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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212548/branched-chain-amino-acids-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-and-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-mouse-model
#1
Kai Takegoshi, Masao Honda, Hikari Okada, Riuta Takabatake, Naoto Matsuzawa-Nagata, Jean S Campbell, Masashi Nishikawa, Tetsuro Shimakami, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Yoshio Sakai, Taro Yamashita, Toshinari Takamura, Takuji Tanaka, Shuichi Kaneko
Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199774/sarcopenia-predicts-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#2
Tatsunori Hanai, Makoto Shiraki, Satoshi Watanabe, Takahiro Kochi, Kenji Imai, Atsushi Suetsugu, Koji Takai, Hisataka Moriwaki, Masahito Shimizu
AIM: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and sarcopenia impair the health-related quality of life and prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis; however, the relationship between MHE and sarcopenia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate their relationship and to identify the predictors of MHE in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 120 cirrhotic patients who were tested for MHE and sarcopenia. MHE was diagnosed by using the computer-aided neuropsychiatric test...
February 15, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197878/two-homozygous-mutations-in-the-exon-5-of-bckdhb-gene-that-may-cause-the-classic-form-of-maple-syrup-urine-disease
#3
Ling Su, Zhikun Lu, Fatao Li, Yongxian Shao, Huiying Sheng, Yanna Cai, Li Liu
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defects in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Classic form of MSUD (CMSUD) is caused by mutations in BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT genes mostly. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and genetic characteristics of two patients with CMSUD. Two homozygous mutations, c.517G > T (p.Asp173Tyr) and c.503G > A (p.Arg168His), both in the exon 5 of BCKDHB were detected respectively. The novel mutation p...
February 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184960/genetic-evidence-of-a-causal-effect-of-insulin-resistance-on-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels
#4
Yuvaraj Mahendran, Anna Jonsson, Christian T Have, Kristine H Allin, Daniel R Witte, Marit E Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Oluf Pedersen, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Torben Hansen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fasting plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with insulin resistance, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between the two. We aimed to disentangle the causal relations by performing a Mendelian randomisation study using genetic variants associated with circulating BCAA levels and insulin resistance as instrumental variables. METHODS: We measured circulating BCAA levels in blood plasma by NMR spectroscopy in 1,321 individuals from the ADDITION-PRO cohort...
February 10, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178567/defective-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-disrupts-glucose-metabolism-and-sensitizes-the-heart-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Tao Li, Zhen Zhang, Stephen C Kolwicz, Lauren Abell, Nathan D Roe, Maengjo Kim, Bo Zhou, Yang Cao, Julia Ritterhoff, Haiwei Gu, Daniel Raftery, Haipeng Sun, Rong Tian
Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have recently been implicated in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. In a mouse model of impaired BCAA catabolism (knockout [KO]), we found that chronic accumulation of BCAAs suppressed glucose metabolism and sensitized the heart to ischemic injury. High levels of BCAAs selectively disrupted mitochondrial pyruvate utilization through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) activity...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177714/effects-of-high-protein-intake-on-bone-turnover-in-long-term-bed-rest-in-women
#6
Martina Heer, Natalie Baecker, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Sonja Graf, Sara R Zwart, Gianni Biolo, Scott M Smith
PURPOSE: Bed rest (BR) causes bone loss, even in otherwise healthy subjects. Several studies suggest that ambulatory subjects may benefit from high protein intake to stimulate protein synthesis and to maintain muscle mass. However, increasing protein intake above the recommended daily intake without adequate calcium- and potassium intake may increase bone resorption. We hypothesized that a regimen of high protein intake (HiPROT), applied in an isocaloric manner during BR with calcium and potassium intake meeting recommended values, would prevent any effect of BR on bone turnover...
January 19, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177706/the-effects-of-acute-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-on-recovery-from-a-single-bout-of-hypertrophy-exercise-in-resistance-trained-athletes
#7
Mark Waldron, Kieran Whelan, Owen Jeffries, Dean Burt, Louis Howe, Stephen David Patterson
This study investigated the effects of acute branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, among experienced resistance-trained athletes. In a double-blind matched-pairs design, 16 resistance-trained participants, routinely performing hypertrophy training, were randomly assigned to a BCAA (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) group. The BCAAs were administered at a dosage of 0.087 g/kg body mass, with a 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, isoleucine and valine. The participants performed 6 sets of 10 full-squats at 70 % 1RM to induce muscle damage...
