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Executive function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145416/two-is-better-than-one-the-effects-of-strategic-cooperation-on-intra-and-inter-brain-connectivity-by-fnirs
#1
Michela Balconi, Laurent Pezard, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145410/the-influence-of-computer-based-cognitive-flexibility-training-on-subjective-cognitive-well-being-after-stroke-a-multi-center-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Renate M van de Ven, Jaap M J Murre, Jessika I V Buitenweg, Dick J Veltman, Justine A Aaronson, Tanja C W Nijboer, Suzanne J C Kruiper-Doesborgh, Coen A M van Bennekom, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Ben Schmand
BACKGROUND: Stroke can result in cognitive complaints that can have a large impact on quality of life long after its occurrence. A number of computer-based training programs have been developed with the aim to improve cognitive functioning. Most studies investigating their efficacy used only objective outcome measures, whereas a reduction of subjective cognitive complaints may be equally important for improving quality of life. A few studies used subjective outcome measures but were inconclusive, partly due to methodological shortcomings such as lack of proper active and passive control groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144227/maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-executive-function-what-do-we-know-and-what-are-the-next-steps
#3
Lauren Micalizzi, Valerie S Knopik
Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) exhibit difficulties in executive function (EF) from infancy through adolescence. Due to the developmental significance of EF as a predictor of adaptive functioning throughout the life span, the MSDP-EF relation has clear public health implications. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the relationship between MSDP and offspring EF across development; consider brain-based assessments, animal models, and genetically informed studies in an effort to elucidate plausible pathways of effects; discuss implications for prevention and intervention; and make calls to action for future research...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144226/do-executive-functions-explain-the-covariance-between-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors
#4
Alexander S Hatoum, Soo Hyun Rhee, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
This study examined whether executive functions (EFs) might be common features of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems across development. We examined relations between three EF latent variables (a common EF factor and factors specific to updating working memory and shifting sets), constructed from nine laboratory tasks administered at age 17, to latent growth intercept (capturing stability) and slope (capturing change) factors of teacher- and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors in 885 individual twins aged 7 to 16 years...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144173/chronotype-regulates-the-neural-basis-of-response-inhibition-during-the-daytime
#5
Jingjing Song, Pan Feng, Xiaoyue Zhao, Wenjian Xu, Lijuan Xiao, Jia Zhou, Yong Zheng
Studies have elucidated the various modulatory effects of chronotype and time-of-day on task-dependent brain activity, but it is unclear how chronotype and time-of-day regulate brain activity in response inhibition tasks. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effects of chronotype and time-of-day on response inhibition in normal day-night conditions. Morning-type (MT) and evening-type (ET) participants conducted the stop-signal task in morning (08:00-12:00 hours) and evening (19:00-23:00 hours) sessions...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144107/safe-return-to-driving-following-severe-acquired-brain-injury-role-of-a-short-neuropsychological-assessment
#6
Donatella Saviola, Antonio DE Tanti, Jessica Conforti, Lucio Posteraro, Alessia Manfredini, Chiara Bagattini, Benedetta Basagni
BACKGROUND: Driving is a complex ability requiring a broad range of motor, cognitive- behavioural and visual skills that may be impaired after severe Acquired Brain Injury (sABI). Resumption of driving is perceived as a major need by patients, being closely linked to personal autonomy, work and social activities. AIM: The objective of this study was to identify a short battery of neuropsychological tests with predictive value with regard to safe return to driving after sABI...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144105/motor-imagery-ability-of-patients-with-lower-limb-amputation-exploring-the-course-of-rehabilitation-effects
#7
Elodie Saruco, Aymeric Guillot, Arnaud Saimpont, Franck DI Rienzo, Anne Durand, Catherine Mercier, Francine Malouin, Philip Jackson
BACKGROUND: Amputation of a lower-limb results in a severe decrease of functional mobility that deeply alters independent living. Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental representation of an action without engaging its actual execution. The repetitive use of MI has been shown to contribute to promote motor recovery and phantom-limb pain alleviation. AIM: Given the importance of invoking accurate images to benefit from MI practice, and considering the link between motor capacities and MI, the present study investigated the effect of a rehabilitation program on MI ability in patients with lower-limb amputation...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143762/executive-function-capacities-negative-driving-behavior-and-crashes-in-young-drivers
