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Peripheral nerve entrapment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303111/chronic-implantation-of-cuff-electrodes-on-the-pelvic-nerve-in-rats-is-well-tolerated-and-does-not-compromise-afferent-or-efferent-fibre-functionality
#1
Jonathan J Crook, Charly Brouillard, Pedro Irazoqui, Thelma Lovick
Objective Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291293/introduction-the-value-of-peripheral-nerve-surgery
#2
Robert J Spinner, Holly S Gilmer, Gregory R Trost
If a single picture is worth a thousand words, then a video, by logical extension, would be priceless. This edition showcases peripheral nerve surgery in all its grandeur and preserves it for posterity. Classic and novel surgical techniques are shown related to tumor biopsy or resection; nerve decompression for entrapment; and nerve reconstruction with direct repair or nerve transfer. Akin to a nautical chart filled with detailed maps for sailors, this Neurosurgical Focus Video Atlas provides navigational tools for neurosurgeons...
January 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234659/accessory-muscle-of-the-flexor-digitorum-superficialis-and-its-clinical-implications
#3
Edie Benedito Caetano, João José Sabongi Neto, Lucas Augusto Ayres Ribas, Edson Vinícius Milanello
Anatomical variations of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle and tendon unit are frequently reported by anatomists and clinicians. Anatomical muscle variations of the FDS and its tendons may include variations of muscle belly, presence of accessory or duplicate tendons, abnormal tendon connections, and absence of muscle or tendon components. Such variations may or may not have clinical implications. This report presents a case not described previously: a unilateral accessory muscle of the flexor digitorum superficialis which was connected by a thick tendon to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle; it was directed proximally to the insertion of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, next to the superficialis head of the pronator teres muscle...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234567/nerve-entrapment-in-the-hip-region-current-concepts-review
#4
RobRoy Martin, Hal David Martin, Benjamin R Kivlan
The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the anatomy, etiology, evaluation, and treatment techniques for nerve entrapments of the hip region. Nerve entrapment can occur around musculotendinous, osseous, and ligamentous structures because of the potential for increased strain and compression on the peripheral nerve at those sites. The sequela of localized trauma may also result in nerve entrapment if normal nerve gliding is prevented. Nerve entrapment can be difficult to diagnose because patient complaints may be similar to and coexist with other musculoskeletal conditions in the hip and pelvic region...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218369/peripheral-nerve-ultrasound-findings-in-mucolipidosis-type-3
#5
Eoin Mulroy, Andrew M Chancellor, Luciana Pelosi
PURPOSE: The mucolipidoses are rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders. Neurologic involvement in these conditions is generally thought to be limited to cognitive delay and entrapment neuropathies (primarily carpal tunnel syndrome). We sought to evaluate peripheral nerves in this condition using nerve ultrasound. METHODS: We performed peripheral nerve ultrasound in two siblings with genetically confirmed mucolipidosis type 3 (alpha/beta). RESULTS: Peripheral nerves in mucolipidosis type 3 (alpha/beta) exhibit multifocal enlargement...
December 7, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218119/carpal-tunnel-syndrome-and-other-entrapment-neuropathies
#6
REVIEW
Kolawole Wasiu Wahab, Emmanuel O Sanya, Philip B Adebayo, Musbaudeen O Babalola, Hakeem G Ibraheem
Entrapment neuropathy is the result of pressure on a peripheral nerve as it passes through a narrow canal that is bounded by stiff tissues. In spite of their ubiquitous nature, they are underdiagnosed, underreported, and sometimes not properly managed, especially in developing countries. Entrapment neuropathies are of various types, but the most common type is carpal tunnel syndrome. Mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of entrapment neuropathies include mechanical compression and nerve ischemia. A clear understanding of the various types and the underlying mechanisms of entrapment neuropathies are invaluable in the decision-making process involved in the management of every patient with the condition...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216768/a-mysterious-case-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-in-a-9-year-old-girl
#7
Angela Burian, Othmar Schuhfried, Richard Crevenna
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestation and the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type II in childhood. METHODS: Using information on the symptoms, diagnosis, rehabilitation and outcome of a young patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II. RESULTS: A 9-year -old girl had severe pain in the region of the left foot, signs of a common fibular nerve entrapment, hyperalgesia not limited to the distribution of the injured nerve, weakness and temperature asymmetry unknown origin...
