keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Branch chain amino acids

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926411/lower-mitochondrial-dna-and-altered-mitochondrial-fuel-metabolism-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-cameroon
#1
Jennifer Jao, Kathleen M Powis, Brian Kirmse, Chunli Yu, Fanny Epie, Emmanuel Nshom, Elaine J Abrams, Rhoda S Sperling, Derek Leroith, Mitchell E Geffner, Irwin J Kurland, Hélène C F Côté
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV/antiretroviral (ARV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) vs. HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants and investigate differences in mitochondrial-related metabolites by exposure group. DESIGN: We enrolled a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant woman/infant pairs in Cameroon. METHODS: Dried blood spot mtDNA:nuclear DNA ratio was measured by monochrome multiplex qPCR in HEU infants exposed to in utero ARVs and postnatal zidovudine (HEU-Z) or nevirapine (HEU-N), and in HUU infants at 6 weeks of life...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926242/structure-function-studies-of-artemisia-tridentata-farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase-and-chrysanthemyl-diphosphate-synthase-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-morphogenesis
#2
J Scott Lee, Jian-Jung Pan, Gurusankar Ramamoorthy, C Dale Poulter
The amino acid sequences of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) from Artemisia tridentata ssp. Spiciformis, minus their chloroplast targeting regions, are 71% identical and 90% similar. FPPase efficiently and selectively synthesizes the "regular" sesquiterpenoid farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) by coupling isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and then to geranyl diphosphate (GPP). In contrast, CPPase is an inefficient promiscuous enzyme, which synthesizes the "irregular" monoterpenes chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), lavandulyl diphosphate (LPP), and trace quantities of maconelliyl diphosphate (MPP) from two molecules of DMAPP, in addition to coupling IPP to DMAPP...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922389/comprehensive-metabolic-characterization-of-serum-osteocalcin-action-in-a-large-non-diabetic-sample
#3
Lukas Entenmann, Maik Pietzner, Anna Artati, Anke Hannemann, Ann-Kristin Henning, Gabi Kastenmüller, Henry Völzke, Matthias Nauck, Jerzy Adamski, Henri Wallaschofski, Nele Friedrich
Recent research suggested a metabolic implication of osteocalcin (OCN) in e.g. insulin sensitivity or steroid production. We used an untargeted metabolomics approach by analyzing plasma and urine samples of 931 participants using mass spectrometry to reveal further metabolic actions of OCN. Several detected relations between OCN and metabolites were strongly linked to renal function, however, a number of associations remained significant after adjustment for renal function. Intermediates of proline catabolism were associated with OCN reflecting the implication in bone metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919799/maple-syrup-urine-disease-mechanisms-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Patrick R Blackburn, Jennifer M Gass, Filippo Pinto E Vairo, Kristen M Farnham, Herjot K Atwal, Sarah Macklin, Eric W Klee, Paldeep S Atwal
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919422/over-expression-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-obese-mice-adipose-tissue-improves-insulin-sensitivity
#5
Haruya Takahashi, Kohei Sanada, Hiroyuki Nagai, Yongjia Li, Yumeko Aoki, Takeshi Ara, Shigeto Seno, Hideo Matsuda, Rina Yu, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is important in the regulation of lipid metabolism and expressed at high levels in the liver. Although PPARα is also expressed in adipose tissue, little is known about the relationship between its activation and the regulation of glucose metabolism. In this study, we developed adipose tissue specific PPARα over-expression (OE) mice. Metabolomics and insulin tolerance tests showed that OE induces branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) profile and improvement of insulin sensitivity...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915252/expression-and-regulation-of-the-neutral-amino-acid-transporter-b0at1-in-rat-small-intestine
#6
Julia Jando, Simone M R Camargo, Brigitte Herzog, François Verrey
Absorption of neutral amino acids across the luminal membrane of intestinal enterocytes is mediated by the broad neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19). Its intestinal expression depends on co-expression of the membrane-anchored peptidase angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and is additionally enhanced by aminopeptidase N (CD13). We investigated in this study the expression of B0AT1 and its auxiliary peptidases as well as its transport function along the rat small intestine. Additionally, we tested its possible short- and long-term regulation by dietary proteins and amino acids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905695/description-of-anaerotignum-aminivorans-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-strictly-anaerobic-amino-acid-decomposing-bacterium-isolated-from-a-methanogenic-reactor-and-reclassification-of-clostridium-propionicum-clostridium-neopropionicum-and-clostridium-lactatifermentans-as
#7
Atsuko Ueki, Kazushi Goto, Yoshimi Ohtaki, Nobuo Kaku, Katsuji Ueki
