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Plasma and exchange

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547530/reduced-cam-kinase-ii-and-cam-kinase-iv-activities-underlie-cognitive-deficits-in-nckx2-heterozygous-mice
#1
Shigeki Moriguchi, Satomi Kita, Yasushi Yabuki, Ryo Inagaki, Hisanao Izumi, Yuzuru Sasaki, Hideaki Tagashira, Kyoji Horie, Junji Takeda, Takahiro Iwamoto, Kohji Fukunaga
Among five members of the K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCKX) family (NCKX1-5), only NCKX2 is highly expressed in mouse brain. NCKX2 in plasma membranes mediates cytosolic calcium excretion through electrogenic exchange of 4 Na(+) for 1 Ca(2+) and 1 K(+). Here, we observed significantly decreased levels of NCKX2 protein and mRNA in the CA1 region of APP23 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. We also found that, like APP23 mice, heterozygous NCKX2-mutant mice exhibit mildly impaired hippocampal LTP and memory acquisition, the latter based on novel object recognition and passive avoidance tasks...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546457/amino-acid-homeostasis-and-signalling-in-mammalian-cells-and-organisms
#2
REVIEW
Stefan Bröer, Angelika Bröer
Cells have a constant turnover of proteins that recycle most amino acids over time. Net loss is mainly due to amino acid oxidation. Homeostasis is achieved through exchange of essential amino acids with non-essential amino acids and the transfer of amino groups from oxidised amino acids to amino acid biosynthesis. This homeostatic condition is maintained through an active mTORC1 complex. Under amino acid depletion, mTORC1 is inactivated. This increases the breakdown of cellular proteins through autophagy and reduces protein biosynthesis...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543885/dce-mri-prediction-of-survival-time-for-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-using-an-adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-based-model-and-nested-model-selection-technique
#3
Azimeh N V Dehkordi, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Ning Wen, Tom Mikkelsen, Indrin J Chetty, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian
This pilot study investigates the construction of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for the prediction of the survival time of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). ANFIS is trained by the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters estimated by the model selection (MS) technique in dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data analysis, and patient age. DCE-MRI investigations of 33 treatment-naïve patients with GBM were studied. Using the modified Tofts model and MS technique, the following physiologically nested models were constructed: Model 1, no vascular leakage (normal tissue); Model 2, leakage without efflux; Model 3, leakage with bidirectional exchange (influx and efflux)...
May 25, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543448/successful-treatment-of-pure-red-cell-aplasia-because-of-abo-major-mismatched-stem-cell-transplant
#4
Katie Sackett, Claudia S Cohn, Kayla Fahey-Ahrndt, Angela R Smith, Andrew D Johnson
BACKGROUND: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a well-documented potential side effect of ABO major mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants. This side effect may be self-limiting, but is sometimes treated using modalities such as steroids, antithymocyte globulin, donor lymphocyte infusions, rituximab, or plasma exchanges. Another well-documented cause of pure red cell aplasia is a chronic parvovirus B19 infection, which may be seen in immunocompromised hosts. The treatment of this cause of PRCA includes removal of immunosuppression, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), or rituximab; however, this condition may also be self-limiting...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541155/characterization-of-aminoaciduria-and-hypoaminoacidemia-in-dogs-with-hepatocutaneous-syndrome
#5
John P Loftus, Sharon A Center, John M Lucy, Julie A Stanton, Sean P McDonough, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Kenneth A Arceneaux, Molly A Bechtold, Courtney L Bennett, Christina A Bradbury, Martha G Cline, Deborah L Hall-Fonte, Julie F Hammer-Landrum, Janice L Huntingford, Jennifer Marshall, Kristopher S Sharpe, Jessica L Redin, Samuel T Selva, Tomasina A Lucia
OBJECTIVE To characterize aminoaciduria and plasma amino acid concentrations in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome (HCS). ANIMALS 20 client-owned dogs of various breeds and ages. PROCEDURES HCS was definitively diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsy specimens (n = 12), gross and histologic appearance of skin lesions (4), and examination of skin and liver biopsy specimens (2) and presumptively diagnosed on the basis of cutaneous lesions with compatible clinicopathologic and hepatic ultrasonographic (honeycomb or Swiss cheese pattern) findings (2)...