December 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170006/-intraneural-cyst-of-the-supraescapular-nerve-atypical-cause-of-peripheral-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Beatriz Mansilla, Alberto Isla, María Román de Aragón, Borja Hernández, Pablo García Feijoo, Alexis Palpán Flores, Susana Santiago
OBJECTIVE: Intraneural cysts are benign lesions located within the epineurium of some peripheral nerves and their aetiopathogenesis is controversial. Most are located at the level of the lower limbs. In the upper limbs, the most frequently affected nerve is the ulnar nerve. Suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome due to the formation of an intraneural cyst is rare. In this article, we show a new case and perform a literature review of intraneural cysts located in the suprascapular nerve...
November 20, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166638/predictors-of-surgical-outcomes-of-traumatic-peripheral-nerve-injuries-in-children-an-institutional-experience
#9
Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Subhas K Konar, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Dhaval P Shukla, R Bharath, M S Gopalakrishnan
AIM: This study was undertaken to address the epidemiological characteristics, operative details, and surgical outcome of peripheral nerve injuries in children treated in a tertiary hospital in India (NIMHANS, Bangalore). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of epidemiology, operative findings, and surgical outcomes over the period of 2000-2016. Our series includes 102 children with peripheral nerve injuries of various causes. RESULTS: Intramuscular injections were the most common cause (52...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153846/surgical-management-of-neurological-manifestations-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Tord D Alden, Hernán Amartino, Amauri Dalla Corte, Christina Lampe, Paul R Harmatz, Leonardo Vedolin
The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are ultra-rare lysosomal storage disorders associated with progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in cells and tissues throughout the body. Clinical manifestations and progression rates vary widely across and within the different types of MPS. Neurological symptoms occur frequently, and may result directly from brain damage caused by infiltration of GAGs, or develop secondary to somatic manifestations such as spinal cord compression, hydrocephalus, and peripheral nerve entrapment...
September 28, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136549/the-spectrum-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-due-to-myelin-protein-zero-an-electrodiagnostic-nerve-ultrasound-and-histological-study
#11
Gian Maria Fabrizi, Stefano Tamburin, Tiziana Cavallaro, Ilaria Cabrini, Moreno Ferrarini, Federica Taioli, Francesca Magrinelli, Giampietro Zanette
OBJECTIVE: Nerve ultrasound (US) data on myelin protein zero (MPZ)-related Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) are lacking. To offer a comprehensive perspective on MPZ-related CMTs, we combined nerve US with clinics, electrodiagnosis and histopathology. METHODS: We recruited 36 patients (12 MPZ mutations), and correlated nerve US to clinical, electrodiagnostic measures, and sural nerve biopsy. RESULTS: According to motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) criteria, nine patients were categorized as "demyelinating" CMT1B, 17 as "axonal" CMT2I/J, and 10 as dominant "intermediate" CMTDID...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100792/assessing-the-reliability-of-ultrasound-imaging-to-examine-peripheral-nerve-excursion-a-systematic-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Ben Kasehagen, Richard Ellis, Rodney Pope, Nicholas Russell, Wayne Hing
Ultrasound imaging (USI) is gaining popularity as a tool for assessing nerve excursion and is becoming an important tool for the assessment and management of entrapment neuropathies. This systematic review aimed to identify current methods and report on the reliability of using USI to examine nerve excursion and identify the level of evidence supporting the reliability of this technique. A systematic search of five electronic databases identified studies assessing the reliability of using USI to examine nerve excursion...