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (SH021T) was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, motile, straight or slightly curved rods. The optimum temperature for growth was 35 °C, and the optimum pH was 6.1-7.7. The strain was asaccharolytic and utilized amino acids as growth substrates. The strain produced acetate and propionate from l-alanine and l-serine, and propionate and butyrate from l-threonine. Branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-leucine and l-valine) were utilized weakly, and isovalerate or isobutyrate was produced...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904371/acute-interaction-between-hydrocortisone-and-insulin-alters-the-plasma-metabolome-in-humans
#8
Mohammad A Alwashih, Roland H Stimson, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, David G Watson
With the aim of identifying biomarkers of glucocorticoid action and their relationship with biomarkers of insulin action, metabolomic profiling was carried out in plasma samples from twenty healthy men who were administered either a low or medium dose insulin infusion (n = 10 each group). In addition, all subjects were given metyrapone (to inhibit adrenal cortisol secretion) + /- hydrocortisone (HC) in a randomised crossover design to produce low, medium and high glucocorticoid levels. The clearest effects of insulin were to reduce plasma levels of the branched chain amino acids (BCAs) leucine/isoleucine and their deaminated metabolites, and lowered free fatty acids and acylcarnitines...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899914/military-training-elicits-marked-increases-in-plasma-metabolomic-signatures-of-energy-metabolism-lipolysis-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-ketogenesis
#9
J Philip Karl, Lee M Margolis, Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, John W Castellani, Elisabeth H Madslien, Hilde-Kristin Teien, Svein Martini, Scott J Montain, Stefan M Pasiakos
Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878358/enoyl-coa-hydratase-1-regulates-mtor-signaling-and-apoptosis-by-sensing-nutrients
#10
Ya-Kun Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Qu, Yan Lin, Xiao-Hui Wu, Hou-Zao Chen, Xu Wang, Kai-Qiang Zhou, Yun Wei, Fushen Guo, Cui-Fang Yao, Xia-Di He, Li-Xia Liu, Chen Yang, Zong-Yuan Guan, Shi-Dong Wang, Jianyuan Zhao, De-Pei Liu, Shi-Min Zhao, Wei Xu
The oncogenic mechanisms of overnutrition, a confirmed independent cancer risk factor, remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that enoyl-CoA hydratase-1 (ECHS1), the enzyme involved in the oxidation of fatty acids (FAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), senses nutrients and promotes mTOR activation and apoptotic resistance. Nutrients-promoted acetylation of lys(101) of ECHS1 impedes ECHS1 activity by impairing enoyl-CoA binding, promoting ECHS1 degradation and blocking its mitochondrial translocation through inducing ubiquitination...
September 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873647/influence-of-biopolymers-on-the-solubility-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-stability-of-their-solutions
#11
Chi Rac Hong, Gyu Whan Lee, Hyun-Dong Paik, Pahn-Shick Chang, Seung Jun Choi
This study confirmed the possibility of biopolymer-type stabilizers to increase the saturation concentration of branched-chain amino acids by preventing their crystallization/precipitation. Although microfluidization increased the initial solubility, it failed to increase the saturation concentration of the branched-chain amino acids. The saturation concentration of the branched-chain amino acids increased from 3.81% to 4.42% and 4.85% after the incorporation of food hydrocolloids and proteins, respectively...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870476/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-and-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-exercise-recovery-a%C3%A2-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Rahimi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Mehdi Mollahosseini, Kurosh Djafarian
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests positive effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on moderate muscle damage. However, findings vary substantially across studies. The aim of this review was to examine the effect of BCAAs on recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage. METHODS: Controlled trials were identified through a computerized literature search and tracking of citations performed up to November 2015. To pool data, either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model was used; for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I(2) tests were used...
October 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869183/complete-genome-sequence-of-pseudoalteromonas-espejiana-dsm9414-t-an-amino-acid-requiring-strain-from-seawater
#13
Jin-Cheng Rong, Qian-Qian Cha, Xue-Bing Ren, Bin-Bin Xie, Xiao-Yan Song
Strain DSM9414, the type strain of Pseudoalteromonas espejiana, is a Gram-negative, and amino-acid-requiring stain isolated from seawater off the coast of Northern California. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas espejiana DSM9414(T). The genome (4,500,451bp; 40.3% G+C) is composed of two circular chromosomes: chromosome I is 3,720,756bp with 40.4% G+C content and chromosome II is 779,695bp with 39.8% G+C content. Genomic analysis showed that chromosome I encodes a complete set of ABC transporters responsible for branched-chain amino acids, whose homologous proteins were not discovered in other Pseudoalteromonas genomes released...