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Walshe, Chelsea Ward McIntosh, Daniel Romer, Flaura K Winston
Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of injury and death in adolescents, with teen drivers three times more likely to be in a fatal crash when compared to adults. One potential contributing risk factor is the ongoing development of executive functioning with maturation of the frontal lobe through adolescence and into early adulthood. Atypical development resulting in poor or impaired executive functioning (as in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) has been associated with risky driving and crash outcomes...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143699/are-there-distinct-cognitive-and-motivational-sub-groups-of-children-with-adhd
#9
Rikke Lambek, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Rosemary Tannock, Anne Virring Sørensen, Dorte Damm, Per Hove Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is proposed to be a neuropsychologically heterogeneous disorder that encompasses two distinct sub-groups, one with executive function (EF) deficits and one with delay aversion (DA). However, such claims have often been based on studies that have operationalized neuropsychological deficits using a categorical approach - using intuitive but rather arbitrary, clinical cut-offs. The current study applied an alternative empirical approach to sub-grouping in ADHD, latent profile analysis (LPA), and attempted to validate emerging subgroups through clinically relevant correlates...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143409/chronnectome-fingerprinting-identifying-individuals-and-predicting-higher-cognitive-functions-using-dynamic-brain-connectivity-patterns
#10
Jin Liu, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141508/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-may-stall-ovarian-cortex-function-through-modulation-of-hormone-receptors-other-than-the-amh-receptor
#11
Laura Detti, Nicole M Fletcher, Ghassan M Saed, Irene Peregrin-Alvarez, Rebecca A Uhlmann
OBJECTIVE: To test whether recombinant anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) can inhibit ovarian cortex function by modulating the expression of other hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pilot experimental study with ovarian cortex obtained from 5 patients. Immediately after explant, the ovarian cortex specimens were divided into 5 equal fragments. One fragment was flash-frozen (uncultured) and 4 were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C in a pH-adjusted gamete buffer medium with increasing AMH concentrations of 0, 5, 25, and 50 ng/mL...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140504/selective-attention-working-memory-and-executive-function-as-potential-independent-sources-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#12
James M Gold, Benjamin Robinson, Carly J Leonard, Britta Hahn, Shuo Chen, Robert P McMahon, Steven J Luck
People with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments in selective attention, working memory, and executive function. Given the overlap in these constructs, it is unclear if these represent distinct impairments or different manifestations of one higher-order impairment. To examine this question, we administered tasks from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature to measure visual selective attention, working memory capacity, and executive function in 126 people with schizophrenia and 122 healthy volunteers. Patients demonstrated deficits on all tasks with the exception of selective attention guided by strong bottom-up inputs...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140500/the-persuasion-network-is-modulated-by-drug-use-risk-and-predicts-anti-drug-message-effectiveness
#13
Richard Huskey, J Michael Mangus, Benjamin O Turner, René Weber
While a persuasion network has been proposed, little is known about how network connections between brain regions contribute to attitude change. Two possible mechanisms have been advanced. One hypothesis predicts that attitude change results from increased connectivity between structures implicated in affective and executive processing in response to increases in argument strength. A second functional perspective suggests that highly arousing messages reduce connectivity between structures implicated in the encoding of sensory information, which disrupts message processing and thereby inhibits attitude change...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140276/clinical-profile-associated-with-adverse-childhood-experiences-the-advent-of-nervous-system-dysregulation
#14
Jorina Elbers, Cynthia R Rovnaghi, Brenda Golianu, Kanwaljeet J S Anand
BACKGROUND: We report the prevalence of children with multiple medical symptoms in a pediatric neurology clinic, describe their symptom profiles, and explore their association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients from an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic. Patients were included if they were ≥5 years old and reported ≥4 symptoms that were unexplained for ≥3-months. Symptom profiles across six functional domains were recorded: (1) executive dysfunction, (2) sleep disturbances, (3) autonomic dysregulation, (4) somatization, (5) digestive symptoms, and (6) emotional dysregulation...
