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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053930/social-dimension-and-complexity-differentially-influence-brain-responses-during-feedback-processing
#1
Daniela M Pfabigan, Marianne Gittenberger, Claus Lamm
Recent research emphasizes the importance of social factors during performance monitoring. Thus, the current study investigated the impact of social stimuli -such as communicative gestures- on feedback processing. Moreover, it addressed a shortcoming of previous studies, which failed to consider stimulus complexity as potential confounding factor. Twenty-four volunteers performed a time estimation task while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Either social complex, social non-complex, non-social complex, or non-social non-complex stimuli were used to provide performance feedback...
October 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#2
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053671/cell-free-biochemical-fluorometric-enzymatic-assay-for-high-throughput-measurement-of-lipid-peroxidation-in-high-density-lipoprotein
#3
Shubhendu Sen Roy, Huy Cong Xuan Nguyen, Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Diana Huynh, Anthony Jaworowski, Theodoros Kelesidis
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are one of the most powerful independent negative predictors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The structure and function of HDL rather than HDL-C may more accurately predict atherosclerosis. Several HDL protein and lipid compositional changes that impair HDL function occur in inflammatory states such as atherosclerosis. HDL function is usually determined by cell based assays such as cholesterol efflux assay but these assays have numerous drawbacks lack of standardization...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053446/simulation-of-constrained-musculoskeletal-systems-in-task-space
#4
Dimitar Stanev, Konstantinos Moustakas
OBJECTIVE: This work proposes an operational task space formalization of constrained musculoskeletal systems, motivated by its promising results in the field of robotics. METHODS: The change of representation requires different algorithms for solving the inverse and forward dynamics simulation in the task space domain. We propose an extension to the Direct Marker Control and an adaptation of the Computed Muscle Control algorithms for solving the inverse kinematics and muscle redundancy problems respectively...
October 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053387/facebook-false-self-presentation-behaviors-and-negative-mental-health
#5
Elizabeth J Wright, Katherine M White, Patricia L Obst
As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e...
October 20, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053308/epidemic-dynamics-in-open-quantum-spin-systems
#6
Carlos Pérez-Espigares, Matteo Marcuzzi, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Igor Lesanovsky
We explore the nonequilibrium evolution and stationary states of an open many-body system that displays epidemic spreading dynamics in a classical and a quantum regime. Our study is motivated by recent experiments conducted in strongly interacting gases of highly excited Rydberg atoms where the facilitated excitation of Rydberg states competes with radiative decay. These systems approximately implement open quantum versions of models for population dynamics or disease spreading where species can be in a healthy, infected or immune state...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053282/r-axion-at-colliders
#7
Brando Bellazzini, Alberto Mariotti, Diego Redigolo, Filippo Sala, Javi Serra
We study the effective theory of a generic class of hidden sectors where supersymmetry is broken together with an approximate R-symmetry at low energy. The light spectrum contains the gravitino and the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the R-symmetry, the R-axion. We derive new model-independent constraints on the R-axion decay constant for R-axion masses ranging from GeV to TeV, which are of relevance for hadron colliders, lepton colliders, and B factories. The current bounds allow for the exciting possibility that the first sign of supersymmetry will be the R-axion...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052968/non-steroidal-estrogen-receptor-isoform-selective-biphenyls
#8
Seema Bhatnagar, Anjali Soni, Swati Kaushik, Megha Rikhi, T R Santhosh Kumar, B Jayaram
Estrogen receptor (ER) has been a therapeutic target to treat ER positive breast cancer, most notably by agents known as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). However, resistance and severe adverse effects of known drugs gave impetus to the search for newer agents with better therapeutic profile. ERα and ERβ are two isoforms sharing 56% identity, and having different physiological functions and expressions in various tissues. Only two residues differ in the active sites of the two isoforms motivating us to design isoform selective ligands...
October 20, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052749/-body-experience-and-self-esteem-after-minimally-invasive-skin-rejuvenation-study-of-female-patients-using-botulinum-toxin%C3%A2-a-and-or-dermal-fillers
#9
REVIEW
D Scharschmidt, S Preiß, E Brähler, T Fischer, A Borkenhagen
BACKGROUND: More and more people worldwide and also in Germany are using botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and hyaluronic acid injections for skin rejuvenation. OBJECTIVE: Study on body image and self-esteem of women with BoNT-A and/or hyaluronic acid filler treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 145 women who requested BoNT-A and/or hyaluronic acid injections completed a survey comprised of the body dysmorphic disorder questionnaire, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and questionnaires on the attitudes and motives on measures for optimization of the body and demographic features...
October 20, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052662/evaluation-of-online-learning-modules-for-improving-physical-activity-counseling-skills-practices-and-knowledge-of-oncology-nurses
#10
Kristina H Karvinen, Lynda Balneaves, Kerry S Courneya, Beth Perry, Tracy Truant, Jeff Vallance
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of online learning modules for improving physical activity counseling practices among oncology nurses. 
. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial.
. SETTING: Online.
. SAMPLE: 54 oncology nurses.
. METHODS: Oncology nurses were randomly assigned to the learning modules group or control group. The learning modules group completed six online learning modules and quizzes focused on physical activity for cancer survivors, general physical activity principles, and motivational interviewing...
November 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052613/dynorphin-counteracts-orexin-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-cellular-and-behavioral-evidence
#11
Alessandra Matzeu, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Paul Schweitzer, Rémi Martin-Fardon
The orexin (Orx) system plays a critical role in drug addiction and reward-related behaviors. The dynorphin (Dyn) system promotes depressive-like behavior and plays a key role in the aversive effects of stress. Orx and Dyn are co-released and have opposing functions in reward and motivation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous studies suggested that OrxA transmission in the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (pPVT) participates in cocaine-seeking behavior. This study determined whether Orx and Dyn interact in the pPVT...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052548/games-and-teams-with-shared-constraints
#12
REVIEW
Ankur A Kulkarni
Energy systems of the future are envisaged to encompass multiple interacting autonomous entities. The theory of games provides the foundations for the design and analysis of such systems. This paper reviews models and results that would be of use for such analysis. Classically, games have involved players whose strategies are coupled only through the dependence of utility functions on strategies of other players. However, in many practical settings in the energy domain, system-level limitations bind the choices players can make...
