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Third world medicine

Hadeel Alkhaneen, Faisal Alhusain, Khalid Alshahri, Nawfal Al Jerian
BACKGROUND: Choosing a medical specialty is a poorly understood process. Although studies conducted around the world have attempted to identify the factors that affect medical students' choice of specialty, data is scarce on the factors that influence the choice of specialty of Saudi Arabian medical students, in particular those planning a career in emergency medicine (EM). In this study, we investigated whether Saudi medical students choosing EM are influenced by different factors to those choosing other specialties...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gladys Kigozi, Michelle Engelbrecht, Christo Heunis, André Janse van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization launched guidelines for systematically investigating contacts of persons with infectious tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries. As such, it is necessary to understand factors that would influence successful scale-up. This study targeted household contacts of newly-diagnosed infectious TB patients in the Mangaung Metropolitan district to explore factors associated with non-attendance of clinical evaluation. METHOD: In September-October 2016, a pilot study of household contacts was conducted...
March 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nadia Shams, Sadia Amjad, Nadeem Yousaf, Waqar Ahmed, Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Shazia Farhat
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever has emerged as an emerging public health issue during last decade bearing significant morbidity and economic burden particularly in third world countries. Current study aims to assess various domains of knowledge of indoor dengue patients.. METHODS: This descriptive crosssectional study was conducted at Medicine dept. Rawal Institute of Health Sciences Islamabad and BBH Rawalpindi over 6 months. One hundred & twenty-five adult indoor confirmed cases of dengue from lower socioeconomic class were included after ethical approval...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Bok Ki Jung, In Sik Yun, Young Seok Kim, Tai Suk Roh
INTRODUCTION: Augmentation mammoplasty is one of the most popular aesthetic operations in the world. In Korea, one of the fillers used for breast augmentation is AQUAfilling® gel (Biomedica. spol, s,r,o, Czech Republic). AQUAfilling® gel is a hydrophilic gel composed of 98% sodium chloride solution (0.9%) and 2% cation copolyamide. METHODS: This is a case report describing a patient that suffered complications after AQUAfilling® gel injection for breast augmentation...
February 27, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Yudong Hu, Kaikai Yu, Gang Wang, Depeng Zhang, Chaoji Shi, Yunhe Ding, Duo Hong, Dan Zhang, Huiqiong He, Lei Sun, Jun-Nian Zheng, Shuyang Sun, Feng Qian
Gastric cancer is the third common cause of cancer mortality in the world with poor prognosis and high recurrence due to lack of effective medicines. Our studies revealed that lanatoside C, a FDA-approved cardiac glycoside, had an anti-proliferation effect on different human cancer cell lines (MKN-45; SGC-7901; HN4; MCF-7; HepG2) and gastric cell lines MKN-45 and SGC-7901 were the most sensitive cell lines to lanatoside C. MKN-45 cells treated with lanatoside C showed cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and inhibition of cell migration...
February 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Margaret McCartney
In this paper I examine the relationship between benefits, harms and evidence-based medicine in the context of British primary healthcare. First, I will examine: 'What is a benefit and what is a harm?' Second, what should we know about where the balance of risk and benefit appear to lie? Third, what should we do with this knowledge, particularly in the context of the biopsychosocial gaze of primary care? I conclude that even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are...
January 2018: London Journal of Primary Care
Laura E Bothwell, Jerry Avorn, Nazleen F Khan, Aaron S Kesselheim
OBJECTIVES: This review investigates characteristics of implemented adaptive design clinical trials and provides examples of regulatory experience with such trials. DESIGN: Review of adaptive design clinical trials in EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Registry of Controlled Clinical Trials, Web of Science and Phase I and seamless Phase I/II trials were excluded. Variables extracted from trials included basic study characteristics, adaptive design features, size and use of independent data monitoring committees (DMCs) and blinded interim analyses...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Zhen-Hao Liu, Bao-Feng Lian, Qiong-Zhu Dong, Han Sun, Jin-Wang Wei, Yuan-Yuan Sheng, Wei Li, Yixue Li, Lu Xie, Lei Liu, Lun-Xiu Qin
BACKGROUND: Primary liver cancer (PLC) is the third largest contributor to cancer mortality in the world. PLC is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses several biologically distinct subtypes including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC). CHC is a distinct, albeit rare, subtype of PLC and is comprised of cells with histopathological features of both HCC and ICC. Several studies have focused on the mutation and expression landscapes of HCC and ICC...
