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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141275/roles-of-the-declive-folium-and-tuber-cerebellar-vermian-lobules-in-sportspeople
#1
In Sung Park, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
The cerebellum plays vital roles in balance control and motor learning, including in saccadic adaptation and coordination. It consists of the vermis and two hemispheres and is anatomically separated into ten lobules that are designated as I-X. Although neuroimaging and clinical studies suggest that functions are compartmentalized within the cerebellum, the function of each cerebellar lobule is not fully understood. Electrophysiological and lesion studies in animals as well as neuroimaging and lesion studies in humans have revealed that vermian lobules VI and VII (declive, folium, and tuber) are critical for controlling postural balance, saccadic eye movements, and coordination...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141213/cpeb2-activates-grasp1-mrna-translation-and-promotes-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#2
Wen-Hsin Lu, Nai-Hsing Yeh, Yi-Shuian Huang
Activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins is necessary to sustain long-lasting synaptic modifications and consolidate memory. We investigated the role of the translational regulator cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) in learning and memory because regulated mRNA translation contributes to synaptic plasticity. Forebrain-restricted CPEB2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141212/a-central-amygdala-substantia-innominata-neural-circuitry-encodes-aversive-reinforcement-signals
#3
Yuting Cui, Guanghui Lv, Sen Jin, Jie Peng, Jing Yuan, Xiaobin He, Hui Gong, Fuqiang Xu, Tonghui Xu, Haohong Li
Aversive stimuli can impact motivation and support associative learning as reinforcers. However, the neural circuitry underlying the processing of aversive reinforcers has not been elucidated. Here, we report that a subpopulation of central amygdala (CeA) GABAergic neurons expressing protein kinase C-delta (PKC-δ+) displays robust responses to aversive stimuli during negative reinforcement learning. Importantly, projections from PKC-δ+ neurons of the CeA to the substantia innominata (SI) could bi-directionally modulate negative reinforcement learning...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141073/forces-of-tool-tissue-interaction-to-assess-surgical-skill-level
#4
Taku Sugiyama, Sanju Lama, Liu Shi Gan, Yaser Maddahi, Kourosh Zareinia, Garnette R Sutherland
Importance: The application of optimal forces between surgical instruments and tissue is fundamental to surgical performance and learning. To date, this force has not been measured clinically during the performance of microsurgery. Objectives: To establish a normative catalog of force profiles during the performance of surgery, to compare force variables among surgeons with different skill levels, and to evaluate whether such a force-based metric determines or differentiates skill level...
November 15, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141046/the-effect-of-observing-novice-and-expert-performance-on-acquisition-of-surgical-skills-on-a-robotic-platform
#5
David J Harris, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson, John S McGrath, Marie-Eve LeBel, Gavin Buckingham
BACKGROUND: Observational learning plays an important role in surgical skills training, following the traditional model of learning from expertise. Recent findings have, however, highlighted the benefit of observing not only expert performance but also error-strewn performance. The aim of this study was to determine which model (novice vs. expert) would lead to the greatest benefits when learning robotically assisted surgical skills. METHODS: 120 medical students with no prior experience of robotically-assisted surgery completed a ring-carrying training task on three occasions; baseline, post-intervention and at one-week follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141008/smartphone-based-quantitative-measurements-on-holographic-sensors
#6
Gita Khalili Moghaddam, Christopher Robin Lowe
The research reported herein integrates a generic holographic sensor platform and a smartphone-based colour quantification algorithm in order to standardise and improve the determination of the concentration of analytes of interest. The utility of this approach has been exemplified by analysing the replay colour of the captured image of a holographic pH sensor in near real-time. Personalised image encryption followed by a wavelet-based image compression method were applied to secure the image transfer across a bandwidth-limited network to the cloud...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#7
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140919/collaboration-and-teamwork-in-the-health-professions-rethinking-the-role-of-conflict
#8
Quentin Eichbaum
Whereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict's positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals' fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140918/integrating-social-determinants-of-health-into-graduate-medical-education-a-call-for-action
