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Plasma and exchange

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792349/pulmonary-endothelial-permeability-and-tissue-fluid-balance-depend-on-the-viscosity-of-the-perfusion-solution
#1
Simon C Rowan, Keith D Rochfort, Lucie Piouceau, Philip M Cummins, Malachy O'Rourke, Paul McLoughlin
Fluid filtration in the pulmonary microcirculation depends on the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients across the endothelium, and the selective permeability of the endothelial barrier. Maintaining normal fluid balance depends both on specific properties of the endothelium and of the perfusing blood. Although some of the essential properties of blood needed to prevent excessive fluid leak have been identified and characterised, our understanding of these remains incomplete. The role of perfusate viscosity in maintaining normal fluid exchange has not previously been examined...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791776/polymorphism-in-disease-related-apolipoprotein-c-ii-amyloid-fibrils-a-structural-model-for-rod-like-fibrils
#2
Courtney O Zlatic, Yu Mao, Nevena Todorova, Yee-Foong Mok, Geoffrey J Howlett, Irene Yarovsky, Paul R Gooley, Michael D W Griffin
Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is one of several plasma apolipoproteins that form amyloid deposits in vivo and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipid-free apoC-II readily self-assembles into twisted-ribbon amyloid fibrils but forms straight, rod-like amyloid fibrils in the presence of low concentrations of micellar phospholipids. Charge mutations exerted significantly different effects on rod-like fibril formation compared to their effects on twisted-ribbon fibril formation. For instance, the double mutant K30D, D69K apoC-II readily formed twisted-ribbon fibrils, while the rate of rod-like fibril formation in the presence of micellar phospholipid was negligible...
May 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791050/a-novel-clcn5-pathogenic-mutation-supports-dent-disease-with-normal-endosomal-acidification
#3
Yohan Bignon, Alexi Alekov, Nadia Frachon, Olivier Lahuna, Carine Jean-Baptiste Doh-Egueli, Georges Deschênes, Rosa Vargas-Poussou, Stéphane Lourdel
Dent disease in an X-linked recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and progressive renal failure. Inactivating mutations of CLCN5, the gene encoding the 2Cl- /H+ exchanger ClC-5 have been reported in patients with Dent disease 1. In vivo studies in mice harboring an artificial mutation in the "gating glutamate" of ClC-5 (c.632A > C, p.Glu211Ala) and mathematical modeling suggest that endosomal chloride concentration could be an important parameter in endocytosis, rather than acidification as earlier hypothesized...
May 23, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790849/-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-encephalitis-the-janus-faced-disorder
#4
Ildiko Sipos
The recognition of the antibody-mediated encephalitis as a separate entity among the immune disorders of the central nervous system was one of the greatest breakthroughs of the last two decades in neurology. Unlike viral or tumor-related encephalitis, the antibody-mediated form has a good response to immunotherapy, which gives a special clinical importance to the discovery. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the first fully characterized antibody-mediated encephalitises. This article attempts to summarize the clinical features of this complex neuropsychiatric disorder with the aim to help its early recognition and to report the clinical course and the outcome of our six seropositive anti-NMDAR cases...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790193/myasthenic-ophthalmoparesis-time-to-resolution-after-initiating-immune-therapies
#5
T A Europa, M Nel, J M Heckmann
INTRODUCTION: Although immunotherapies such as prednisone are effective in treating myasthenic muscle weakness, their effect on resolution of myasthenic-induced persistent ophthalmoparesis is unknown. METHODS: We observed myasthenia gravis patients during their first year of immunotherapy, documenting ophthalmoplegia scores and drug doses. RESULTS: Seventy-six of 87 cases had persistent ophthalmoparesis. On immunotherapy, the median time to resolution of ophthalmoparesis was 7 months and 37% resolved within 3 months...
May 23, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786866/characterization-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-pathogen-inactivated-and-quarantine-plasma-in-routine-use-for-treatment-of-acquired-immune-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#6
R Herbrecht, M Ojeda-Uribe, D Kientz, C Fohrer, A Bohbot, O Hinschberger, K-L Liu, E Remy, C Ernst, J-S Lin, L Corash, J P Cazenave
BACKGROUND: Auto-immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a morbid multi-organ disorder. Cardiac involvement not recognized in initial disease descriptions is a major cause of morbidity. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) requires exposure to multiple plasma donors with risk of transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI). Pathogen inactivation (PI) with amotosalen-UVA, the INTERCEPT Blood System for Plasma (IBSP) is licensed to reduce TTI risk. METHODS: An open-label, retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of quarantine plasma (QP) and IBSP in TTP and defined treatment emergent cardiac abnormalities...
