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Third world medicine

Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Arthur Jochems, Timo Deist, Yvonka van Wijk, Sean Walsh, Philippe Lambin, Andre Dekker
Data collected and generated by radiation oncology can be classified by the 4Vs of Big Data (Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity) because it is spread across different care providers and not easily shared due to patient privacy protection. The magnitude of the 4Vs is substantial in oncology, especially due to imaging modalities and unclear data definitions. To create useful models ideally all data of all care providers is understood and learned from, however this presents challenges in the guise of poor data quality, patient privacy concerns, geographical spread, interoperability, and the large volume...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Mourad Assidi, Ashraf Dallol, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Emad Al-Hamzi, Jerry W Shay, Stephen W Scherer, Ashok Agarwal, Bruce Budowle, Mamdooh Gari, Adeel Chaudhary, Adel Abuzenadah, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3(rd) IGMC) was organised by the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This conference is a continuation of a series of meetings, which began with the first International Genomic Medicine Conference (1(st) IGMC, 2011) followed by the second International Genomic Medicine Conference (2(nd) IGMC, 2013). The 3(rd) IGMC meeting presented as a timely opportunity to bring scientists from across the world to gather, discuss, and exchange recent advances in the field of genomics and genetics in general as well as practical information on using these new technologies in different basic and clinical applications...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Richard Nyeko, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Abdullah Ali Halage
BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, 80 % of the population living in rural areas in developing countries depends on traditional medicine for their health needs, including use during pregnancy. Despite the fact that knowledge of potential side effects of many herbal medicines in pregnancy is limited and that some herbal products may be teratogenic, data on the extent of use of herbal medicines by women during pregnancy in the study setting is largely unknown...
October 6, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Darija Mahović, Fanika Mrsić
Dear Editor, the practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine described psoriasis some 2000 years ago (1). Psoriasis vulgaris is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease whose worldwide prevalence ranges from 0.1-3% (2,3). Understanding the role of the immune system in psoriasis and the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune system has helped to manage this complex disease, which affects patients far beyond the skin changes themselves (2). In addition to the usual and widely accepted methods of treatment of psoriasis, including topical therapies, phototherapy, and conventional and biological systemic therapies, data can be found in the literature that suggest a favorable effect of acupuncture on the course of psoriasis (4,5)...
August 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Ali Emadzadeh, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Mojtaba Mousavi Bazzaz, Sharareh Karimi
INTRODUCTION: Experts consider social accountability as a new paradigm in medical education and a cultural change that is necessary to be studied and understood more deeply. One of the problems of medical education is the inadequacy of medicine graduates to meet the social accountability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the general medicine curriculum for social accountability. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on three groups of experts, faculty members, and general physicians working in health centers in Mashhad in 2014...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Nena Kopčavar Guček, Davorina Petek, Igor Švab, Polona Selič
INTRODUCTION: In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. METHODS: In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments...
March 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Kali Zhou, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Nick Walsh, Ji Young Kim, Roger Chou, Mellanye Lackey, Julia Scott, Ying-Ru Lo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Advances in therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have ushered in a new era in chronic hepatitis treatment. To maximise the effectiveness of these medicines, individuals must be engaged and retained in care. We analysed operational interventions to enhance chronic viral hepatitis testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, adherence, and viral suppression or cure. METHODS: We did a systematic review of operational interventions, and did meta-analyses for sufficiently comparable data...
September 5, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Dorothea Kaufmann, Anudeep Kaur Dogra, Ahmad Tahrani, Florian Herrmann, Michael Wink
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a common treatment for early stages of the most general form of dementia, Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In this study, methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous crude extracts from 80 Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM) plants were tested for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase activity based on Ellman's colorimetric assay. All three extracts of Berberis bealei (formerly Mahonia bealei), Coptis chinensis and Phellodendron chinense, which contain numerous isoquinoline alkaloids, substantially inhibited AChE...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Weijing Sun, Li Yan
Gastric (including gastroesophageal junction) cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In China, an estimated 420,000 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer in 2011, ranking this malignancy the second most prevalent cancer type and resulting in near 300,000 deaths. The treatment landscape of gastric cancer has evolved in recent years. Although systemic chemotherapy is still the mainstay treatment of metastatic disease, the introduction of agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelia growth factor receptor has brought this disease into the molecular and personalized medicine era...
