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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439093/gene-expression-profile-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-bmi-discordant-monozygotic-twin-pairs-unravels-molecular-and-clinical-changes-associated-with-sub-types-of-obesity
#1
M Muniandy, S Heinonen, H Yki-Järvinen, A Hakkarainen, J Lundbom, N Lundbom, J Kaprio, A Rissanen, M Ollikainen, K H Pietiläinen
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) undergoes major changes in obesity, but little is known about the whole-genome scale patterns of these changes or about their variation between different obesity subgroups. We sought to compare how transcriptomics profiles in SAT differ between monozygotic (MZ) co-twins who are discordant for body mass index (BMI), whether the profiles vary between twin pairs and whether the variation can be linked to clinical characteristics. METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptomics (Affymetrix U133 Plus 2...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437198/branched-chain-amino-acids-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-independent-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-subjects-with-varying-degrees-of-glucose-tolerance
#2
Margery A Connelly, Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the extent to which the association of BCAA with insulin resistance is attributable to altered leptin and adiponectin levels in individuals with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. METHODS: BCAA were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, whereas leptin and adiponectin were measured by immunoassay, in subjects with normal fasting glucose (n = 30), impaired fasting glucose (n = 25), and T2DM (n = 15)...
February 21, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417264/branched-chain-amino-acids-and-brain-metabolism
#3
Justin E Sperringer, Adele Addington, Susan M Hutson
This review aims to provide a historical reference of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and provide a link between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) metabolism of BCAAs. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu, Ile, and Val) are unlike most other essential amino acids (AA), being transaminated initially in extrahepatic tissues, and requiring interorgan or intertissue shuttling for complete catabolism. Within the periphery, BCAAs are essential AAs and are required for protein synthesis, and are key nitrogen donors in the form of Glu, Gln, and Ala...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413737/amino-acid-leucine-chromatography-a-study-of-branched-chain-aminoaciduria-in-type-2-diabetes
#4
Bhagavan Reddy Kolanu, Venugopal Boddula, Sabitha Vadakedath, Venkataramana Kandi
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a disease characterized by insulin deficiency resulting in glucose intolerance and in abnormalities of other metabolic fuels including protein. Recently, a number of studies have revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) play an important role in the regulation of protein synthesis by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pancreatic β cells. BCAAs have positive effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis...
March 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412513/wolbachia-induced-loss-of-male-fertility-is-likely-related-to-branch-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-and-ilve-in-laodelphax-striatellus
#5
Jia-Fei Ju, Ary A Hoffmann, Yan-Kai Zhang, Xing-Zhi Duan, Yan Guo, Jun-Tao Gong, Wen-Chao Zhu, Xiao-Yue Hong
Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many species of arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotype in affected hosts, involving embryonic lethality in crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are currently unclear. Here we examine the molecular correlates of the Wolbachia infection in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important rice pest, where embryonic lethality is strong and almost complete...
April 15, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408059/effect-of-a-high-protein-high-fiber-diet-plus-supplementation-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-the-nutritional-status-of-patients-with-cirrhosis
#6
A Ruiz-Margáin, R U Macías-Rodríguez, S L Ríos-Torres, B M Román-Calleja, O Méndez-Guerrero, P Rodríguez-Córdova, A Torre
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The potential benefits of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in cirrhosis extend beyond just the improvement of nutritional status. Their effects include improvement of glucose tolerance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, as has been shown in several studies. A dual nutritional approach of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus BCAAs in cirrhosis could have additional benefits, compared with BCAAs alone. Such an approach has not been explored and therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus BCAA supplementation over a 6-month period of time on the nutritional status of patients with cirrhosis, as well as its safety and tolerability for those same patients...
