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P Engel, M F Almas, M L De Bruin, K Starzyk, S Blackburn, N A Dreyer
AIM: To describe and characterise the first cohort of Post-Authorisation Safety Study (PASS) protocols reviewed under the recent European Pharmacovigilance Legislation. METHODS: A systematic approach was used to compile all publicly available information on PASS protocols and assessments submitted from July 2012 to July 2015 from Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) minutes, European Medicines Agency (EMA) and European Network of Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology (ENCePP) webpages...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Maxim Ziatdinov, Artem Maksov, Li Li, Athena S Sefat, Petro Maksymovych, Sergei V Kalinin
Electronic interactions present in material compositions close to the superconducting dome play a key role in the manifestation of high-T c superconductivity. In many correlated electron systems, however, the parent or underdoped states exhibit strongly inhomogeneous electronic landscape at the nanoscale that may be associated with competing, coexisting, or intertwined chemical disorder, strain, magnetic, and structural order parameters. Here we demonstrate an approach based on a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and advanced statistical learning for an automatic separation and extraction of statistically significant electronic behaviors in the spin density wave regime of a lightly (∼1%) gold-doped BaFe2As2...
November 25, 2016: Nanotechnology
Wolfgang Enard
Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Sten Grillner, Brita Robertson
The lamprey belongs to the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates that diverged from the mammalian evolutionary line 560 million years ago. A comparison between the lamprey and mammalian basal ganglia establishes a detailed similarity regarding its input from cortex/pallium and thalamus, as well as its intrinsic organisation and projections of the output nuclei. This means that the basal ganglia circuits now present in rodents and primates most likely had evolved already at the dawn of vertebrate evolution...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Joseph G Duman, Kimberley F Tolias
Excitatory synaptic strengthening and the corresponding enlargement of dendritic spines are thought to be essential for learning and memory. In two recent Nature papers, Harward et al. (2016) and Hedrick et al. (2016) provide insight into the mechanisms that regulate these processes and illuminate the molecular basis of crosstalk between synapses.
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
Joel A DeLisa, Jacob Jay Lindenthal
Although progress has been made in diversifying medical school admissions and faculty, this has not extended to physicians with physical disabilities. To improve our understanding of medical students and physicians with physical and sensory disabilities, the authors propose systematically gathering information on the needs and experiences of four groups: physicians who had disabilities before beginning practice, physicians whose disabilities were incurred during their medical careers, physicians drawn from those two groups, and patients of physicians with disabilities...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Jessica S Dalley, Patricia R Creary, Tiffany Durzi, C Meghan McMurtry
Although there are existing guidelines for teaching and learning skillful client communication, there remains a need to integrate a developmental focus into veterinary medical curricula to prepare students for interactions with children who accompany their companion animals. The objectives of this Teaching Tip are (1) to describe the use of a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour as an innovative, applied practice method for teaching veterinary students about clinical communication with children, and (2) to provide accompanying resources to enable use of this method to teach clinical communication at other facilities...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Germán Valero, Paula Cárdenas
The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) uses the Moodle learning management system for formative and summative computer assessment. The authors of this article-the teacher primarily responsible for Moodle implementation and a researcher who is a recent Moodle adopter-describe and discuss the students' and teachers' attitudes to summative and formative computer assessment in Moodle. Item analysis of quiz results helped us to identify and fix poorly performing questions, which greatly reduced student complaints and improved objective assessment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Mirja Ruohoniemi, Johanna Mikkonen, Riitta Salomäki, Laura Hänninen, Annamari Heikkilä, Sanna Ryhänen
During the last decade, concerns over veterinary students' stress have been expressed in several studies, and the need for student support has become evident. In addition, the importance of professional and personal identity development in veterinary curricula has been widely recognized. There is a need to integrate academic and professional skills instruction with training in personal-life balance. Even though tools for student support and stress management exist within universities, reports on active and creative practices in veterinary education are scarce...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Raphael Kaplan, Daniel Bush, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, Sofie S Meyer, Neil Burgess
Hippocampal-medial prefrontal interactions are thought to play a crucial role in mental simulation. Notably, the frontal midline/medial pFC (mPFC) theta rhythm in humans has been linked to introspective thought and working memory. In parallel, theta rhythms have been proposed to coordinate processing in the medial temporal cortex, retrosplenial cortex (RSc), and parietal cortex during the movement of viewpoint in imagery, extending their association with physical movement in rodent models. Here, we used noninvasive whole-head MEG to investigate theta oscillatory power and phase-locking during the 18-sec postencoding delay period of a spatial working memory task, in which participants imagined previously learned object sequences either on a blank background (object maintenance), from a first-person viewpoint in a scene (static imagery), or moving along a path past the objects (dynamic imagery)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Inger Hagqvist, Stig Rödjer, Anna Aggeryd, Ebba Holmberg, Göran Bondjers
Experiences from PLUS - program for learning and development in Swedish health care In Sweden, more than half of newly registered physicians have been trained outside of the country. Thus, they are not familiar with Swedish culture and the Swedish healthcare system. To support their introduction to a professional carrier in Sweden, in line with the WHO ethical code for recruitment of health personnel, the health care region of Western Sweden established PLUS - program for learning and development in Swedish Health care...