October 31, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083521/peripheral-nerve-diffusion-tensor-imaging-overview-pitfalls-and-future-directions
#13
Tina Jeon, Maggie M Fung, Kevin M Koch, Ek T Tan, Darryl B Sneag
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that measures the extent of restricted water diffusion and anisotropy in biological tissue. Although DTI has been widely applied in the brain, more recently researchers have used it to characterize nerve pathology in the setting of entrapment neuropathy, traumatic injury, and tumor. DTI artifacts are exacerbated when imaging off isocenter in the body. Anecdotally, the most significant artifacts in peripheral nerve DTI include magnetic field inhomogeneity, motion, incomplete fat suppression, aliasing, and distortion...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026761/postherpetic-neuralgia-diabetic-neuropathy-and-trigeminal-neuralgia-chronic-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-in-58-480-rural-italian-primary-care-patients
#14
Nicola Buono, Hans Thulesius, Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Elena Castelli, Marco Cambielli
INTRODUCTION: Chronic peripheral neuropathic pain (CPNP) is a condition due to peripheral nervous system diseases or injury, but its prevalence is unknown in Italian primary care. AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of CPNP in a rural primary care area in Northern Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter audit study was carried out in a rural area in Northern Italy with 113 participating general practitioners (GPs) seeing 58,480 patients >18 years during 3 months...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022773/native-paraneurial-tissue-and-paraneurial-adhesions-alter-nerve-strain-distribution-in-rat-sciatic-nerves
#15
Ian M Foran, Vincent Hussey, Rushil A Patel, Jaemyoung Sung, Sameer B Shah
Paraneurial adhesions have been implicated in the pathological progression of entrapment neuropathies. Surgical decompression of adhesions is often performed, with the intent of restoring nerve kinematics. The normal counterpart of adhesions, native paraneurium, is also thought to influence nerve deformation and mobility. However, influences of native or abnormal paraneurial structures on nerve kinematics have not been investigated. We measured regional strains in rat sciatic nerves before and immediately after decompression of native paraneurial tissue, and before and after decompression of abnormal paraneurial adhesions, which formed within 6 weeks of the initial decompression...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021927/split-femoral-nerve-due-to-psoas-tertius-muscle-a-review-with-other-cases-of-variant-muscles-traversing-the-femoral-nerve
#16
Shehzad Khalid, Joe Iwanaga, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Leg pain from lumbar disc herniation is a common presentation. However, certain muscular and peripheral nerve variants may present similarly and represent an unrecognized etiology of femoral nerve dysfunction. Such cases might affect the outcome of specific treatment regimes. Therefore, recognition of these variations in anatomy may be useful to the clinician when treating the patient with medically refractory lower limb pain. Some reports have reported variant slips of the psoas and iliacus muscles, which may split the femoral nerve causing a potential risk for nerve entrapment...
August 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978583/management-and-patients-perspective-regarding-a-common-peroneal-nerve-schwannoma-a-rare-cause-of-lower-leg-pain-in-a-young-individual
#17
Aniek Pm van Zantvoort, Paul Cuppen, Marc R Scheltinga
The differential diagnosis of exercise-induced lower leg pain in young individuals is extensive and includes entities such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome, popliteal arterial entrapment syndrome, cystic adventitial disease, medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures. Peripheral nerve-related lower leg pain syndromes are unusual. We present a 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with an ancient schwannoma of the right common peroneal nerve (CPN) as a rare cause of lower leg pain. This case report provides simple diagnostic bedside tools that may be used to diagnose CPN abnormalities...
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968362/ultrasonography-in-peripheral-nervous-system-diagnosis
#18
Francis O Walker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-resolution ultrasound has made it possible to view most nerves and muscles in real time and to identify pathologic change in size, echo texture, and vascularity. This article focuses on the principles underlying ultrasound imaging and the application of ultrasound imaging to clinical disorders commonly seen in an electrodiagnostic laboratory. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrasound is a sensitive and specific tool for evaluating myopathic and neurogenic muscle disease...
October 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932862/tailored-release-of-triiodothyronine-and-retinoic-acid-from-a-spatio-temporally-fabricated-nanofiber-composite-instigating-neuronal-differentiation
#19
Aishwarya Satish, Purna Sai Korrapati
Regeneration of the central and peripheral nervous system is challenging since the functional restoration of injured nerves is an incredible task. The fabrication of an ideal nerve guide that fulfills the requirement to regenerate nerve tissue is a herculean challenge requiring a combination of both biochemical and topographical cues. The present study explores the combinatorial effect of aligned nanofibers and the regulated delivery of triiodothyronine and retinoic acid on nerve regeneration. A sequential release mechanism is adopted in fabricating the nanofiber scaffold, with triiodothyronine incorporated into the nanofiber shell ensuring its prior release, followed by retinoic acid (entrapped within zein nanoparticles) from the core...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932698/quantitative-magnetic-resonance-mr-neurography-for-evaluation-of-peripheral-nerves-and-plexus-injuries
#20
REVIEW
Teodoro Martín Noguerol, Rafael Barousse, Mariano Socolovsky, Antonio Luna
Traumatic conditions of peripheral nerves and plexus have been classically evaluated by morphological imaging techniques and electrophysiological tests. New magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies based on 3D fat-suppressed techniques are providing high accuracy for peripheral nerve injury evaluation from a qualitative point of view. However, these techniques do not provide quantitative information. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are functional MRI techniques that are able to evaluate and quantify the movement of water molecules within different biological structures...
August 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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