#9
Jennifer Siegel, David L Coleman, Thea James
Social determinants of health (SDH) are the major drivers of health and disparate health outcomes across communities and populations. Given this, the authors assert that competency in recognizing and mitigating SDH should become a vital component of graduate medical education in all specialties. While the most effective approaches to educating trainees about SDH are uncertain, in this Invited Commentary, the authors offer several key principles for implementing curricula focusing on SDH. These include universalization of the material, integration into clinical education, identification of space for trainee introspection, clarification of specific competencies in identification and mitigation of SDH, and creation of robust faculty development programming...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140917/medical-trainees-experiences-of-treating-people-with-chronic-pain-a-lost-opportunity-for-medical-education
#10
Kathleen Rice, Jae Eun Ryu, Cynthia Whitehead, Joel Katz, Fiona Webster
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that physicians' opinions about chronic pain patients become progressively negative over the course of medical training, leading to a decline in empathy for these patients. Few qualitative studies have focused on this issue and thus the experiences shaping this process remain unexplored. This study addressed how medical trainees learn about chronic pain management through informal and formal curricula. METHOD: This study adopted a descriptive qualitative interview-based approach informed by the theoretical lens of the hidden curriculum...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140829/guiding-regulatory-t-cells-to-the-allograft
#11
Caroline Lamarche, Megan K Levings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy in organ transplantation is actively being pursued using unmodified, typically polyclonal cells. As the results of these ongoing clinical trials emerge, it is time to plan the next wave of clinical trials of Tregs. Here we will review a key strategy to improve Treg effectiveness and reduce side effects, namely increasing Treg specificity - both in terms of antigen recognition and localization to the allograft. RECENT FINDINGS: Study of chemokine signatures accompanying acute rejection has revealed several chemokines that could be targeted to increase Treg homing...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140797/characterising-endourologist-learning-curve-during-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-implications-on-occupational-dose-and-patients
#12
Jacobo Guiu-Souto, Carlos Otero, Daniel A Pérez-Fentes, Carlos Fernández-Baltar, Juan Francisco Sánchez-Garcia, Camilo García-Freire, Miguel Pombar-Cameán, Juan Pardo-Montero
In this study we have characterised the learning curve for percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures over 301 cases for six years. Different surrogate parameters of clinical expertise have been used, such as dose area product, total procedure time, fluoroscopy time and personal equivalent doses. In addition, two different endourologists have been monitored; one of whom had specific Radiation Protection training (ICRP 85). Eye lens dose was estimated from thermoluminescent dosimeters. Significant differences were observed between both endourologists, especially in the fluoroscopy time...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140781/a-generative-audio-visual-prosodic-model-for-virtual-actors
#13
Adela Barbulescu, Remi Ronfard, Gerard Bailly
An important problem in computer animation of virtual characters is the expression of complex mental states during conversation using the coordinated prosody of voice, rhythm, facial expressions, and head and gaze motion. In this work, the authors propose an expressive conversion method for generating natural speech and facial animation in a variety of recognizable attitudes, using neutral speech and animation as input. Their method works by automatically learning prototypical prosodic contours at the sentence level from an original dataset of dramatic attitudes...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140769/addressing-maternal-health-during-cdc-s-ebola-response-in-the-united-states
#14
Sascha Ellington, Mirna Perez, Diane Morof, Marianne E Zotti, William Callaghan, Dana Meaney-Delman, Maleeka Glover, Quynh-Chau Ha, Denise J Jamieson
Previous outbreaks suggest that pregnant women with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are at increased risk for severe disease and death. Healthcare workers who treat pregnant women with EVD are at increased risk of body fluid exposure. Despite the absence of pregnant women with EVD in the United States, CDC activated the Maternal Health Team (MHT), a functional unit dedicated to emergency preparedness and response issues, on October 18, 2014. We describe major activities of the MHT. A high-priority MHT activity was to publish guiding principles early in the response...
