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Anne Rübsam, Sonia Parikh, Patrice E Fort
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness among the working-age population. For decades, diabetic retinopathy was considered only a microvascular complication, but the retinal microvasculature is intimately associated with and governed by neurons and glia, which are affected even prior to clinically detectable vascular lesions. While progress has been made to improve the vascular alterations, there is still no treatment to counteract the early neuro-glial perturbations in diabetic retinopathy...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mingchun Gao, Rongxuan Ye, Weijia Shen, Bin Xu
Copper has been explored as an ideal candidate for replacing noble metals in organic synthesis, especially for practical large scale preparation. Recent decades have witnessed the renaissance and improvement of copper-catalyzed and copper-mediated organic reactions. Copper nitrate is a common inorganic copper salt which has been proved to be a ubiquitous reactant in organic synthesis due to its commercial availability, stability, inexpensiveness and environmentally benign nature. Copper nitrate could be used as a nitration reagent, oxidant, catalyst or promoter, and Lewis acid as well...
March 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Qingfen Yu, Sameh Othman, Sabyasachi Dasgupta, Thorsten Auth, Gerhard Gompper
Nanoparticles in biological systems encounter lipid-bilayer membranes as barriers. They interact with plasma membranes, membranous organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, and intracellular and extracellular vesicles, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and exosomes. Extracellular vesicles have recently attracted particular attention, as they are involved in the transmission of biological signals and as regulators for biological processes. For example, exosomes, small vesicles containing proteins, mRNA, and miRNA, that are released by cells into the extracellular environment, have been suggested to participate in tumor metastasis...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Valérie Poulin, Deirdre R Dawson, Carolina Bottari, Cynthia Verreault, Samantha Turcotte, Alexandra Jean
PURPOSE: To identify and critically appraise the content, readability, reliability and usability of websites providing information for managing cognitive difficulties in everyday life for the families of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Systematic searches on the Internet for relevant websites were conducted using five search engines, and through consultation of the lists of resources published on websites of traumatic brain injury organizations...
March 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Jing-Jy Wang, Yueh-Ying Yang, Mei-Yin Liu
Advancing medical technology continues to extend the average human life span, resulting in population aging globally as well as in Taiwan. The challenges posed by aging society increase not only medical and care costs but also the burden on pension funds and the social welfare system. In addition, there is currently a desperate need for many well-trained health providers as well as a friendly and comprehensive long-term care system. However, attention should not simply focus on medical payments and long-term care, as this may prolong the length of unhealthy living years for the aged and further strain national finances...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Andan Qian, Xin Wang, Huiru Liu, Jiejie Tao, Jiejie Zhou, Qiong Ye, Jiance Li, Chuang Yang, Jingliang Cheng, Ke Zhao, Meihao Wang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that has been linked to the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of regulation of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) on functional brain activity during the resting state in ADHD children using the methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in 49 children with ADHD. All participants were classified as either carriers of the DRD4 4-repeat/4-repeat (4R/4R) allele (n = 30) or the DRD4 2-repeat (2R) allele (n = 19)...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
J J Brugts, G C M Linssen, A W Hoes, H P Brunner-La Rocca
AIMS: Data from patient registries give insight into the management of patients with heart failure (HF), but actual data from unselected real-world HF patients are scarce. Therefore, we performed a cross sectional study of current HF care in the period 2013-2016 among more than 10,000 unselected HF patients at HF outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. METHODS: In 34 participating centres, all 10,910 patients with chronic HF treated at cardiology centres were included in the CHECK-HF registry...
March 21, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
Anna U Morgan, Krisda H Chaiyachati, Gary E Weissman, Joshua M Liao
Gender-based discrimination and bias are widespread in professional settings, including academic medicine. Overt manifestations such as sexual harassment have long been identified but attention is only more recently turning towards subtler forms of bias, including inequity in promotion and compensation. Barriers to progress vary across institutions and include lack of awareness, inadequate training, poor informational transparency, and challenging power dynamics. We propose five solutions that the academic medical community can adopt to not only name, but also address, gender-based bias as the proverbial elephant in the room: definitively identify the systemic nature of the problem, prompt those with influence and power to advance a culture of equity, broadly incorporate evidence-based explicit anti-sexist training, increase transparency of information related to professional development and compensation, and use robust research methods to study the drivers and potential solutions of gender inequity within academic medicine...
March 21, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Zijian Xiao, Ming Xie, Yong You, Heng Wu, Guijuan Zhou, Mingyong Li
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a frequent comorbidity in patients with wake-up stroke (WUS). It affects the occurrence of this disease through its interference of breathing changes and sleep quality. We aim to assess the performances of sleep-disordered breathing in WUS. A systematical search for the studies that investigated sleep-disordered breathing in WUS was done in PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and then analyzed using the Revman 5...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Timm Rosburg, Michael Weigl, Ronja Thiel, Ralph Mager
Mismatch negativity (MMN) represents an event-related potential (ERP) component which is elicited by deviant sound events in an otherwise regular, repetitive stimulation. The MMN amplitude typically decreases when two identical deviants are presented in direct succession, but it remains stable when the two deviants vary from the standard in different features. Less is known about such repetition effects on another ERP component, the P3a, which usually follows the MMN. In the current study, we investigated how the P3a was affected by identical and non-identical repetitions of sound deviants...