November 15, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138776/photoelectron-spectroscopy-and-density-functional-theory-studies-of-fructose-h2o-n-n-1-5-anionic-clusters
#15
Zhen Zeng, Elliot R Bernstein
Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) based calculations are executed to characterize gas phase, isolated (fructose + (H2O)n)(-) (n = 1-5) anionic species produced using a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) method. Gas phase, isolated (fructose + (H2O)n)(-) (n = 1-5) cluster anions mainly exist as open chain structures with conformational and positional isomers in the present experiments. Some cyclic structures of (fructose + (H2O)n)(-) (n = 3, 4) are apparently present in the experiments and their VDEs can contribute to the lower energy shoulders of PES features observed for (fructose + (H2O)n)(-) (n = 3, 4)...
November 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138429/brain-network-correlates-of-emotional-aging
#16
Youngwook Lyoo, Sujung Yoon
Physical and cognitive functions typically decline with aging while emotional stability is relatively conserved. The current proof-of-concept study is the first to report of the brain mechanisms underlying emotional aging from a brain network perspective. Two hundred eighty-six healthy subjects aged 20-65 were classified into three groups of the emotionally young, intermediate-aged, and old (E-young, E-intermediate, and E-old, respectively) based on the cluster analysis of the emotion recognition task data...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137973/exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-child-behavior-current-findings-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Kim N Dietrich, Joseph M Braun, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are recognized neurotoxicants, but the extent to which PBDEs influence various domains of behavior in children is not fully understood. As such, we reviewed epidemiologic studies published to date to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on PBDEs' potential role in behavioral development. We identified 19 epidemiologic studies reporting on associations of prenatal and childhood concentrations of PBDEs with behaviors assessed in children from 1 to 12years, including executive function, attention, externalizing and internalizing behaviors, adaptive skills, and social behaviors/Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)...
November 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137828/differentiating-between-clinical-and-behavioral-phenotypes-in-first-episode-psychosis-during-maintenance-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#18
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P Murty, Patricia L Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna
INTRODUCTION: We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. METHODS: FEP (N=35) and matched controls (N=25) performed a visuospatial working memory task during fMRI acquisition. We isolated neural activity during the maintenance period and examined neural activity within regions typically engaged during a working memory task...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136949/minocycline-improves-cardiac-function-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-by-inhibiting-activation-of-parp-1
#19
Hua Zhao, Jianjun Zhang, Gang Hong
To investigate whether Minocycline can protect myocardial cells after myocardial infarction and improve myocardial remodeling through inhibiting PARP-1 activity, thus improving cardiac function. 50 male Wistar rats aged 4 months were used to establish the myocardial infarction model. The experimental rats underwent the echocardiography at 3d, 14d and 28d after operation. After 28days, the rats were executed and the myocardial tissues in the infarct-related zone were treated with immumohistochemical staining and molecular biology detection...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136542/cognition-and-behaviour-in-children-with-congenital-abdominal-wall-defects
#20
Alice C Burnett, Julia K Gunn, Esther A Hutchinson, Margaret M Moran, Lisa M Kelly, Ursula C Sevil, Peter J Anderson, Rod W Hunt
AIM: To characterise neurodevelopment at age two years and cognition and behaviour at age five years in children born with abdominal wall defects (gastroschisis or exomphalos). STUDY DESIGN: Participants were treated as neonates for gastroschisis or exomphalos and invited for routine clinical follow-up at ages two and five years. Thirty-nine two year-olds and 20 five year-olds with gastroschisis and 20 two year-olds and 10 five year-olds with exomphalos returned for age-appropriate assessments of development (two years) and intellectual functioning (IQ), executive function, and behavioural problems...
November 11, 2017: Early Human Development
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