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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804274/non-invasive-urinary-metabolomic-profiling-discriminates-prostate-cancer-from-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#1
Clara Pérez-Rambla, Leonor Puchades-Carrasco, María García-Flores, José Rubio-Briones, José Antonio López-Guerrero, Antonio Pineda-Lucena
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men worldwide. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level has been extensively used as a biomarker to detect PCa. However, PSA is not cancer-specific and various non-malignant conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can cause a rise in PSA blood levels, thus leading to many false positive results. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated the potential of urinary metabolomic profiling for discriminating PCa from BPH...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802074/altered-amino-acid-concentrations-in-nafld-impact-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#2
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Chiara Rosso, Emma Buzzigoli, Milena Marietti, Veronica Della Latta, Demetrio Ciociaro, Maria Lorena Abate, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Amalia Gastaldelli
Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA), in particular branched chain (BCAA), are often found increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, if this is due to increased muscular protein catabolism, obesity and/or increased insulin resistance (IR) or impaired tissue metabolism is not known. Thus, we evaluated a) if subjects with NAFLD non-obese (NAFLD-NO), compared to obese (NAFLD-Ob) display altered plasma AA compared to controls (CT); b) if AA concentrations are associated to IR and liver histology...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#3
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768654/effect-of-the-interaction-between-diet-composition-and-the-ppm1k-genetic-variant-on-insulin-resistance-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-markers-during-weight-loss-results-from-the-nutrient-gene-interactions-in-human-obesity-implications-for-dietary-guidelines-nugenob-randomized
#4
Leticia Goni, Lu Qi, Marta Cuervo, Fermín I Milagro, Wim H Saris, Ian A MacDonald, Dominique Langin, Arne Astrup, Peter Arner, Jean-Michel Oppert, Mathilde Svendstrup, Ellen E Blaak, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Torben Hansen, J Alfredo Martínez
Background: Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The common rs1440581 T allele in the protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1K (PPM1K) gene has been related to elevated BCAA concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: In the present study, we tested whether dietary fat and carbohydrate intakes influenced the association between the rs1440581 PPM1K genetic variant and glucose-metabolism traits during weight loss...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760433/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-in-treatment-of-liver-cirrhosis-updated-views-on-how-to-attenuate-their-harmful-effects-on-cataplerosis-and-ammonia-formation
#5
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) supplementation is common for patients with liver cirrhosis due to decreased levels of BCAA in the blood plasma of these patients, which plays a role in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and cachexia. The unique pharmacologic properties of BCAA also are a factor for use as supplementation in this population. In the present article, BCAA is shown to provide nitrogen to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) for synthesis of glutamate, which is a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) in the brain and muscles...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753661/amino-acid-metabolic-signaling-influences-aedes-aegypti-midgut-microbiome-variability
#6
Sarah M Short, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Hannah J MacLeod, Octavio A C Talyuli, George Dimopoulos
The mosquito midgut microbiota has been shown to influence vector competence for multiple human pathogens. The microbiota is highly variable in the field, and the sources of this variability are not well understood, which limits our ability to understand or predict its effects on pathogen transmission. In this work, we report significant variation in female adult midgut bacterial load between strains of A. aegypti which vary in their susceptibility to dengue virus. Composition of the midgut microbiome was similar overall between the strains, with 81-92% of reads coming from the same five bacterial families, though we did detect differences in the presence of some bacterial families including Flavobacteriaceae and Entobacteriaceae...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752051/repletion-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-reverses-mtorc1-signaling-but-not-improved-metabolism-during-dietary-protein-dilution
#7
Adriano Maida, Jessica S K Chan, Kim A Sjøberg, Annika Zota, Dieter Schmoll, Bente Kiens, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750610/an-exploratory-study-on-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-bcaa-preparation-used-in-combination-with-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Munenori Takata, Eisuke Amiya, Masafumi Watanabe, Yumiko Hosoya, Atsuko Nakayama, Takayuki Fujiwara, Masanobu Taya, Gaku Oguri, Kanako Hyodo, Naoko Takayama, Nami Takano, Tomoe Mashiko, Yukari Uemura, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is generally complicated with patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and its presence negatively affects the course of heart failure, however effective nutritional intervention had not been elucidated yet. The primary objective of this study is to explore whether the addition of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) preparation for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) of patients with CHF further improves cardiopulmonary functions, skeletal muscle functions, and metabolism in comparison with conventional CR...