January 27, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159840/the-role-of-a-fad-cofactor-in-the-regulation-of-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-by-redox-signaling-molecules
#8
Thierry Lonhienne, Mario D Garcia, Luke W Guddat
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) catalyzes the first step of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis, a pathway essential to the lifecycle of plants and microorganisms. This enzyme is of high interest because its inhibition is at the base of the exceptional potency of herbicides and potentially a target for the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The enzyme has conserved attributes from its predicted ancestor, pyruvate oxidase, such as a ubiquinone-binding site and the requirement for FAD as cofactor...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145418/chronic-dietary-exposure-to-branched-chain-amino-acids-impairs-glucose-disposal-in-vegans-but-not-in-omnivores
#9
J Gojda, L Rossmeislová, R Straková, J Tůmová, M Elkalaf, M Jaček, P Tůma, J Potočková, E Krauzová, P Waldauf, J Trnka, V Štich, M Anděl
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are among nutrients strongly linked with insulin sensitivity (IS) measures. We investigated the effects of a chronic increase of BCAA intake on IS in two groups of healthy subjects differing in their basal consumption of BCAA, that is, vegans and omnivores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eight vegans and eight matched omnivores (five men and three women in each group) received 15 g (women) or 20 g (men) of BCAA daily for 3 months...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130304/ccpa-and-cody-coordinate-acetate-metabolism-in-streptococcus-mutans
#10
Jeong Nam Kim, Robert A Burne
: In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (Ack) convert pyruvate into acetate with the concomitant generation of ATP. The genes for this pathway are tightly regulated by multiple environmental and intracellular inputs, but the basis for differential expression of the genes for Pta and Ack in S. mutans had not been investigated. Here, we show that inactivation in S. mutans of ccpA or codY reduced the activity of the ackA promoter, whereas a ccpA mutant displayed elevated pta promoter activity...
January 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127425/novel-metabolic-and-physiological-functions-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Shihai Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Man Ren, Xiangbing Mao, Shiyan Qiao
It is widely known that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are not only elementary components for building muscle tissue but also participate in increasing protein synthesis in animals and humans. BCAA (isoleucine, leucine and valine) regulate many key signaling pathways, the most classic of which is the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. This signaling pathway connects many diverse physiological and metabolic roles. Recent years have witnessed many striking developments in determining the novel functions of BCAA including: (1) Insufficient or excessive levels of BCAA in the diet enhances lipolysis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089725/high-concentration-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-promotes-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-migration-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-via-mtorc1-activation
#12
Olha Zhenyukh, Esther Civantos, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Maria Soledad Sánchez, Clotilde Vázquez, Concepción Peiró, Jesús Egido, Sebastián Mas
Leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential aminoacids termed branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) due to its aliphatic side-chain. In several pathological and physiological conditions increased BCAA plasma concentrations have been described. Elevated BCAA levels predict insulin resistance development. Moreover, BCAA levels higher than 2mmol/L are neurotoxic by inducing microglial activation in maple syrup urine disease. However, there are no studies about the direct effects of BCAA in circulating cells. We have explored whether BCAA could promote oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors...
January 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060208/branched-chain-amino-acids-bcaas-and-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#13
Bhanu Sharma, David W Lawrence, Michael G Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), pharmaceutical treatment options for brain injury remain limited. However, nutritional intervention (such as with branched chain amino acids [BCAAs]) has emerged as a promising treatment option for TBI. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine whether TBI patients have lower levels of endogenous BCAAs postinjury; and (2) to evaluate whether post-TBI BCAA supplementation improves clinical outcome. DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research articles examining the relationship between BCAAs and TBI recovery indexed in Ovid/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051178/muscle-specific-deletion-of-bdk-amplifies-loss-of-myofibrillar-protein-during-protein-undernutrition
#14
Takuya Ishikawa, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Yoshihiro Kadota, Yukako Morishita, Miki Ota, Fumiya Yamanaka, Minjun Xu, Masahito Ikawa, Naokazu Inoue, Fuminori Kawano, Naoya Nakai, Taro Murakami, Shinji Miura, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei, Yoshiharu Shimomura
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids for mammals and play key roles in the regulation of protein metabolism. However, the effect of BCAA deficiency on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo remains unclear. Here we generated mice with lower BCAA concentrations by specifically accelerating BCAA catabolism in skeletal muscle and heart (BDK-mKO mice). The mice appeared to be healthy without any obvious defects when fed a protein-rich diet; however, bolus ingestion of BCAAs showed that mTORC1 sensitivity in skeletal muscle was enhanced in BDK-mKO mice compared to the corresponding control mice...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036018/effects-of-supplementation-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-to-reduced-protein-diet-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-the-fed-and-fasted-states-in-a-piglet-model
#15
Liufeng Zheng, Hongkui Wei, Pingli He, Shengjun Zhao, Quanhang Xiang, Jiaman Pang, Jian Peng
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA...