June 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541003/effect-of-early-plasma-exchange-on-survival-in-patients-with-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-a-multicenter-study
#6
Won Sup Oh, Jeong Rae Yoo, Ki Tae Kwon, Hye In Kim, Su Jin Lee, Jae Bum Jun, Seong Yeol Ryu, Hyun Ah Kim, Jian Hur, Yu Mi Wi, Min Hee Lim, Sang Taek Heo
Despite a high mortality rate, no specific treatment for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has been established. This study compared the clinical outcomes of SFTS patients treated with plasma exchange (PE group) with those who were not treated (non-PE group) at nine Korean hospitals between May 2013 and August 2015. A total of 53 SFTS patients were included: 24 (45.3%) PE cases and 29 (54.7%) non-PE cases. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 32.1% (17/53). The in-hospital mortality rate of the PE group did not differ from that of the non-PE group (29...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538511/successful-treatment-of-transplantation-associated-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-with-eculizumab
#7
Daiichiro Hasegawa, Atsuro Saito, Nanako Nino, Suguru Uemura, Satoru Takafuji, Takehito Yokoi, Aiko Kozaki, Toshiaki Ishida, Keiichiro Kawasaki, Takahiro Yasumi, Naoki Sakata, Yasufumi Ohtsuka, Satoshi Hirase, Takeshi Mori, Noriyuki Nishimira, Mayumi Kusumoto, Yoshiharu Ogawa, Kenta Tominaga, Taku Nakagawa, Kyoko Kanda, Ryojiro Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Kosaka
We herein reported a 4-month-old boy with transplantation-associated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (TA-aHUS) who was successfully treated with eculizumab. The patient diagnosed with type 3 of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis underwent cord blood transplantation. After transplantation, he developed TA-aHUS, but plasma exchanges were unsuccessful. We identified deletions in CFH-related gene 1 (del-CFHR1) by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification testing procedure and CFH autoantibodies...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535777/plasma-phospholipid-fatty-acid-profile-confirms-compliance-to-a-novel-saturated-fat-reduced-monounsaturated-fat-enriched-dairy-product-intervention-in-adults-at-moderate-cardiovascular-risk-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Oonagh Markey, Dafni Vasilopoulou, Kirsty E Kliem, Albert Koulman, Colette C Fagan, Keith Summerhill, Laura Y Wang, Alistair S Grandison, David J Humphries, Susan Todd, Kim G Jackson, David I Givens, Julie A Lovegrove
BACKGROUND: Dairy products are a major contributor to dietary SFA. Partial replacement of milk SFA with unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) is possible through oleic-acid rich supplementation of the dairy cow diet. To assess adherence to the intervention of SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched dairy product consumption in the RESET (REplacement of SaturatEd fat in dairy on Total cholesterol) study using 4-d weighed dietary records, in addition to plasma phospholipid FA (PL-FA) status. METHODS: In a randomised, controlled, crossover design, free-living UK participants identified as moderate risk for CVD (n = 54) were required to replace habitually consumed dairy foods (milk, cheese and butter), with study products with a FA profile typical of retail products (control) or SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched profile (modified), for two 12-week periods, separated by an 8-week washout period...
