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Hypoxia and thyroid function

Kayla Daniell, Carmelo Nucera
Iodide is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone production. The uptake and metabolism of iodide by thyrocytes is crucial to proper thyroid function. Iodide ions are drawn into the thyroid follicular cell via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the cell membrane and become integrated into tyrosyl residues to ultimately form thyroid hormones. We sought to learn how an abnormal concentration of iodide within thyrocyte can have significant effects on the thyroid, specifically the surrounding vascular network...
December 20, 2016: Aging
S Simi, Valsa S Peter, M C Subhash Peter
Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish...
November 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Wendy Keung, Lihuan Ren, Sen Li, Andy On-Tik Wong, Anant Chopra, Chi-Wing Kong, Gordon F Tomaselli, Christopher S Chen, Ronald A Li
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a potential unlimited ex vivo source of ventricular (V) cardiomyocytes (CMs), but hESC-VCMs and their engineered tissues display immature traits. In adult VCMs, sarcolemmal (sarc) and mitochondrial (mito) ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play crucial roles in excitability and cardioprotection. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological roles and use of sarcKATP and mitoKATP in hESC-VCM. We showed that SarcIK, ATP in single hESC-VCMs was dormant under baseline conditions, but became markedly activated by cyanide (CN) or the known opener P1075 with a current density that was ~8-fold smaller than adult; These effects were reversible upon washout or the addition of GLI or HMR1098...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Moinul Haque, Joseph Keith Kendal, Ryan Matthew MacIsaac, Douglas James Demetrick
The wsb1 gene has been identified to be important in developmental biology and cancer. A complex transcriptional regulation of wsb1 yields at least three functional transcripts. The major expressed isoform, WSB1 protein, is a substrate recognition protein within an E3 ubiquitin ligase, with the capability to bind diverse targets and mediate ubiquitinylation and proteolytic degradation. Recent data suggests a new role for WSB1 as a component of a neuroprotective pathway which results in modification and aggregation of neurotoxic proteins such as LRRK2 in Parkinson's Disease, via an unusual mode of protein ubiquitinylation...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
Natalie Burrows, Joseph Williams, Brian A Telfer, Julia Resch, Helen R Valentine, Richard J Fitzmaurice, Amanda Eustace, Joely Irlam, Emily J Rowling, Cuong Hoang-Vu, Catharine M West, Georg Brabant, Kaye J Williams
Anaplastic (ATC) and certain follicular thyroid-carcinomas (FTCs) are radioresistant. The Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is commonly hyperactivated in thyroid-carcinomas. PI3K can modify the PI3K-related kinases (PIKKs) in response to radiation: How PIKKs interact with PI3K and contribute to radioresistance in thyroid-carcinomas is unknown. Further uncertainties exist in how these interactions function under the radioresistant hypoxic microenvironment. Under normoxia/anoxia, ATC (8505c) and FTC (FTC-133) cells were irradiated, with PI3K-inhibition (via GDC-0941 and PTEN-reconstitution into PTEN-null FTC-133s) and effects on PIKK-activation, DNA-damage, clonogenic-survival and cell cycle, assessed...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Andrea M Müller, Kathrin A Schmohl, Kerstin Knoop, Christina Schug, Sarah Urnauer, Anna Hagenhoff, Dirk-André Clevert, Michael Ingrisch, Hanno Niess, Janette Carlsen, Christian Zach, Ernst Wagner, Peter Bartenstein, Peter J Nelson, Christine Spitzweg
Adoptively transferred mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to solid tumors. Biologic features within the tumor environment can be used to selectively activate transgenes in engineered MSCs after tumor invasion. One of the characteristic features of solid tumors is hypoxia. We evaluated a hypoxia-based imaging and therapy strategy to target expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene to experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) delivered by MSCs.MSCs engineered to express transgenes driven by a hypoxia-responsive promoter showed robust transgene induction under hypoxia as demonstrated by mCherry expression in tumor cell spheroid models, or radioiodide uptake using NIS...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Fulsen Bozkus, Nursel Dikmen, Gülay Güngör, Anıl Samur
AIM: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder and in subjects with OSAS the prevalence of hypothyroidism is approximately 1.2-11 %. The episodes of hypoxia/reoxygenation associated with the respiratory disturbances observed in subjects with OSAS increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypothyroidism; primary or subclinical, has several effects on cardiovascular system. In our study, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) which is an early sign of atherosclerosis, in OSAS subjects with hypothyroidism...