2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer
Adel Ali Alhazzani, Ali Mohammed Alqahtani, Ahmed Abouelyazid, Abdulaziz Mohammed Alqahtani, Nawaf Aedh Alqahtani, Khalid Mohammed Asiri, Abdullatef Ali Muhaya, Hassan Ali Alamri
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy accounts for 0.5% of the global burden of disease, with more than 50 million people affected worldwide; 80% of them are in developing regions. People with epilepsy and their families can suffer from stigma and discrimination in many parts of the world. Although this disorder is common in Saudi Arabia, with a prevalence of 6.54 per 1000, no study of epilepsy awareness, knowledge, and attitudes has been reported from the Aseer region. METHODS: The study was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire to assess awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward epilepsy and the sociodemographic data of the participants...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Peter P Yu
Oncology patients often find themselves facing an incurable disease with limited treatment options and increasing patient fragility. The importance of patient preferences and values increases in shared decision making especially when the cost of cancer care is continuing its steep rise. As our understanding of cancer systems biology increases, we are justifiably optimistic about therapeutic improvements but recognize that this has complicated the traditional Food and Drug Administration approval of drug indications based on organ-specific cancer for a particular drug...
July 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
E L Buckland, D O'Neill, J Summers, A Mateus, D Church, L Redmond, D Brodbelt
There is scant evidence describing antimicrobial (AM) usage in companion animal primary care veterinary practices in the UK. The use of AMs in dogs and cats was quantified using data extracted from 374 veterinary practices participating in VetCompass. The frequency and quantity of systemic antibiotic usage was described.Overall, 25 per cent of 963,463 dogs and 21 per cent of 594,812 cats seen at veterinary practices received at least one AM over a two-year period (2012-2014) and 42 per cent of these animals were given repeated AMs...
August 19, 2016: Veterinary Record
Rakhal Gaitonde, Andrew D Oxman, Peter O Okebukola, Gabriel Rada
BACKGROUND: Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maryam Mosaffa-Jahromi, Hossein Kiani
BACKGROUND: Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD), was a Muslim Syrian physician primarily famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. The most voluminous of his books is Alshamel fi Sana'at tebbi'at, which is a comprehensive medical encyclopedia. It comprised 300 volumes of notes, from which only 80 volumes are published. His writings are cataloged in many libraries around the world. The aim of this review article, as a tribute to Ibn al-Nafis, was to introduce his valuable but neglected encyclopedia of Materia Medica...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Ghazala Muteeb, Saeedut Zafar Ali, Abdurrahman M Al-Shahrani, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Md Tabish Rehman, Ghulam Md Ashraf
The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious threat with enormous social and economic implications. The distribution of resistance genes/markers through horizontal gene transfer leads to the dissemination of resistant strains in different parts of the world. The resistant bacteria acquire the ability to overcome resistance by different modes amongst which the expression of β-lactamases is a major factor. The β-lactamase enzymes cleave the amide bond of the β-lactam antibiotics, which constitute about one-third of the antibiotics used world over...
July 27, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
Shinzo Hiroi, Yukio Shimasaki, Takashi Kikuchi, Yujiro Otsuka, Kosuke Iwasaki, Mitsuru Ohishi
Combination therapy using two or three classes of drugs is often required to treat hypertension to prevent cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined combination therapies administered following initial therapy with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in hypertensive Japanese patients. To determine which classes of antihypertensives are being prescribed as second- or third-line treatments for patients who were initially treated with a single ARB, we analyzed prescription claims data from two Japanese health-care databases for 2008 to 2015...
July 28, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Peter C Collignon, John M Conly, Antoine Andremont, Scott A McEwen, Awa Aidara-Kane
Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Karen A Aguirre-Raya, María F Castilla-Peón, Leticia A Barajas-Nava, Violeta Torres-Rodríguez, Onofre Muñoz-Hernández, Juan Garduño-Espinosa
BACKGROUND: The influence, legitimacy and application of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) in the world is growing as a tool that integrates, the best available evidence to decision making in patient care. Our goal was to identify the relationship between self-perception about the relevance of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and the degree of basic knowledge of this discipline in a group of physicians. METHODS: A survey was carried out in a third level public hospital in Mexico City...
2016: BMC Medical Education
J Scaffidi, B W Mol, J A Keelan
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a survey of the world's clinical trial registries to provide current data on the number, nature, funding source and geographical distribution of pregnancy drug trials (PDT). DESIGN AND SETTING: Comprehensive analysis of WHO-certified clinical trial registries. METHODS: Sixteen registries containing 301 538 trials (168 826 active in 2013-2014) were analysed to identify the numbers, location, funding sources, and areas of interest/development of PDTs...
June 14, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Wadih J Naja, Alaa H Kansoun, Ramzi S Haddad
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of major depression is particularly high in medical students, affecting around one-third of this population. Moreover, online social media, in particular Facebook, is becoming an intrinsic part in the life of a growing proportion of individuals worldwide. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to identify the prevalence of depression in medical students at the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine, a unique state university in Lebanon, its correlation with the utilization of the interactive features of Facebook, and the way students may resort to these features...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
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