August 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052544/detecting-changes-in-real-time-data-a-user-s-guide-to-optimal-detection
#13
REVIEW
P Johnson, J Moriarty, G Peskir
The real-time detection of changes in a noisily observed signal is an important problem in applied science and engineering. The study of parametric optimal detection theory began in the 1930s, motivated by applications in production and defence. Today this theory, which aims to minimize a given measure of detection delay under accuracy constraints, finds applications in domains including radar, sonar, seismic activity, global positioning, psychological testing, quality control, communications and power systems engineering...
August 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052274/health-education-and-competency-scale-development-and-testing
#14
Huei-Lih Hwang, Mei-Ling Kuo, Chin-Tang Tu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To develop a tool for measuring competency in conducting health education and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a population of entry-level nurses. BACKGROUND: Until now, no generic instrument has been developed specifically for measuring competency in health education, which is an essential competency for nurses. Existing scales are either insufficient for psychometric evaluation or are designed specifically for senior nurses. To evaluate curricula and courses designed for entry-level nurses, educators require an instrument for measuring improvement in core competency from baseline to determine whether the minimum level of ability has been achieved...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052239/three-part-joint-modeling-methods-for-complex-functional-data-mixed-with-zero-and-one-inflated-proportions-and-zero-inflated-continuous-outcomes-with-skewness
#15
Haocheng Li, John Staudenmayer, Tianying Wang, Sarah Kozey Keadle, Raymond J Carroll
We take a functional data approach to longitudinal studies with complex bivariate outcomes. This work is motivated by data from a physical activity study that measured 2 responses over time in 5-minute intervals. One response is the proportion of time active in each interval, a continuous proportions with excess zeros and ones. The other response, energy expenditure rate in the interval, is a continuous variable with excess zeros and skewness. This outcome is complex because there are 3 possible activity patterns in each interval (inactive, partially active, and completely active), and those patterns, which are observed, induce both nonrandom and random associations between the responses...
October 19, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052152/a-new-understanding-of-quality-of-life-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity-contribution-of-the-self-determination-theory
#16
REVIEW
Marie Buttitta, Amélie Rousseau, Alain Guerrien
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preservation of Quality of Life (QOL) is now a major determinant of obesity management, but little is known about variables predicting QOL. Identifying these predicting variables of QOL would provide further understanding of the QOL concept and help draw clinical implications. The Self-determination Theory (SDT) is a promising understanding perspective of the QOL. RECENT FINDINGS: The SDT postulates that well-being and motivation are determined by the satisfaction of three needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
October 19, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051932/activation-of-co2-by-supported-cu-clusters
#17
Satish Kumar Iyemperumal, N Aaron Deskins
Catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to useful chemicals is a potent way to mitigate this greenhouse gas, but the challenge lies in finding active reduction catalysts. Using density functional theory we studied CO2 activation over TiO2-supported Cu clusters of size 1-4 atoms. The linear to bent transformation of CO2 is necessary for activation, and we found that all the clusters stabilized bent CO2, along with a significant gain of electrons on the CO2 (indicative of activation). On all the TiO2 supported Cu clusters, the interfacial sites were found to stabilize the bent CO2 adsorption, where the active site of adsorption on Cu dimer, trimer and tetramer was on the Cu atom farthest away from the TiO2 surface...
October 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051739/impaired-feedback-processing-for-symbolic-reward-in-individuals-with-internet-game-overuse
#18
Jinhee Kim, Hackjin Kim, Eunjoo Kang
Reward processing, which plays a critical role in adaptive behavior, is impaired in addiction disorders, which are accompanied by functional abnormalities in brain reward circuits. Internet gaming disorder, like substance addiction, is thought to be associated with impaired reward processing, but little is known about how it affects learning, especially when feedback is conveyed by less-salient motivational events. Here, using both monetary (±500 KRW) and symbolic (Chinese characters "right" or "wrong") rewards and penalties, we investigated whether behavioral performance and feedback-related neural responses are altered in Internet game overuse (IGO) group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051718/the-mistaken-birth-and-adoption-of-lnt-an-abridged-version
#19
Edward J Calabrese
The historical foundations of cancer risk assessment were based on the discovery of X-ray-induced gene mutations by Hermann J. Muller, its transformation into the linear nonthreshold (LNT) single-hit theory, the recommendation of the model by the US National Academy of Sciences, Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation I, Genetics Panel in 1956, and subsequent widespread adoption by regulatory agencies worldwide. This article summarizes substantial recent historical revelations of this history, which profoundly challenge the standard and widely acceptable history of cancer risk assessment, showing multiple significant scientific errors and incorrect interpretations, mixed with deliberate misrepresentation of the scientific record by leading ideologically motivated radiation geneticists...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051680/living-with-parents-and-emerging-adults-depressive-symptoms
#20
Jennifer E Copp, Peggy C Giordano, Monica A Longmore, Wendy D Manning
Whether moving back home after a period of economic independence, or having never moved out, the share of emerging adults living with parents is increasing. Yet little is known about the associations of coresidence patterns and rationales for coresidence for emerging adult well-being. Using the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 891), we analyzed depressive symptoms among emerging adults who (1) never left the parental home; (2) returned to the parental home; and (3) were not currently living with a parent...
November 2017: Journal of Family Issues
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