November 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140767/genomic-medicine-without-borders-which-strategies-should-developing-countries-employ-to-invest-in-precision-medicine-a-new-fast-second-winner-strategy
#15
Konstantinos Mitropoulos, David N Cooper, Christina Mitropoulou, Spiros Agathos, Jürgen K V Reichardt, Fatima Al-Maskari, Wasun Chantratita, Ambroise Wonkam, Collet Dandara, Theodora Katsila, Catalina Lopez-Correa, Bassam R Ali, George P Patrinos
Genomic medicine has greatly matured in terms of its technical capabilities, but the diffusion of genomic innovations worldwide faces significant barriers beyond mere access to technology. New global development strategies are sorely needed for biotechnologies such as genomics and their applications toward precision medicine without borders. Moreover, diffusion of genomic medicine globally cannot adhere to a "one-size-fits-all-countries" development strategy, in the same way that drug treatments should be customized...
November 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140691/on-the-importance-of-rigidity-in-designing-small-molecule-drugs-to-tackle-protein-protein-interactions-ppis-through-stabilisation-of-desired-confomers
#16
Alastair D G Lawson, Malcolm MacCoss, Jag P Heer
Tackling PPIs, particularly by stabilising clinically favoured conformations of target proteins, with orally available, bona fide small molecules remains a significant, but immensely worthwhile, challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. Success may be more likely through the application of nature's learnings to build intrinsic rigidity into the design of clinical candidates.
November 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140640/using-workers-compensation-claims-data-to-characterize-occupational-injuries-in-the-commercial-grain-elevator-industry
#17
Sai K Ramaswamy, Gretchen A Mosher
Workplace injuries in the grain handling industry are common, yet little research has characterized worker injuries in grain elevators across all hazard types. Learning from past injuries is essential for preventing future occurrences, but the lack of injury information for the grain handling industry hinders this effort. The present study addresses this knowledge gap by using data from over 7000 workers' compensation claims reported from 2008 to 2016 by commercial grain handling facilities in the U.S. to characterize injury costs and severity...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140582/abortion-knowledge-and-experiences-among-u-s-servicewomen-a-qualitative-study
#18
Kate Grindlay, Jane W Seymour, Laura Fix, Sarah Reiger, Brianna Keefe-Oates, Daniel Grossman
CONTEXT: U.S. servicewomen have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than civilian women, yet the military does not provide or cover abortion, except in limited circumstances. Servicewomen's experiences with abortion care have received little research attention. METHODS: Twenty-one in-depth interviews with servicewomen who had had an abortion during active-duty service in the prior two years were conducted between January 2015 and July 2016. Women reported on their experiences accessing abortion, as well as their knowledge and opinions of the military's abortion policy...
November 15, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140274/an-efficient-approach-for-lipase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-retinyl-laurate-nutraceutical-by-combining-ultrasound-assistance-and-artificial-neural-network-optimization
#19
Shang-Ming Huang, Hsin-Ju Li, Yung-Chuan Liu, Chia-Hung Kuo, Chwen-Jen Shieh
Although retinol is an important nutrient, retinol is highly sensitive to oxidation. At present, some ester forms of retinol are generally used in nutritional supplements because of its stability and bioavailability. However, such esters are commonly synthesized by chemical procedures which are harmful to the environment. Thus, this study utilized a green method using lipase as a catalyst with sonication assistance to produce a retinol derivative named retinyl laurate. Moreover, the process was optimized by an artificial neural network (ANN)...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140258/does-effort-and-reward-at-work-predict-changes-in-cognitive-function-first-longitudinal-results-from-the-representative-german-socio-economic-panel
#20
Natalie Riedel, Johannes Siegrist, Natalia Wege, Adrian Loerbroks, Peter Angerer, Jian Li
It has been suggested that work characteristics, such as mental demands, job control, and occupational complexity, are prospectively related to cognitive function. However, current evidence on links between psychosocial working conditions and cognitive change over time is inconsistent. In this study, we applied the effort-reward imbalance model that allows to build on previous research on mental demands and to introduce reward-based learning as a principle with beneficial effect on cognitive function. We aimed to investigate whether high effort, high reward, and low over-commitment in 2006 were associated with positive changes in cognitive function in terms of perceptual speed and word fluency (2006-2012), and whether the co-manifestation of high effort and high reward would yield the strongest association...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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