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Roberta E Rossi, Tara Whyand, Charles D Murray, Mark I Hamilton, Dario Conte, Martyn E Caplin
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic immune disorders of unclear aetiology. Dietary deficiencies may be a potential pathogenic factor in their development. Patients often take food supplements without knowledge of any evidence base. We have therefore assessed the evidence for food supplementation in the management of IBD. A PubMed search was performed for the terms Inflammatory bowel disease; nutritional deficiencies; dietary supplements; curcumin; green tea; vitamin D/other vitamins; folic acid; iron; zinc; probiotics; andrographis paniculata; and boswellia serrate...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Massimiliano Orri, Jordan Sibeoni, Guilhem Bousquet, Mathilde Labey, Juliette Gueguen, Cyril Laporte, Sabine Winterman, Camille Picard, Clara Nascimbeni, Laurence Verneuil, Anne Revah-Levy
PURPOSE: Patients, family members, and physicians participate in cancer care, but their perspectives about what is helpful during cancer treatment have rarely been compared. The aim of this study was to compare these three perspectives. METHODS: Multicenter qualitative study (with previously published protocol) based on 90 semi-structured interviews. Participants (purposively selected until data saturation) came from three different subsamples: (i) patients with cancer (n=30), (ii) their relatives (n=30), and (iii) their referring physicians (n=10, interviewed more than once)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Eleni Pitta, Olga Balabon, Maciej K Rogacki, Jesús Gómez, Fraser Cunningham, Jurgen Joosens, Koen Augustyns, Pieter van der Veken, Robert Bates
During the construction of bioactive molecules, regioselective alkylation of heterocyclic, N/O ambident nucleophiles is a frequently encountered synthetic transformation. In this framework, specific attention is required to unambiguously determine the structures of obtained reaction products. As part of our project on quinoloxyacetamide based antimycobacterial agents, a series of N- or O- alkylated quinolin-4-ol, 1,5-naphthyridin-4-ol and quinazolin-4-ol derivatives were prepared during the course of which we observed unexpected selectivity issues...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Tom A Hummer, K Luan Phan, David W Kern, Martha K McClintock
Evidence suggests the putative human pheromone Δ4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), a natural component of human sweat, increases attention to emotional information when passively inhaled, even in minute amounts. However, the neural mechanisms underlying androstadienone's impact on the perception of emotional stimuli have not been clarified. To characterize how the compound modifies neural circuitry while attending to emotional information, 22 subjects (11 women) underwent two fMRI scanning sessions, one with an androstadienone solution and one with a carrier control solution alone on their upper lip...
September 29, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Adrian Meule, Martina de Zwaan, Astrid Müller
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and constitutes a common risk factor for a range of behaviors associated with poor self-control (e.g., substance use or binge eating). The short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15) measures impulsive behaviors related to attentional (inability to focus attention or concentrate), motor (acting without thinking), and non-planning (lack of future orientation or forethought) impulsivity. Eating-related measures appear to be particularly related to attentional and motor impulsivity and recent findings suggest that interactive effects between these two facets may play a role in eating- and weight-regulation...
October 5, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Ruud L van den Brink, Peter R Murphy, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small...
2016: PloS One
Hok Sum Sam Lai, Feifei Wang, Yi Li, Boliang Jia, Lianqing Liu, Wen Jung Li
Microsphere-assisted microscopy has received a lot of attention recently due to its simplicity and its capability to surpass the diffraction limit. However, to date, sub-diffraction-limit features have only been observed in virtual images formed through the microspheres. We show that it is possible to form real, super-resolution images using high-refractive index microspheres. Also, we report on how changes to a microsphere's refractive index and size affect image formation and planes. The relationship between the focus position and the additional magnification factor is also investigated using experimental and theoretical methods...
2016: PloS One
Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata, Erika Matsumoto, Shin Matsubara, Eiichiro Ono, Honoo Satake
Forsythia spp. are perennial woody plants which are one of the most extensively used medicinal sources of Chinese medicines and functional diets owing to their lignan contents. Lignans have received widespread attention as leading compounds in the development of antitumor drugs and healthy diets for reducing the risks of lifestyle-related diseases. However, the molecular basis of Forsythia has yet to be established. In this study, we have verified de novo deep transcriptome of Forsythia koreana leaf and callus using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 platform...
2016: PloS One
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Gustav Kuhn, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling...
2016: PloS One
Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Elena Sokolova, Perry Groot, Tom Claassen, Kimm J van Hulzen, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Tom Heskes, Jan Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. METHOD: We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype...
2016: PloS One
Ethan K Sobol, Anne Barmettler
An 11-year-old healthy girl was noted to have intermittent, spontaneous, and bilateral hemolacria of 14 months' duration. Examination and workup failed to identify an organic or psychogenic cause. The patient was expectantly managed with eventual spontaneous resolution. This report draws attention to this unusual and often concerning clinical entity. The case report is in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
October 20, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Caterina Magnani, Diana Giannarelli, Giuseppe Casale
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of breakthrough pain (BTP) provoked by 6 common procedures in patients with advanced disease. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter, national study was performed in 23 palliative care units in Italy. Patients were recruited if they were undergoing one of the following procedures as part of normal care: turning, personal hygiene care, transfer from bed to chair, bladder catheterization, pressure ulcer care, and subcutaneous drug administration...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Sachin S Kumbhar, Ryan B O'Malley, Tracy J Robinson, Suresh Maximin, Neeraj Lalwani, David R Byrd, Carolyn L Wang
Optimal treatment of thyroid cancer is highly dependent on accurate staging of the extent of disease at presentation. Preoperative ultrasonography (US) is the most sensitive method for detecting metastatic lymph nodes and is recommended as part of the standard preoperative workup. Missed findings on preoperative scans may lead to understaging and inadequate surgical management, which subsequently predispose these patients to residual disease postoperatively and a higher risk for recurrence, possibly requiring repeat surgery...
October 21, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Alexandra R McNeill, Adam R Hyndman, Roger J Reeves, Alison J Downard, Martin Ward Allen
ZnO is a prime candidate for future use in transparent electronics however development of practical materials requires attention to factors including control of its unusual surface band bending and surface reactivity. In this work, we have modified the O polar (000(1)over bar), Zn-polar (0001), and m-plane (10(1)over bar0) surfaces of ZnO with phosphonic acid (PA) derivatives and measured the effect on the surface band bending and surface sensitivity to atmospheric oxygen. Core level and valence band synchrotron X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were used to measure the surface band bending introduced by PA modifiers with substituents of opposite polarity dipole moment: octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylphosphonic acid (F13OPA)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fengjiao Chen, Qishan Zhu, Yeyun Wang, Wei Cui, Xiaodong Su, Yanguang Li
Increasing attention has now been focused on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution as a promising route to transform solar energy into chemical fuels. Silicon is one of the most studied PEC electrode materials, but its performance is still limited by its inherent PEC instability and electrochemical inertness toward water splitting. To achieve significant PEC activities, silicon-based photoelectrodes usually have to be coupled with proper cocatalysts, and thus formed semiconductor/cocatalyst interface represents a critical structural parameter in the rational design of efficient PEC devices...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jing Wei, Xiuling Jiao, Ting Wang, Dairong Chen
Ink-free rewritable media has attracted great attention as a potential alternative to current paper prints, owing to its benefits to reducing paper production and consumption for environmental protection. It is desirable to develop rewritable media based on cheap, robust, and fast-response photochromic systems. Herein, we report the design and fabrication of flexible and photorewritable PVP/a-WO3 hybrid membranes through electrospinning, on which images with high resolution can be photoprinted and heat-erased for over 40 cycles...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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