October 24, 2016: Läkartidningen
Roberta Pawlak
Demand for nurses is influenced by many factors. Labor statistics and health services literature reveal current and predicted supply gaps in meeting this demand. One strategy in response can be drawn from manufacturing industries. This column suggests the application of the Theory of Constraints in efforts to relieve bottlenecks in producing and retaining nurse labor.
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
Emily E Whitgob, Rebecca L Blankenburg, Alyssa L Bogetz
PURPOSE: Trainee mistreatment remains an important and serious medical education issue. Mistreatment toward trainees by the medical team has been described; mistreatment by patients and families has not. Motivated by discrimination towards a resident by a family in their emergency department, the authors sought to identify strategies for trainees and physicians to respond effectively to mistreatment by patients and families. METHOD: A purposeful sample of pediatric faculty educational leaders was recruited from April-June 2014 at Stanford University...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Meghan M McConnell, Sandra Monteiro, Molly M Pottruff, Alan Neville, Geoff R Norman, Kevin W Eva, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
PURPOSE: Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. METHOD: Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer
PURPOSE: The move toward competency-based education will require medical schools and postgraduate training programs to restructure learning environments to motivate trainees to take personal ownership for learning. This qualitative study explores how medical students select and implement study strategies while enrolled in a unique, nontraditional program that emphasizes reflection on performance and competence rather than relying on high-stakes examinations or grades to motivate students to learn and excel...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Bridget C O'Brien, Win May, Tanya Horsley
This supplement includes the eight research papers accepted by the 2016 Research in Medical Education Program Planning Committee. In this Commentary, the authors use "conversations in medical education" as a guiding metaphor to explore what these papers contribute to the current scholarly discourse in medical education. They organize their discussion around two domains: the topic of study and the methodological approach. The authors map the eight research papers to six "hot topics" in medical education: (1) curriculum reform, (2) duty hours restriction, (3) learner well-being, (4) innovations in teaching and assessment, (5) self-regulated learning, and (6) learning environment, and to three purposes commonly served by medical education research: (1) description, (2) justification, and (3) clarification...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Neal D Goldstein, Igor Burstyn, Seth L Welles
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be overrepresented for new HIV infections compared to non-MSM. This disparity becomes even more alarming when considering racial groups. We describe the race-specific effects in HIV prevalence among MSM relative to non-MSM and explore the causes of disagreement among estimates. METHODS: We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative longitudinal survey conducted in the U...
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
Amanda J Pettus, Carolyn A Mendez-Luck, Caroline D Bergeron, SangNam Ahn, Samuel D Towne, Marcia G Ory, Matthew Lee Smith
OBJECTIVE: This two-part study analyzed data collected from middle-aged (age 44-64) and older women (age 65+) with one or more chronic conditions who completed the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Part One analyzed data from 418 women to describe sociodemographics, disease types, and healthcare utilization associated with Internet use among middle-aged and older women with 1 or more chronic diseases. Part Two analyzed data from the 251 Internet-using women to identify the online self-care resources they are using (format, host organization) and for what purposes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Lina Humbeck, Oliver Koch
The ever increasing bioactivity data that are produced nowadays allow exhaustive data mining and knowledge discovery approaches that change chemical biology research. A wealth of chemoinformatics tools, web services and applications therefore exists that supports a careful evaluation and analysis of experimental data to draw conclusions that can influence the further development of chemical probes and potential lead structures. This review focuses on open-source approaches that can be handled by scientists who are not familiar with computational methods having no expert knowledge in chemoinformatics and modeling...
October 25, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
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