May 21, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784303/simple-icp-oes-based-method-for-determination-of-selected-elements-in-brewed-ground-and-soluble-coffees-prior-to-evaluation-of-their-intake-and-chemical-fractionation
#7
Pawel Pohl, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja, Maja Welna
A simple method of simultaneous determination of aluminum (Al), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) in brews of ground and soluble coffees was proposed. It relied on acidification of brews with HNO3 to 1.3 mol L-1 and their analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Precision of 0.1-9% and detection limits from 0.07 ng mL-1 (Sr) to 3 ng mL-1 (Ni) were achieved. Trueness of the method was verified by comparison of results with those achieved with wet digestion and by the recovery study, and was better than 5%...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783225/-features-of-exchange-of-calcium-saliva-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#8
Mykola А Bychkov, Maryana М Yakhnitska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a topical issue of modern gastroenterology. There are a number of scientific papers on changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of saliva, which triggers a cascade of biochemical reactions, the consequence of which is the destruction of the resistance of the mucous membrane of the esophagus. Calcium is a macro element that provides the normal functioning of cells. Parathormone also regulates the metabolism of calcium in the body...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782498/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites-integrate-sterol-and-phospholipid-regulation
#9
Evan Quon, Yves Y Sere, Neha Chauhan, Jesper Johansen, David P Sullivan, Jeremy S Dittman, William J Rice, Robin B Chan, Gilbert di Paolo, Christopher T Beh, Anant K Menon
Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated Δ-super-tether (Δ-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781127/removal-dynamics-of-autoantibodies-immunoglobulins-and-coagulation-factors-by-selective-plasma-exchange-on-three-consecutive-days
#10
Satoko Miyamoto, Atsushi Ohkubo, Hiroshi Seshima, Hiroko Yamamoto, Ayako Itagaki, Takuma Maeda, Naoki Kurashima, Takayasu Mori, Soichiro Iimori, Shotaro Naito, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Tomokazu Okado
Selective plasma exchange has been shown to be effective in various diseases, but no studies have assessed the benefits of daily treatment. We aimed to investigate the removal dynamics of immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, and factor XIII on three consecutive days in three patients. For mean processed plasma volumes of 1.06 × plasma volume, reductions of 79.6%, 49.3%, and 8.6% were seen for immunoglobulins G, A, and M, respectively. The reductions for fibrinogen and factor XIII were 18.4% and 13.0%, respectively...
May 20, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780690/an-update-on-the-treatment-of-pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#11
Cory Stingl, Kathleen Cardinale, Heather Van Mater
Purpose of review: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an increasingly recognized etiology for neuropsychiatric deficits that are highly responsive to immunotherapy. As a result, rheumatologists are often called upon to help with the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pharmacologic treatment of AE. Recent findings: To date, there are no prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials to guide treatment recommendations for AE...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780515/topotactic-anion-exchange-in-thermoelectric-nanostructured-layered-tin-chalcogenides-with-reduced-selenium-content
#12
Guang Han, Srinivas R Popuri, Heather F Greer, Ruizhi Zhang, Lourdes Ferre-Llin, Jan-Willem G Bos, Wuzong Zhou, Michael J Reece, Douglas J Paul, Andrew R Knox, Duncan H Gregory
Anion exchange has been performed with nanoplates of tin sulfide (SnS) via "soft chemical" organic-free solution syntheses to yield layered pseudo-ternary tin chalcogenides on a 10 g-scale. SnS undergoes a topotactic transformation to form a series of S-substituted tin selenide (SnSe) nano/micro-plates with tuneable chalcogenide composition. SnS0.1 Se0.9 nanoplates were spark plasma sintered into phase-pure, textured, dense pellets, the ZT of which has been significantly enhanced to ≈1.16 from ≈0...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779928/the-diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-the-catastrophic-antiphospholipid-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Ricard Cervera, Ignasi Rodríguez-Pintó, Gerard Espinosa
The catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a life-threating variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome characterized by the development of multiple thrombosis in a short period of time, usually ending up in the failure of function of several vital organs. Most CAPS episodes are related to a prothrombotic situation or precipitating factor such as infections, surgical procedures or malignant diseases. In patients with CAPS, the development of multiple thrombosis leads to an important cytokine release that worsens the already critical patient's situation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779787/a-thermodynamic-funnel-drives-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-transfer-in-the-tlr4-pathway
#14
Roland G Huber, Nils A Berglund, Vasileios Kargas, Jan K Marzinek, Daniel A Holdbrook, Syma Khalid, Thomas J Piggot, Artur Schmidtchen, Peter J Bond
The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharide, which potently stimulates the mammalian innate immune response. This involves a relay of specialized complexes culminating in transfer of lipopolysaccharide from CD14 to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its co-receptor MD-2 on the cell surface, leading to activation of downstream inflammatory responses. In this study we develop computational models to trace the TLR4 cascade in near-atomic detail. We demonstrate through rigorous thermodynamic calculations that lipopolysaccharide molecules traversing the receptor cascade fall into a thermodynamic funnel...