April 10, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396325/metabolic-genetic-screens-reveal-multidimensional-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression-in-listeria-monocytogenes-and-an-aminopeptidase-that-is-critical-for-prfa-protein-activation
#7
Sivan Friedman, Marika Linsky, Lior Lobel, Lev Rabinovich, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and intracellular bacterial pathogen. Upon invading mammalian cells, the bacterium senses abrupt changes in its metabolic environment, which are rapidly transduced to regulation of virulence gene expression. To explore the relationship between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence, we monitored virulence gene expression dynamics across a library of genetic mutants grown under two metabolic conditions known to activate the virulent state: charcoal-treated rich medium containing glucose 1-phosphate and minimal defined medium containing limiting concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395865/metabolism-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#8
Yiqin Deng, Xiongqi Ding, Xiaochun Huang, Yiying Yang, Chang Chen
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) play important roles in nitrogen metabolism. However, little is known about the metabolism of BCAAs in the fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, the global gene expression patterns of V. alginolyticus ZJ-T cultured in M63 minimal medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate or with three BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine and valine) as nitrogen source were evaluated by transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that 311 genes are up-regulated (|log2(Fold Change)|>1), which are involved in the pathways of flagellar assembly, bacterial chemotaxis and oxidative phosphorylation etc, and meanwhile 251 genes are down-regulated, which are involved in the pathways of BCAAs biosynthesis, selenocompound metabolism and C5-branced dibasic acid metabolism etc...
April 5, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393236/metabolomic-analysis-of-the-saliva-of-japanese-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Mitsuyoshi Ohshima, Keisuke Sugahara, Kiyohiro Kasahara, Akira Katakura
The aim of the present study was to characterize the metabolic systems in Japanese patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) metabolome analysis of saliva samples. A previous study showed variations among ethnicities and tumor sites in the saliva metabolome of patients with OSCC using CE-MS. In the present study, saliva was obtained from 22 Japanese patients with OSCC and from 21 healthy controls who visited the Department of Dentistry, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental Collage Ichikawa General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, and all samples were subject to comprehensive quantitative metabolome analysis using CE-MS...
April 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388946/acetolactate-synthase-regulatory-subunits-play-divergent-and-overlapping-roles-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-synthesis-and-arabidopsis-development
#10
Mohammad H Dezfulian, Curtis Foreman, Espanta Jalili, Mrinal Pal, Rajdeep K Dhaliwal, Don Karl A Roberto, Kathleen M Imre, Susanne E Kohalmi, William L Crosby
BACKGROUND: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are synthesized by plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea with plants being the major source of these amino acids in animal diets. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the first enzyme in the BCAA synthesis pathway. Although the functional contribution of ALS to BCAA biosynthesis has been extensively characterized, a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of this pathway at the molecular level is still lacking. RESULTS: To characterize the regulatory processes governing ALS activity we utilized several complementary approaches...
April 7, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378845/central-adiposity-induced-plasma-free-amino-acid-alterations-are-associated-with-increased-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-singaporean-adults
#11
X Bi, S L Tey, Y T Loo, C J Henry
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent metabolomics technique reveals a plasma-free amino acid (PFAA)-based metabolite signature that is suggestive of altered PFAAs being an early manifestation of obesity-related insulin resistance. However, the PFAA profiles within non-obese, but more insulin-resistant Asians are not well researched. Compared with Caucasians, Asian populations have more central adiposity, which is generally regarded as metabolically more adverse, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371347/genetic-engineering-of-the-branched-fatty-acid-metabolic-pathway-of-bacillus-subtilis-for-the-overproduction-of-surfactin-c14-isoform
#12
Debarun Dhali, François Coutte, Anthony Argüelles Arias, Sandrine Auger, Vladimir Bidnenko, Gabrielle Chataigné, Michael Lalk, Joachim Niehren, Joana de Sousa, Cristian Versari, Philippe Jacques
Surfactin, a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is one of the most powerful biosurfactants known. This molecule consists of a cyclic heptapeptide linked to a β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The isomery and the length of the fatty acid (FA) chain are responsible for the surfactin's activities. In this study, the gene codY, which encode for the global transcriptional regulator and the gene lpdV, located in the bkd operon (lpdV, bkdAA, bkdAB and bkdB genes), which is responsible for the last step of the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation in acyl-CoA were deleted...
April 3, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349034/repeated-sprint-ability-is-not-enhanced-by-caffeine-arginine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-in-moderately-trained-soccer-players
#13
Andrea Ermolao, Tobia Zanotto, Nicolò Carraro, Tommaso Fornasier, Marco Zaccaria, Daniel Neunhaeuserer, Marco Bergamin
The aim was to investigate the effect of a dietary supplementation on the repeated sprint ability (RSA) performance in recreationally trained team sports athletes. Twelve young men underwent a RSA exercise protocol in five trials, in which participants ingested carbohydrates (CHO) plus caffeine (Caf), CHO plus arginine (Arg), CHO plus branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), CHO plus Caf, Arg, and BCAA (ALL), and CHO only. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, hematic lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, average sprint time, total time, best sprint time, peak power, and average power were taken...
