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Guillermo M Wiemeyer, Miguel A Pérez, Laura Torres Bianchini, Luciano Sampietro, Guillermo F Bravo, N Luis Jácome, Vanesa Astore, Sergio A Lambertucci
Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Juan Guillermo Cárcamo, Marcelo N Aguilar, Constanza F Carreño, Tamara Vera, Luis Arias-Darraz, Jaime E Figueroa, Alex P Romero, Marco Alvarez, Alejandro J Yañez
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Julia I Tandberg, Leidy X Lagos, Petter Langlete, Eva Berger, Anne-Lise Rishovd, Norbert Roos, Deepa Varkey, Ian T Paulsen, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Membrane vesicles (MVs) are spherical particles naturally released from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial MV production is associated with a range of phenotypes including biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, toxin delivery, modulation of host immune responses and virulence. This study reports comparative profiling of MVs from bacterial strains isolated from three widely disperse geographical areas. Mass spectrometry identified 119, 159 and 142 proteins in MVs from three different strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis isolated from salmonids in Chile (LF-89), Norway (NVI 5692) and Canada (NVI 5892), respectively...
2016: PloS One
Julie Ma, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Jorge Delva
Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence-parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression-with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression...
July 2016: Family Relations
Marcelo E Fuentes, Renato A Quinones
Facultative marine filamentous fungi have recently emerged as a functional component in coastal marine systems. However, little is known about their ecological role and functions in biogeochemical cycles. Penicillium decumbens, S. strictum, and F. fujikuroi were isolated from the coastal upwelling zone off south-central Chile. Their carbon profiles were characterized using Biolog FF MicroPlates. These species used a wide range of carbon sources, mainly carbohydrates, but also amino acids, suggesting the use of metabolic routes that include glycolysis/gluconeogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Felipe Caamaño Navarrete, Pedro Delgado Floody, Daniel Jerez Mayorga, Aldo Osorio Poblete
Introducción: bajos niveles de actividad física, moderada y vigorosa, son un factor de riesgo conductual importante en la obesidad en niños.Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar el estado nutricional y la condición física de escolares, comparando los resultados obtenidos por género, obesidad y rendimiento físico.Material y métodos:578 escolares: 308 hombres de 11,22 ± 1,93 años y 270 mujeres de 10,93 ± 1,92 años participaron en la investigación. Fueron evaluados: índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG), contorno de cintura (CC), razón cintura-estatura (RCE) y rendimiento físico según los test del Estudio Nacional de Educación Física de la Agencia de Calidad de la Educación de Chile...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
D A Román, I Pizarro, L Rivera, J Ávila, P Cortés
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. DESIGN: Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry...
October 2016: JRSM Open
F Lanas, C Castro, C Vallejos, L Bustos, C de La Puente, M Velasquez, C Zaror
: Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is a risk factor for ischemic stroke and systemic embolism. New oral anticoagulants are currently available. OBJECTIVE: to assess the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) for apixaban versus acenocoumarol in patients treated in Chile's public health system. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We assessed cost-utility from the payer perspective with a lifetime Markov model. Epidemiologic characteristics, costs, and utilities were obtained from a Chilean cohort; data were completed with information from international literature...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Amílcar E Challú, Sergio Silva-Castañeda
We examine the evolution of adult female heights in twelve Latin American countries during the second half of the twentieth century based on demographic health surveys and related surveys compiled from national and international organizations. Only countries with more than one survey were included, allowing us to cross-examine surveys and correct for biases. We first show that average height varies significantly according to location, from 148.3cm in Guatemala to 158.8cm in Haiti. The evolution of heights over these decades behaves like indicators of human development, showing a steady increase of 2...