January 31, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Santiago González Izard, Juan A Juanes, Francisco J García Peñalvo, Jesús Mª Gonçalvez Estella, Mª José Sánchez Ledesma, Pablo Ruisoto
Until very recently, we considered Virtual Reality as something that was very close, but it was still science fiction. However, today Virtual Reality is being integrated into many different areas of our lives, from videogames to different industrial use cases and, of course, it is starting to be used in medicine. There are two great general classifications for Virtual Reality. Firstly, we find a Virtual Reality in which we visualize a world completely created by computer, three-dimensional and where we can appreciate that the world we are visualizing is not real, at least for the moment as rendered images are improving very fast...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Roni S Moran, Daniel S Moran, Gil Fire
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity a global epidemic. WHO sheds much light on this matter in its publications on health promotion and preventative medicine. Lack of physical activity, an unbalanced diet and an unhealthy lifestyle are the leading causes of developing obesity and chronic diseases. In Israel, the growing rate of obesity is a reason for concern. About 500,000 diabetics, mainly as a result of obesity, live in Israel today and by 2030 the number is expected to rise to 2,000,000...
January 2018: Harefuah
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Miłosz Jan Gołyszny, Ewa Obuchowicz
Context • Pathological anxiety, which affects approximately one-third of the world population, is an inadequate, irrational reaction of an organism to the environment and to a potential threat. Despite advancements in pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders, further studies are still necessary to search for new substances possessing the desired anxiolytic effects, with as few unwanted effects as possible. Objective • This study intended to examine the characteristics of medicinal plant materials that exhibit anxiolytic properties, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of their active ingredients on the systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety...
January 15, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Samet Ozer, Ergun Sonmezgoz, Osman Demir
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship among vitamin B12 status, obesity severity, and metabolic syndrome and its components in obese children.. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at the School of Medicine, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey, from January 2012 and October 2014, and comprised cases of obese and healthy children. The obese children were divided into three groups according to body mass index-standard deviation score quartiles. Group 1 included the first quartile, group 2 included the second and third quartiles, and group 3 included the fourth quartile...
November 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Fiona Shannon, Astrid Sasse, Helen Sheridan, Michael Heinrich
BACKGROUND: The Schools' Folklore Scheme (1937-1939) was implemented at a pivotal time in Irelands' political history. It resulted in a body of ethnological information that is unique in terms of when, why and how it was collected. This material consists of over 700,000 pages of information, including ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical traditions, reflecting an oral identity that spans generations and that in many cases was not documented in writing until the 1930s. The intention of this study is to highlight the importance of the Schools' Folklore Scheme and to demonstrate an ethnographic approach based on recollections of original participants of the scheme, to further understand the material in the collection and the impact it had on the participants...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Clair L Firth, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Corina Schleicher, Klemens Fuchs, Christa Egger-Danner, Martin Mayerhofer, Hermann Schobesberger, Josef Köfer, Walter Obritzhauser
Background: Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians...
2017: PeerJ
Catherine Panter-Brick, Mark Eggerman
Conceptually and methodologically, medical anthropology is well-positioned to support a "big-tent" research agenda on health and society. It fosters approaches to social and structural models of health and wellbeing in ways that are critically reflective, cross-cultural, people-centered, and transdisciplinary. In this review article, we showcase these four main characteristics of the field, as featured in Social Science & Medicine over the last fifty years, highlighting their relevance for an international and interdisciplinary readership...
October 31, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Rani Polak, Adi Finkelstein, Tom Axelrod, Marie Dacey, Matan Cohen, Dennis Muscato, Avi Shariv, Naama W Constantini, Mayer Brezis
BACKGROUND: By 2020, the World Health Organization predicts that two-thirds of all diseases worldwide will be the result of lifestyle choices. Physicians often do not counsel patients about healthy behaviors, and lack of training has been identified as one of the barriers. Between 2010 and 2014, Hebrew University developed and implemented a 58-h Lifestyle Medicine curriculum spanning five of the 6 years of medical school. Content includes nutrition, exercise, smoking cessation, and behavior change, as well as health coaching practice with friends/relatives (preclinical years) and patients (clinical years)...
November 10, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Maryati Mohamed, Siti Fatimah Sabran, Muhammad Murtala Mainasara
Despite all of the control strategies, tuberculosis (TB) is still a major cause of death globally and one-third of the world's population is infected with TB. The drugs used for TB treatment have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and emergence of resistance strains. Plant-derived medicines have since been used in traditional medical system for the treatment of numerous ailments worldwide. There were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from plants in the last 17 years. However, none is focused on Southeast Asian medicinal plants...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Gonzalo Gómez-López, Joaquín Dopazo, Juan C Cigudosa, Alfonso Valencia, Fátima Al-Shahrour
Success in precision medicine depends on accessing high-quality genetic and molecular data from large, well-annotated patient cohorts that couple biological samples to comprehensive clinical data, which in conjunction can lead to effective therapies. From such a scenario emerges the need for a new professional profile, an expert bioinformatician with training in clinical areas who can make sense of multi-omics data to improve therapeutic interventions in patients, and the design of optimized basket trials. In this review, we first describe the main policies and international initiatives that focus on precision medicine...
October 25, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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