July 20, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Yipeng Yang, Yunshu Lu, Tong Chen, Shenglai Zhang, Bingfeng Chu, Yurong Gong, Weixin Zhao, Jian Zhu, Yingbin Liu
Hypothyroidism is a very common hormonal deficiency and the stem cell technology which developed in the recent years may offer a therapeutic strategy for treating this disorder. Hypoxia has been demonstrated to play an important role in embryonic formation and development and to modulate stem cell differentiation. However, the influence of oxygen tension on thyroid differentiation has not been studied. In this study, we used murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for thyroid cell differentiation under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and compared differentiation efficiency in morphology, function, gene and protein expression under both conditions...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Ling Lan, Wei Deng, Hailing Chen, Lili Huo, Lili Deng, Guoying Zhang, Yong Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether nuclear translocation of β-catenin affects functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in human thyroid cancer cells. METHODS: Two kinds of β-catenin nuclear translocation cell models were firstly established with transfection of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and β-catenin cDNA in human thyroid cancer cell line FTC133. Then the expression of β-catenin were further interfered by shRNA in above two cell models...
March 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Robert T Kinobe
Cobalt is an essential trace element for many vital physiological functions. Cobalt is also known to stabilise hypoxia-inducible transcription factors leading to increased expression of erythropoietin which activates production of red blood cells. This implies that cobalt can be used to enhance aerobic performance in racing horses. If this becomes a pervasive practice, the welfare of racing animals would be at risk because cobalt is associated with cardiovascular, haematological, thyroid gland and reproductive toxicity as observed in laboratory animals and humans...
February 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Yeon Ju Yang, Hwi Jung Na, Michelle J Suh, Myung Jin Ban, Hyung Kwon Byeon, Won Shik Kim, Jae Wook Kim, Eun Chang Choi, Hyeong Ju Kwon, Jae Won Chang, Yoon Woo Koh
PURPOSE: Although follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a relatively fair prognosis, distant metastasis sometimes results in poor prognosis and survival. There is little understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the aggressiveness potential of thyroid cancer. We showed that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) induced aggressiveness in FTC cells and identified the underlying mechanism of the HIF-1α-induced invasive characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were cultured under controlled hypoxic environments (1% O₂) or normoxic conditions...
November 2015: Yonsei Medical Journal
Ahmad Ghorbani, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin
Throughout life, different types of stem cells participate in tissue generation, maintenance, plasticity, and repair. Their abilities to secrete growth factors, to proliferate and differentiate into several cell lineages, and to migrate and home into the damaged tissues have made them attractive candidates for cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. Normal stem cell function is tied to the cell-intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals derived from the surrounding microenvironment or circulation...
2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Liang Xie, Xinchun Pi, W H Davin Townley-Tilson, Na Li, Xander H T Wehrens, Mark L Entman, George E Taffet, Ashutosh Mishra, Junmin Peng, Jonathan C Schisler, Gerhard Meissner, Cam Patterson
Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of heart failure. Both clinical trials and experimental animal studies demonstrate that chronic hypoxia can induce contractile dysfunction even before substantial ventricular damage, implicating a direct role of oxygen in the regulation of cardiac contractile function. Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins are well recognized as oxygen sensors and mediate a wide variety of cellular events by hydroxylating a growing list of protein substrates. Both PHD2 and PHD3 are highly expressed in the heart, yet their functional roles in modulating contractile function remain incompletely understood...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xingjun Liu, Jingfang Liu, Liya Fan, Bingyin Shi
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of erythrocytosis that occurred in close association with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In order to explore the role of altered erythropoiesis in hyperthyroidism, factors related to erythropoiesis were studied in 30 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. METHOD: The relationship between thyroid hormone level and erythrocytosis was studied in a patient with Graves' hyperthyroidism and erythrocytosis. Later, 30 consecutive patients with proven untreated Graves' hyperthyroidism and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited...