May 23, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535517/coupled-plasma-filtration-adsorption-application-for-liver-and-thyroid-toxins
#9
Gabriele Donati, Irene Capelli, Anna Laura Croci Chiocchini, Nicolò Natali, Anna Scrivo, Gaetano La Manna
Coupled plasma filtration and adsorption (CPFA) is a detoxification system that combines a plasma adsorption circuit and a continuous renal replacement therapy circuit. Its main application is for sepsis and septic shock with or without acute renal failure. Several recent studies have suggested that CPFA can reduce the mortality when the volume of plasma absorbed on the styrenic resin is at least >0.18 L/kg/day. At present, new applications for CPFA are under investigation, also in patients without significant kidney failure...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534960/cellular-na-handling-mechanisms-involved-in-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction-review
#10
Bettina Sommer, Edgar Flores-Soto, Georgina Gonzalez-Avila
A decrease in bronchial diameter is designated as bronchoconstriction (BC) and impedes the flow of air through the airway. Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways, reversible BC and nonspecific hyperreactivity. These last two symptoms are dependent on airway smooth muscle. Stimuli that trigger contraction can be characterized as chemical (neurotransmitters, cytokines and terpenoids) and physical (volume inspired, air pressure). Both stimuli activate signaling pathways by acting on membrane proteins and facilitating the passage of ions through the membrane, generating a voltage change and a subsequent depolarization...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533135/enhanced-local-disorder-in-a-clinically-elusive-von-willebrand-factor-provokes-high-affinity-platelet-clumping
#11
Alexander Tischer, Venkata R Machha, Juan P Frontroth, Maria A Brehm, Tobias Obser, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Leland Mayne, S Walter Englander, Matthew Auton
Mutation of the cysteines forming the disulfide loop of the platelet GPIbα adhesive A1 domain of von Willebrand factor causes quantitative VWF deficiencies in the blood and von Willebrand disease. We report two cases of transient severe thrombocytopenia induced by DDAVP-treatment. Cys1272Trp and Cys1458Tyr mutations identified by genetic sequencing implicate an abnormal gain-of-function phenotype, evidenced by thrombocytopenia, that quickly relapses back to normal platelet counts and deficient plasma VWF. Using surface plasmon resonance, analytical rheology, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS), we decipher mechanisms of A1-GPIbα mediated platelet adhesion and resolve dynamic secondary structure elements that regulate the binding pathway...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532435/early-growth-response-protein-1-regulates-promoter-activity-of-%C3%AE-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-2-a-major-calcium-pump-in-the-brain-and-auditory-system
#12
Rebecca R Minich, Jin Li, Bruce L Tempel
BACKGROUND: Along with sodium/calcium (Ca(2+)) exchangers, plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (ATP2Bs) are main regulators of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. There are four ATP2B paralogs encoded by four different genes. Atp2b2 encodes the protein pump with the fastest activation, ATP2B2. In mice, the Atp2b2 transcript has several alternate transcriptional start site variants: α, β, µ and δ. These variants are expressed in developmental and tissue specific manners. The α and β Atp2b2 transcripts are equally expressed in the brain...
May 22, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531802/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-effect-of-cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-immobilized-on-the-surface-of-silica-nanoparticles-in-rat-experimental-pneumonia
#13
Z Serebrovska, R J Swanson, V Portnichenko, A Shysh, S Pavlovich, L Tumanovska, A Dorovskych, V Lysenko, V Tertykh, Y Bolbukh, V Dosenko
A massage with the potent counter-inflammatory material, cerium dioxide nanoparticles, is promising and the antioxidant properties of CeO2 are considered the main, if not the only, mechanism of this action. Nevertheless, the elimination of ceria nano-particles from the organism is very slow and there is a strong concern for toxic effect of ceria due to its accumulation. To overcome this problem, we engineered a combined material in which cerium nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of silica nanoparticles (CeO2 NP), which is shown to be easily removed from an organism and could be used as carriers for nano-ceria...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530287/microfluidic-self-assembly-of-folate-targeted-monomolecular-sirna-lipid-nanoparticles
#14
R Krzysztoń, B Salem, D J Lee, G Schwake, E Wagner, J O Rädler
Non-viral delivery of nucleic acids for therapies based on RNA interference requires a rational design and optimal self-assembly strategies. Nucleic acid particles need to be small, stable and functional in terms of selective cell uptake and controlled release of encapsulated nucleic acids. Here we report on small (∼38 nm) monomolecular nucleic acid/lipid particles (mNALPs) that contain single molecules of short double-stranded oligonucleotides covered by a tight, highly curved lipid bilayer. The particles consist of DOPE, DOTAP, DOPC and DSPE-PEG(2000) and are assembled with 21 bp double-stranded DNA or small interfering RNA by solvent exchange on a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip...