February 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341273/branched-chain-amino-acids-enhance-cyst-development-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#14
Junya Yamamoto, Saori Nishio, Fumihiko Hattanda, Daigo Nakazawa, Toru Kimura, Michio Sata, Minoru Makita, Yasunobu Ishikawa, Tatsuya Atsumi
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the progressive development of kidney and liver cysts. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is one of the important pathways regulating cyst growth in ADPKD. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, play a crucial role to activate mTOR pathway. Therefore, we administered BCAA dissolved in the drinking water to Pkd1(flox/flox):Mx1-Cre (cystic) mice from four to 22 weeks of age after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced conditional Pkd1 knockout at two weeks of age...
March 21, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336113/effect-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-ratio-on-the-proliferation-differentiation-and-expression-levels-of-key-regulators-involved-in-protein-metabolism-of-myocytes
#15
Yehui Duan, Liming Zeng, Fengna Li, Wenlong Wang, Yinghui Li, Qiuping Guo, Yujiao Ji, Bi'e Tan, Yulong Yin
OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), are key regulators of protein synthesis in muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different BCAA ratios (Leu:Ile:Val) on the proliferation, differentiation, and expression levels of the regulators related to protein metabolism of C2 C12 myocytes. METHODS: Studies were conducted in C2C12 myocytes exposed to different BCAA ratios (Leu: Ile: Val = 0, 1:0...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326005/bioactivity-of-food-peptides-biological-response-of-rats-to-bovine-milk-whey-peptides-following-acute-exercise
#16
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324240/neurocognitive-profiles-in-msud-school-age-patients
#17
Juliette Bouchereau, Julie Leduc-Leballeur, Samia Pichard, Apolline Imbard, Jean-François Benoist, Marie-Thérèse Abi Warde, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux, Valérie Barbier, Anaïs Brassier, Pierre Broué, Aline Cano, Brigitte Chabrol, Gilles Damon, Claire Gay, Isabelle Guillain, Florence Habarou, Delphine Lamireau, Chris Ottolenghi, Laetitia Paermentier, Frédérique Sabourdy, Guy Touati, Hélène Ogier de Baulny, Pascale de Lonlay, Manuel Schiff
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323986/chronic-intranasal-insulin-does-not-affect-hepatic-lipids-but-lowers-circulating-bcaas-in-healthy-male-subjects
#18
Thomas Scherer, Peter Wolf, Sabina Smajis, Melania Gaggini, Martina Hackl, Amalia Gastaldelli, Peter Klimek, Elisa Einwallner, Rodrig Marculescu, Anton Luger, Clemens Fürnsinn, Siegfried Trattnig, Christoph Buettner, Martin Krššák, Michael Krebs
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and elevated circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In rodents, brain insulin signaling controls both hepatic triglyceride secretion and BCAA catabolism. Whether brain insulin signaling controls similar metabolic pathways in humans is unknown. Objective: Here we assessed if intranasal insulin, a method to preferentially deliver insulin to the central nervous system, is able to modulate hepatic lipid content and plasma BCAAs in humans...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323243/proteomics-of-facs-sorted-heterogeneous-corynebacterium-glutamicum-populations
#19
Andreas Harst, Stefan P Albaum, Tanja Bojarzyn, Christian Trötschel, Ansgar Poetsch
The metabolic status of individual cells in microbial cultures can differ, being relevant for biotechnology, environmental and medical microbiology. However, it is hardly understood in molecular detail due to limitations of current analytical tools. Here, we demonstrate that FACS in combination with proteomics can be used to sort and analyze cell populations based on their metabolic state. A previously established GFP reporter system was used to detect and sort single Corynebacterium glutamicum cells based on the concentration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) using FACS...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296401/effects-of-low-protein-diets-supplemented-with-branched-chain-amino-acid-on-lipid-metabolism-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-piglets
#20
Yinghui Li, Hongkui Wei, Fengna Li, Yehui Duan, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin
This study evaluated the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in low-protein diets on lipid metabolism in dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA), abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA), and perirenal adipose (PRA) tissues. A total of 24 piglets were allotted to four treatments, and each group was fed the adequate protein (AP) diet, low-protein (LP) diet, LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B), or LP diet supplemented with twice BCAA (LP + 2B). Serum concentrations of leptin in the BCAA-supplemented treatments were higher (P < 0...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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