July 27, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744267/the-staphylococcus-aureus-%C3%AE-acetolactate-synthase-als-confers-resistance-to-nitrosative-stress
#9
Sandra M Carvalho, Anne de Jong, Tomas G Kloosterman, Oscar P Kuipers, Lígia M Saraiva
Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that colonizes the human nasal cavity and is a major cause of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In the nasal cavity, S. aureus thrives with high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the innate immune effectors and has available for growth slow-metabolizing free hexoses, such as galactose. Here, we have used deep sequencing transcriptomic analysis (RNA-Seq) and (1)H-NMR to uncover how S. aureus grown on galactose, a major carbon source present in the nasopharynx, survives the deleterious action of NO...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741271/supplementation-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-ameliorates-hypoalbuminemia-prevents-sarcopenia-and-reduces-fat-accumulation-in-the-skeletal-muscles-of-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#10
Yoichiro Kitajima, Hirokazu Takahashi, Takumi Akiyama, Kenichiro Murayama, Shinji Iwane, Takuya Kuwashiro, Kenichi Tanaka, Seiji Kawazoe, Naofumi Ono, Takahisa Eguchi, Keizo Anzai, Yuichiro Eguchi
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis induces marked metabolic disorders, protein-energy malnutrition, and sarcopenia. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on systemic glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle, and prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 21) were enrolled into a longitudinal study in which their diets were supplemented with BCAAs...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735462/effect-of-decreased-bcaa-synthesis-through-disruption-of-ilvc-gene-on-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#11
Gyu-Lee Kim, Seungyeop Lee, Truc Thanh Luong, Cuong Thach Nguyen, Sang-Sang Park, Suhkneung Pyo, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. It causes a variety of life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. In bacterial physiology, the metabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) plays an important role in virulence. Nonetheless, the function of IlvC, one of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BCAAs, in S. pneumoniae remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that downregulation of BCAA biosynthesis by ilvC ablation can diminish BCAA concentration and expression of pneumolysin (Ply) and LytA, and subsequently attenuate virulence...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734207/in-silico-designing-of-therapeutic-protein-enriched-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-for-the-dietary-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#12
Sunil L, Prasanna Vasu
Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) account for 40-45% of total essential amino acids. BCAA stimulates protein synthesis primarily in skeletal muscles, and it can directly transport to circulatory blood stream bypassing the liver. Hence, a protein enriched with BCAA is an important therapeutic target for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease. The present study is to design a synthetic protein enriched with BCAA and the challenge is to maximize the BCAA content, keeping the balanced ratio of leucine, isoleucine, valine - 2: 1: 1...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728397/effects-of-dietary-valine-lysine-ratio-on-the-performance-amino-acid-composition-of-tissues-and-mrna-expression-of-genes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-of-weaned-piglets
#13
Yetong Xu, Xiaokang Ma, Chunli Wang, Mingfeng Yuan, Xiangshu Piao
Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods: A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) weaned at 28 ± 4 days of age (8.79 ± 0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine: lysine ratios of 50, 60, 70 or 80%...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721839/branched-chain-amino-acid-meat-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#14
Masoud Isanejad, Andrea Z LaCroix, Cynthia A Thomson, Lesley Tinker, Joseph C Larson, Qibin Qi, Lihong Qi, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Lawrence S Phillips, Ross L Prentice, Jeannette M Beasley
Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50-79 years at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data...
