vanessa L Malcarne, Melody K Schiaffino, Kristen J Wells
Celebrities can have a powerful influence on people's health-related attitudes and behaviors, often by publicly disclosing their own personal health decisions. In May 2013, Angelina Jolie, an internationally recognized actress, director, and author, wrote an op-ed for the New York Times disclosing her decision to undergo a prophylactic double mastectomy to reduce her risk of breast cancer after learning that she carried the BRCA1 gene mutation. This cross-sectional study examined whether exposure to Angelina Jolie and her mastectomy disclosure and parasocial involvement (PSI) with Angelina Jolie were related to female college students' perceived risk of breast cancer and breast cancer screening intentions...
August 18, 2017: Health Communication
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