May 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529915/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-adults-a-case-report
#15
Fabiel Gerardo Pérez-Cruz, Patricia Villa-Díaz, María Consuelo Pintado-Delgado, María Loreto Fernández Rodríguez, Ana Blasco-Martínez, María Pérez-Fernández
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are microvascular occlusive disorders characterized by platelet aggregation and mechanical damage to erythrocytes, clinically characterized by microangiopatic haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and organ injury. We are reporting a case of a woman patient with severe hemolytic uremic syndrome associated to infectious diarrhoea caused by Shiga toxin-producing pathogen, who were admitted to our intensive care unit. The patient described developed as organ injury, neurological failure and acute renal failure, with need of haemodialysis technique...
May 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528413/dissolved-platinum-concentrations-in-coastal-seawater-boso-to-sanriku-areas-japan
#16
Asami Suzuki Mashio, Hajime Obata, Toshitaka Gamo
Platinum, one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in a range of products, such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Increasing use and dispersal of platinum has the potential to affect aquatic environments. Platinum concentrations in open ocean seawater have been found to be very low (approximately 0.2 pmol/L); however, Pt distributions and biogeochemical cycles in coastal areas are unknown. In this study, we investigated Pt concentrations in coastal waters between the Boso and Sanriku areas, Japan, after the 2011 tsunami...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526726/are-phloem-sieve-tubes-leaky-conduits-supported-by-numerous-aquaporins
#17
Ryan C Stanfield, Uwe G Hacke, Joan Laur
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Aquaporin membrane water channels have been previously identified in the phloem of angiosperms, but currently their cellular characterization is lacking, especially in tree species. Pinpointing the cellular location will help generate new hypotheses of how membrane water exchange facilitates sugar transport in plants. METHODS: We studied histological sections of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) in leaf, petiole, and stem organs. Immuno-labeling techniques were used to characterize the distribution of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies of aquaporins along the phloem pathway...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526688/loss-of-the-anion-exchanger-dra-slc26a3-or-pat1-slc26a6-alters-sulfate-transport-by-the-distal-ileum-and-overall-sulfate-homeostasis
#18
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The ileum is considered the primary site of inorganic sulfate (SO4(2-)) absorption. In the present study, we explored the contributions of the apical chloride/bicarbonate (Cl(-)/HCO3(-)) exchangers DRA (Slc26a3), and PAT1 (Slc26a6), to the underlying transport mechanism. Transepithelial (35)SO4(2-) and (36)Cl(-) fluxes were determined across isolated, short-circuited segments of the distal ileum from wild-type (WT), DRA-knockout (KO) and PAT1-KO mice, together with measurements of urine and plasma sulfate. The WT distal ileum supported net sulfate absorption (197...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526373/coffee-consumption-in-aged-mice-increases-energy-production-and-decreases-hepatic-mtor-levels
#19
Keita Takahashi, Shuichi Yanai, Kentaro Shimokado, Akihito Ishigami
OBJECTIVE: Coffee, one of the world's most consumed beverages, has many benefits. Some studies have reported the effects of coffee on aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor activity, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism of aged (20-mo-old) mice given coffee. METHODS: Aged C57 BL/6 NCr mice were divided into three groups: controls that were not given coffee (n = 9), a group that received 0.1% caffeinated coffee (n = 9), and a group that received 0...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526336/activation-of-na-h-exchanger-other-than-formation-of-transmembrane-pore-underlies-the-cytotoxicity-of-nematocyst-venom-from-chrysaora-helvola-brandt-jellyfish
#20
Lanlan Fan, Jun Luo, Xiaoyong Li, Ming Chen, Wei Shu, Xiaosheng Qu
We previously reported unexpected apoptosis-like cell death induced by nematocyst venom (NV) from Chrysaora helvola Brandt (C. helvola) jellyfish. To assess whether the pore formation mechanism underlay the action of NV, the change in cell membrane permeability was studied in both chicken erythrocytes and human CNE-2 cells. Initially, paradoxical results were derived from osmoprotectant protection assays. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)2000, which completely inhibited the NV induced hemolysis, failed to protect CNE-2 cells...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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