June 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719620/endurance-performance-and-energy-metabolism-during-exercise-in-mice-with-a-muscle-specific-defect-in-the-control-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism
#15
Minjun Xu, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Takuya Ishikawa, Yoshihiro Kadota, Chihaya Terai, Daichi Shindo, Takashi Morioka, Miki Ota, Yukako Morishita, Kengo Ishihara, Yoshiharu Shimomura
It is known that the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in skeletal muscle is suppressed under normal and sedentary conditions but is promoted by exercise. BCAA catabolism in muscle tissues is regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex, which is inactivated by phosphorylation by BCKA dehydrogenase kinase (BDK). In the present study, we used muscle-specific BDK deficient mice (BDK-mKO mice) to examine the effect of uncontrolled BCAA catabolism on endurance exercise performance and skeletal muscle energy metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717019/3-hydroxyisobutyryl-coa-hydrolase-involved-in-isoleucine-catabolism-regulates-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#16
Yufang Pan, Juan Yang, Yangmin Gong, Xiaolong Li, Hanhua Hu
Since methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase appears to be absent in the majority of photosynthetic organisms, including diatoms, (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA, the intermediate of isoleucine (Ile) catabolism, cannot be metabolized to (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA then to succinyl-CoA. In this study, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) RNAi silenced strains and 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) overexpression strains were constructed to elucidate the Ile degradation pathway and its influence on lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum based on growth, neutral lipid content and metabolite profile analysis...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713581/short-term-elevation-in-dietary-protein-intake-does-not-worsen-insulin-resistance-or-lipids-in-older-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Il-Young Kim, Scott E Schutzler, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando, Robert H Coker
BACKGROUND: There is a great deal of controversy as to whether higher protein intake improves or worsens insulin sensitivity in humans. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of a short-term elevation in dietary protein on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in twelve older subjects (51-70 yrs) with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Individuals were randomly assigned to one of the dietary groups: recommended protein intake (RPI, 10% of daily calorie intake) or elevated protein intake (EPI, 20% of daily calorie intake) for 4 weeks...
2017: BMC Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705827/3-hydroxyisobutyrate-dehydrogenase-is-involved-in-valine-and-isoleucine-degradation-in-a-thaliana
#18
Peter Schertl, Lennart Danne, Hans-Peter Braun
In plants, amino acid catabolism is especially relevant at metabolic stress situations, e.g. limited carbohydrate availability during extended darkness. Under these conditions, amino acids are used as alternative substrates for respiration. Complete oxidation of the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine in the mitochondria efficiently allows formation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. However, the metabolic pathways for BCAA breakdown are largely unknown so far in plants. A systematic search for Arabidopsis genes encoding proteins resembling enzymes involved in BCAA catabolism in animals, fungi and bacteria as well as proteomic analyses of mitochondrial fractions from Arabidopsis allowed identification of a putative 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, AtHDH1 (At4g20930), involved in Valine degradation...
July 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701315/effect-of-endurance-training-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-the-signaling-for-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-ckd-model-rats-fed-a-low-protein-diet
#19
Takuya Yoshida, Sachika Kakizawa, Yuri Totsuka, Miho Sugimoto, Shinji Miura, Hiromichi Kumagai
A low-protein diet (LPD) protects against the progression of renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, LPD may accelerate muscle wasting in these patients. Both exercise and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are known to increase muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate whether endurance exercise and BCAA play a role for increasing muscle protein synthesis in LPD-fed CKD (5/6 nephrectomized) rats...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699638/bcat1-controls-metabolic-reprogramming-in-activated-human-macrophages-and-is-associated-with-inflammatory-diseases
#20
Adonia E Papathanassiu, Jeong-Hun Ko, Martha Imprialou, Marta Bagnati, Prashant K Srivastava, Hong A Vu, Danilo Cucchi, Stephen P McAdoo, Elitsa A Ananieva, Claudio Mauro, Jacques Behmoaras
Branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) are enzymes that initiate the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), such as leucine, thereby providing macromolecule precursors; however, the function of BCATs in macrophages is unknown. Here we show that BCAT1 is the predominant BCAT isoform in human primary macrophages. We identify ERG240 as a leucine analogue that blocks BCAT1 activity. Selective inhibition of BCAT1 activity results in decreased oxygen consumption and glycolysis. This decrease is associated with reduced IRG1 levels and itaconate synthesis, suggesting involvement of BCAA catabolism through the IRG1/itaconate axis within the tricarboxylic acid cycle in activated macrophages...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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