April 25, 2018: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776987/mini-dose-glucagon-as-a-novel-approach-to-prevent-exercise-induced-hypoglycemia-in-type-1-diabetes
#15
Michael R Rickels, Stephanie N DuBose, Elena Toschi, Roy W Beck, Alandra S Verdejo, Howard Wolpert, Martin J Cummins, Brett Newswanger, Michael C Riddell
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes who do aerobic exercise often experience a drop in blood glucose concentration that can result in hypoglycemia. Current approaches to prevent exercise-induced hypoglycemia include reduction in insulin dose or ingestion of carbohydrates, but these strategies may still result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. We sought to determine whether mini-dose glucagon (MDG) given subcutaneously before exercise could prevent subsequent glucose lowering, and to compare the glycemic response to current approaches for mitigating exercise-associated hypoglycemia...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776812/preservation-with-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-improves-primary-graft-function-of-murine-lung-transplants
#16
Jessica Götzfried, Natalia F Smirnova, Carmela Morrone, Brice Korkmaz, Ali Önder Yildirim, Oliver Eickelberg, Dieter E Jenne
BACKGROUND: Vascular damage and primary graft dysfunction increase with prolonged preservation times of transplanted donor lungs. Hence, storage and conservation of donated lungs in protein-free, dextran-containing electrolyte solutions, like Perfadex, is limited to about 6 hours. We hypothesized that transplanted lungs are protected against neutrophil-mediated proteolytic damage by adding α1 -anti-trypsin (AAT), a highly abundant human plasma proteinase inhibitor, to Perfadex. METHODS: A realistic clinically oriented murine model of lung transplantation was used to simulate the ischemia-reperfusion process...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776664/rhod-localization-and-function-is-dependent-on-its-gtp-gdp-bound-state-and-unique-n-terminal-motif
#17
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776536/rapid-profiling-and-quantification-of-phospholipid-molecular-species-in-human-plasma-based-on-chemical-derivatization-coupled-with-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Fang Wei, Xiang Wang, Hui-Fang Ma, Xin Lv, Xu-Yan Dong, Hong Chen
In this study, we developed a novel strategy using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with shotgun mass spectrometry (MS) based on trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSCHN2 ) stable-isotope derivatization for rapid profiling and accurate quantification of phospholipids (PLs) in human plasma. HybridSPE-Phospholipid (HybridSPE-PL, zirconia coated silica stationary phase) was used for sample pretreatment via the Lewis acid-base interaction between zirconia and phosphate moiety of PLs. This step allows rapid enrichment and recovery of PLs from human plasma...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774464/eculizumab-in-stec-hus-need-for-a-proper-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Sebastian Loos, Jun Oh, Markus J Kemper
Hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC-HUS) is often associated with a severe morbidity including neurological involvement and a mortality of 1-5%. Although STEC-HUS is often self-limited, improvement of treatment strategies is needed for cases with complications and, among others, plasma exchange/plasmapheresis and use of antibiotics have been advocated. With the availability of the complement blocker eculizumab, now a standard treatment of atypical HUS, several series have addressed its use in STEC-HUS, with variable response; randomized controlled trials are lacking...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773687/the-role-of-intercalated-cell-nedd4-2-in-bp-regulation-ion-transport-and-transporter-expression
#20
Masayoshi Nanami, Truyen D Pham, Young Hee Kim, Baoli Yang, Roy L Sutliff, Olivier Staub, Janet D Klein, Karen I Lopez-Cayuqueo, Regine Chambrey, Annie Y Park, Xiaonan Wang, Vladimir Pech, Jill W Verlander, Susan M Wall
Background Nedd4-2 is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that associates with transport proteins, causing their ubiquitylation, and then internalization and degradation. Previous research has suggested a correlation between Nedd4-2 and BP. In this study, we explored the effect of intercalated cell (IC) Nedd4-2 gene ablation on IC transporter abundance and function and on BP. Methods We generated IC Nedd4-2 knockout mice using Cre-lox technology and produced global pendrin/ Nedd4-2 null mice by breeding global Nedd4-2 null ( Nedd4-2-/- ) mice with global pendrin null ( Slc26a4-/- ) mice...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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