March 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Samuel A Barnes, Jared W Young, Athina Markou, Nika Adham, István Gyertyán, Béla Kiss
The article The Effects of Cariprazine and Aripiprazole on PCP-Induced Deficits on Attention Assessed in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task, written by Samuel A. Barnes, Jared W. Young, Athina Markou, Nika Adham, István Gyertyán, Béla Kiss, was originally published electronically.
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jemal Yimer Damte, Shang-Lin Lyu, Ermias Girma Leggesse, Jyh Chiang Jiang
The decomposition of methanol is currently attracting research attention due to the potential widespread applications of its end products. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the adsorption and decomposition of methanol on a Ru-Pt/boron doped graphene surface. We find that the most favorable reaction pathway is methanol (CH3OH) decomposition through O-H bond breaking to form methoxide (CH3O) as the initial step, followed by further dehydrogenation steps which generate formaldehyde (CH2O), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO)...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shishu Zhang, Na Zhang, Yan Zhao, Ting Cheng, Xiaobo Li, Rui Feng, Hua Xu, Zhirong Liu, Jin Zhang, Lianming Tong
Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have attracted tremendous attention and led to a prosperous development in both fundamental investigation and device applications in various fields, such as nanoelectronics, flexible devices, sustainable energy and catalysts. The precise characterization of the structure and properties of 2D materials is in urgent need. Raman scattering spectroscopy is one of the most popular characterization tools that is convenient, rapid and non-invasive. It provides information on both the lattice structure from the frequency of phonon modes and the electronic band structure through the intensity due to electronic resonance Raman scattering...
March 22, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Amena Khatun, Md Saidur Rahman, Myung-Geol Pang
The evaluation of infertility in males consists of physical examination and semen analyses. Standardized semen analyses depend on the descriptive analysis of sperm motility, morphology, and concentration, with a threshold level that must be surpassed to be considered a fertile spermatozoon. Nonetheless, these conventional parameters are not satisfactory for clinicians since 25% of infertility cases worldwide remain unexplained. Therefore, newer tests methods have been established to investigate sperm physiology and functions by monitoring characteristics such as motility, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, reactive oxygen species, sperm DNA damage, chromatin structure, zona pellucida binding, and sperm-oocyte fusion...
March 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Weon-Yoo Kim, Myung-Sup Ko, Se-Won Lee, Kwang-Sub Kim
Purpose: This study characterizes the short-term outcomes of ceramic coated metal-on-metal (MoM) large head total hip arthroplasty (THA) in prospectively selected patients aged 70 to 75 years. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (18 hips) between the ages of 70 and 75-years old with THA using ceramic-coated MoM large heads between June 2014 and December 2014 were evaluated. We prospectively selected patients younger than 70 years for bipolar hemiarthroplasty and older than 75 years for conventional THA...
March 2018: Hip & Pelvis
Hamidreza Tavakoli, Hossein Rastegar, Mahdi Taherian, Mohammad Samadi, Hossein Rostami
Nano packaging is currently one of the most important topics in food packaging technologies. The aim of the application of this technology in food packaging is increasing shelf life of foods by preventing internal and external corruption and microbial contaminations. Use of silver nanoparticles in food packaging has recently attracted much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-silver packaging in increasing the shelf life packages of nuts in an In vitro model. In this experimental study, the effects of different nano-silver concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 3 percent) on biological and chemical properties of 432 samples of nuts including walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds and pistachios were evaluated during 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Daniel H Rosenblatt, Patrick Summerell, Alyssa Ng, Helen Dixon, Carsten Murawski, Melanie Wakefield, Stefan Bode
Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Elisabeth Paul, Lucien Albert, Badibanga N'Sambuka Bisala, Oriane Bodson, Emmanuel Bonnet, Paul Bossyns, Sandro Colombo, Vincent De Brouwere, Alexandre Dumont, Dieudonné Sèdjro Eclou, Karel Gyselinck, Fatoumata Hane, Bruno Marchal, Remo Meloni, Mathieu Noirhomme, Jean-Pierre Noterman, Gorik Ooms, Oumar Mallé Samb, Freddie Ssengooba, Laurence Touré, Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Sara Van Belle, Philippe Vinard, Valéry Ridde
This paper questions the view that performance-based financing (PBF) in the health sector is an effective, efficient and equitable approach to improving the performance of health systems in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). PBF was conceived as an open approach adapted to specific country needs, having the potential to foster system-wide reforms. However, as with many strategies and tools, there is a gap between what was planned and what is actually implemented. This paper argues that PBF as it is currently implemented in many contexts does not satisfy the promises...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Paola Origone, Fabio Gotta, Merit Lamp, Lucia Trevisan, Alessandro Geroldi, Davide Massucco, Matteo Grazzini, Federico Massa, Flavia Ticconi, Matteo Bauckneht, Roberta Marchese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Emilia Bellone, Paola Mandich
Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) is one of the most heterogeneous forms of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias with a large clinical spectrum which can mimic other movement disorders such as Huntington disease (HD), dystonia and parkinsonism. SCA17 is caused by an expansion of CAG/CAA repeat in the Tata binding protein ( TBP ) gene. Normal alleles contain 25 to 40 CAG/CAA repeats, alleles with 50 or greater CAG/CAA repeats are pathological with full penetrance. Alleles with 43 to 49 CAG/CAA repeats were also reported and their penetrance is estimated between 50 and 80%...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
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