December 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032919/expression-of-the-human-isoform-of-glutamate-dehydrogenase-hgdh2-augments-tca-cycle-capacity-and-oxidative-metabolism-of-glutamate-during-glucose-deprivation-in-astrocytes
#16
Jakob D Nissen, Kasper Lykke, Jaroslaw Bryk, Malin H Stridh, Ioannis Zaganas, Dorte M Skytt, Arne Schousboe, Lasse K Bak, Wolfgang Enard, Svante Pääbo, Helle S Waagepetersen
A key enzyme in brain glutamate homeostasis is glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) which links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism mediating glutamate degradation to CO2 and expanding tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle capacity with intermediates, i.e. anaplerosis. Humans express two GDH isoforms, GDH1 and 2, whereas most other mammals express only GDH1. hGDH1 is widely expressed in human brain while hGDH2 is confined to astrocytes. The two isoforms display different enzymatic properties and the nature of these supports that hGDH2 expression in astrocytes potentially increases glutamate oxidation and supports the TCA cycle during energy-demanding processes such as high intensity glutamatergic signaling...
December 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011634/structure-of-the-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-gtp-sensing-global-regulator-cody-from-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Vladimir M Levdikov, Elena V Blagova, Vicki L Young, Boris R Belitsky, Andrey Lebedev, Abraham L Sonenshein, Anthony J Wilkinson
CodY is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and GTP sensor, and a global regulator of transcription in low G + C Gram-positive bacteria. It controls the expression of over 100 genes and operons, principally by repressing during growth genes whose products are required for adaptations to nutrient limitation. CodY consists of a GAF domain that binds BCAAs and a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain that binds to DNA, but the way in which these domains interact and the structural basis of the BCAA-dependence of this interaction are unknown...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011449/association-of-plasma-concentrations-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-with-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-a-large-japanese-population
#18
S Budhathoki, M Iwasaki, T Yamaji, H Yamamoto, Y Kato, S Tsugane
BACKGROUND: Available evidence from animal studies suggests that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may have a protective effect against colorectal carcinogenesis. However, a possible effect of BCAAs against colorectal neoplasia has not been evaluated in humans. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether plasma concentrations of BCAA are associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Colorectal adenoma cases and controls were identified from examinees who underwent total colonoscopy as part of a cancer screening program between 2004 and 2005 and responded to self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaires...
December 22, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995574/metabolite-variation-in-lean-and-obese-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-via-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#19
Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani, Amin Ismail, Faridah Abas
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a complex metabolic disease because it affects the metabolism of glucose and other metabolites. Although many diabetes studies have been conducted in animal models throughout the years, the pathogenesis of this disease, especially between lean diabetes (ND + STZ) and obese diabetes (OB + STZ), is still not fully understood. In this study, the urine from ND + STZ, OB + STZ, lean/control (ND), and OB + STZ rats were collected and compared by using (1)H NMR metabolomics...
December 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987392/urinary-metabolic-profiling-of-cisplatin-nephrotoxicity-and-nephroprotective-effects-of-orthosiphon-stamineus-leaves-elucidated-by-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#20
Raghunath Pariyani, Intan Safinar Ismail, Amalina Azam, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas, Khozirah Shaari, Hazilawati Hamza
Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a popular medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine as a diuretic agent and for renal system disorders. This study employed (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to investigate the possible protective activity of OS in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity owing to its diuretic and antioxidant activities. Aqueous (OSAE) and 50% aqueous ethanolic (OSFE) extracts of OS leaves were orally administered at 400mg/kg BW doses to rats which were then intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin at 5mg/kg BW dose...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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