2015: Endocrine Research
K Gruzewska, A Michno, T Pawelczyk, H Bielarczyk
The biological properties of vanadium complexes have become an object of interest due to their therapeutic potential in several diseases. However, the mechanisms of action of vanadium salts are still poorly understood. Vanadium complexes are cofactors for several enzymes and also exhibit insulin-mimetic properties. Thus, they are involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, including in patients with diabetes. In addition, vanadium salts may also normalize blood pressure and play a key role in the metabolism of the thyroid and of iron as well as in the regulation of total cholesterol, cholesterol HDL and triglyceride (TG) levels in blood...
October 2014: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Mark P Labrecque, Mandeep K Takhar, Julienne M Jagdeo, Kevin J Tam, Christina Chiu, Te-Yu Wang, Gratien G Prefontaine, Michael E Cox, Timothy V Beischlag
Localized hypoxia in solid tumors activates transcriptional programs that promote the metastatic transformation of cells. Like hypoxia-inducible hyper-vascularization, loss of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a trait common to advanced stages of tumor progression in many metastatic cancers. However, no link between the role of Rb and hypoxia-driven metastatic processes has been established. We demonstrated that Rb is a key mediator of the hypoxic response mediated by HIF1α/β, the master regulator of the hypoxia response, and its essential co-activator, the thyroid hormone receptor/retinoblastoma-interacting protein (TRIP230)...
2014: PloS One
Eric Toloza, Kathryn Rodriguez, Christian Sobky, Lori Brown, Joseph Garrett, Christy Chai, Carla Moodie, Rajendra Bhati, Gerard Mosiello, Jonathan Zager
SESSION TITLE: Surgery Case Report Posters IISESSION TYPE: Case Report PosterPRESENTED ON: Sunday, March 23, 2014 at 01:15 PM - 02:15 PMINTRODUCTION: Radical manubriectomy for manubrial tumors often destabilizes one or both upper extremities, but current reconstructive techniques prevent lateral but not medial clavicular displacement. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient #1 is a 44-year-old man with manubrial plasmacytoma. Patient #2 is a 41-year-old man with upper chest basal cell carcinoma involving the manubrium...
March 1, 2014: Chest
Ni Wang, Chao-Ran Dong, Rong Jiang, Cui Tang, Lei Yang, Qi-Feng Jiang, George G Chen, Zhi-Min Liu
Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is upregulated by hypoxia, and involved in tumor growth and metastasis in many malignant tumors including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Metallothionein (MT) is a group of small molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins with a broad variety of functions. SLUG is a member of SNAIL superfamily of zinc finger transcriptional factors implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The purpose of this study was to examine HIF-1α, MT and SLUG expression in PTC and assess association of their expression with clinicopathological indicators...
2014: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
S Rajoria, E Hanly, A Nicolini, A L George, J Geliebter, E J Shin, R Suriano, A Carpi, R K Tiwari
Estrogen aids in neo-vascularization of various tumors during hypoxic conditions, however the role of estrogen within the hypoxic environment of thyroid cancer is not known. In a series of experimentations, using human thyroid cancer cells, we observed that estrogen and hypoxia modulate the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling which is abrogated by the anti-estrogen fulvestrant and the HIF-1 inhibitor YC-1 (3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole). Furthermore, we found that the conditioned medium from estrogen treated thyroid cancer cells lead to enhanced migration and tubulogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which is abrogated by HIF-1 inhibitor...
2014: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Giovanni De Pergola, Franco Silvestris
The number of cancer cases caused by being obese is estimated to be 20% with the increased risk of malignancies being influenced by diet, weight change, and body fat distribution together with physical activity. Reports from the International Agency for Research into Cancer and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) have shown that the strongest evidence exists for an association of obesity with the following cancer types: endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal, whereas the less common malignancies are leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and thyroid tumours...
2013: Journal of Obesity
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