August 28, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867816/dairy-product-consumption-interacts-with-glucokinase-gck-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#14
Marine S Da Silva, Dominic Chartrand, Marie-Claude Vohl, Olivier Barbier, Iwona Rudkowska
Dairy product intake and a person's genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK) genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856713/leucine-supplementation-after-mechanical-stimulation-activates-protein-synthesis-via-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-vitro
#15
Naoya Nakai, Fuminori Kawano, Taro Murakami, Ken Nakata, Kazuhiko Higashida
Branched-chain amino acid supplements consumed following exercise are widely used to increase muscle mass. Although both exercise (i.e., mechanical stimulation) and branched-chain amino acid leucine supplementation have been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway independently, the mechanisms underlying their synergistic effects are largely unknown. Utilizing cultured differentiated C2C12 myotubes, we established a combination treatment model in which the cells were subjected to cyclic uniaxial mechanical stretching (4 h, 15%, 1 Hz) followed by stimulation with 2 mM leucine for 45 min...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856439/plasma-amino-acids-adiposity-and-weight-change-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-are-amino-acids-associated-with-weight-regain
#16
Susanna E Hanvold, Kathrine J Vinknes, Nasser E Bastani, Cheryl Turner, Elin B Løken, Tom Mala, Helga Refsum, Anne-Marie Aas
PURPOSE: Plasma concentrations of several amino acids (AAs) are positively correlated with obesity. The aim of this study was to examine if selected plasma AAs are associated with weight regain from 2 to 4 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: In a prospective study with 165 patients, we examined the relationship between plasma aromatic AAs (AAAs), branched chain AAs (BCAAs), and total cysteine (tCys) 2 years after RYGB, with BMI at 2 years and with weight change from 2 to 4 years after surgery...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854637/comparative-genomics-of-the-dual-obligate-symbionts-from-the-treehopper-entylia-carinata-hemiptera-membracidae-provide-insight-into-the-origins-and-evolution-of-an-ancient-symbiosis
#17
Meng Mao, Xiushuai Yang, Kirsten Poff, Gordon Bennett
Insect species in the Auchenorrhyncha suborder (Hemiptera) maintain ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that provide essential amino acids (EAAs) deficient in their plant-sap diets. Molecular studies have revealed that two complementary symbiont lineages, "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and a betaproteobacterium ("Ca. Zinderia insecticola" in spittlebugs [Cercopoidea] and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" in leafhoppers [Cicadellidae]) may have persisted in the suborder since its origin ∼300 Ma. However, investigation of how this pair has co-evolved on a genomic level is limited to only a few host lineages...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852372/branched-chain-amino-acids-and-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-humans-myth-or-reality
#18
REVIEW
Robert R Wolfe
The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, valine and isoleucine. A multi-million dollar industry of nutritional supplements has grown around the concept that dietary supplements of BCAAs alone produce an anabolic response in humans driven by a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. In this brief review the theoretical and empirical bases for that claim are discussed. Theoretically, the maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in response to BCAAs alone is the difference between muscle protein breakdown and muscle protein synthesis (about 30% greater than synthesis), because the other EAAs required for synthesis of new protein can only be derived from muscle protein breakdown...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851525/application-of-a-new-procedure-for-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-profiling-of-plasma-amino-acid-related-metabolites-and-untargeted-shotgun-proteomics-to-identify-mechanisms-and-biomarkers-of-calcific-aortic-stenosis
#19
Mariola Olkowicz, Janusz Debski, Patrycja Jablonska, Michal Dadlez, Ryszard T Smolenski
Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAS) increasingly affects our ageing population, but the mechanisms of the disease and its biomarkers are not well established. Recently, plasma amino acid-related metabolite (AA) profiling has attracted attention in studies on pathology and development of biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, but has not been studied in CAS. To evaluate the potential relationship between CAS and AA metabolome, a new ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IP-RPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 43 AAs in plasma of stenotic patients and age-matched control subjects...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844666/genetic-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-transcript-expression-is-involved-in-modulating-serum-triglyceride-and-hdl-cholesterol
#20
Satria P Sajuthi, Neeraj K Sharma, Mary E Comeau, Jeff W Chou, Donald W Bowden, Barry I Freedman, Carl D Langefeld, John S Parks, Swapan K Das
Dyslipidemia is a major contributor to the increased cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that variation in expression of adipose tissue transcripts is associated with serum lipid concentrations in African Americans (AAs), and common genetic variants regulate expression levels of these transcripts. Fasting serum lipid levels, genome-wide transcript expression profiles of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and genome-wide SNP genotypes were analyzed in a cohort of non-diabetic AAs (N=250)...
October 20, 2017: Gene
keyword
keyword
22094
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"