October 7, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
Camila Pérez, Gabriela Nazar, Félix Cova
Objective To identify elements that either facilitate or hinder implementation of Chile's intercultural health policy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted with the participation of health services users from the Mapuche ethnic group, biomedical health professionals, intercultural facilitators, and key informants in two health facilities serving towns with a high density of Mapuche population. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were analyzed thematically. Results Factors identified as facilitating the implementation of this policy include laws and regulations pertaining to the rights of indigenous peoples, the empowerment of users around their rights, the formation of implementation teams, the presence of professionals of Mapuche origin in health facilities, and the existence of processes for systematization of the work carried out...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Carolina Luengo, Tatiana Paravic, Sandra Valenzuela
Objective To describe the causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events as identified in the international literature and by key informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Methods The study uses a qualitative descriptive approach. This includes a systematized literature review that follows the SALSA method (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis) and is in line with the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). In addition, interviews were conducted with informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Rafael Hernandez-Hernandez
For the last three-decade cardiovascular disease have been the principal causes of death in most Latin American countries. Their importance has been rising, as in developed countries; such as United State, the mortality rate for CV disease declined in LA rises as in the other developing countries.Cardiovascular risk factors epidemiological studies from LA tend to be limited, and with restrictions on the methodology for sampling and interpretation of results; making most of the studies little comparable each other;on the other hand, population characteristics from country to country and inside each country are so different in ethnicity, habits, socio-economic status which make difficult to integrate and compare results as a whole...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Naja I Beck, Issra Arif, Michelle F Paumier, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. METHODS: We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013...
October 6, 2016: Injury
Zhaogang Yang, Jing Xie, Jing Zhu, Chen Kang, Chiling Chiang, Xinmei Wang, Xiaobing Wang, Tairong Kuang, Feng Chen, Zhou Chen, Aili Zhang, Bo Yu, Robert J Lee, Lesheng Teng, L James Lee
Exosomes, the smallest subgroup of extracellular vesicles, have been recognized as extracellular organelles that contain genetic and proteomic information for long distance intercellular communication. Exosome-based drug delivery is currently a subject of intensive research. Here, we report a novel strategy to produce nanoscale exosome-mimics (EMs) in sufficient quantity for gene delivery in cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Size-controllable EMs were generated at a high yield by serial extrusion of non-tumorigenic epithelial MCF-10A cells through filters with different pore sizes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Johis Ortega, Emma McKim Mitchell, Nilda Peragallo
Most articles on nursing student study abroad experiences are one-sided case studies focusing on students and faculty from developed countries who travel to less developed countries. This article presents the perspectives of students from theUnited States, Chile, Mexico, and Taiwan, both sides of the international exchange experience. Students described the real-world, hands-on experience of immersion in a different health system and professional culture as transformational and having a significant impact on their nursing career goals...
July 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Martin Perez-Santos, Maricruz Anaya-Ruiz, Cindy Bandala
BACKGROUND: Data mining publications and patent data can provide decision support for scientists, inventors and industry in the field of cancer research. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this article it to identify trends of research and patent generation productivity originating from Latin American countries in the field of cancer. METHOD: Publications were collected from the Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed database; and patents were collected from Latipat Espacenet databases...
October 13, 2016: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Chaewon Chang, Changhee Han, Yeongcheol Han, Soon Do Hur, Sanghee Lee, Hideaki Motoyama, Shugui Hou, Sungmin Hong
Well-defined variations in the enrichments and isotopic compositions of Pb have been observed in snow from Dome Fuji and Dome A in the central East Antarctic Plateau (EAP) over the past few decades. The Pb isotopic fingerprints indicate that the rapid increase in Pb enrichments from the mid-1970s, reaching a peak in ~1980, is due to the massive use of leaded gasoline in northern South America, especially Brazil. Since then, they show a continuous decline, mostly due to the significant removal of the Pb additives from gasoline in Brazil in the 1980s and, subsequently, in Argentina and Chile in the 1990s...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ximena Fadic, Fabián Placencia, Ana María Domínguez, Francisco Cereceda-Balic
There is a current tendency to develop and apply environmentally friendly techniques that meet the requirements of green analytical chemistry as an alternative to conventional analytical methods. For toxicity evaluation, these alternatives may be found in bioassays such as Tradescantia. This technique, developed in the 1980s, is highly sensitive to evaluate environmental mutagens, simple and cheap. In this paper, the sensibility of both the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and the Tradescantia stamen hair bioassay (Trad-SH) were studied for carbaryl, dimethoate and iprodione, common agricultural and domestic pesticides that are currently used in Chile, which have never been tested with such bioassays...
October 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Macarena Valladares, Elizabeth Durán, Alexis Matheus, Samuel Durán-Agüero, Ana María Obregón, Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between academic performance and eating behavior in university students in Chile. METHODS: A total of 680 college students, 409 (60%) women and 271 (40%) men, were randomly recruited and the mean age of the entire sample was 26. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which evaluates 3 dimensions of eating behavior-cognitive restriction (limiting own intake), uncontrolled eating (inclination to eat), and emotional eating (control of food intake in the context of negative emotions)-was used...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Boris A López, Erasmo C Macaya, Fadia Tala, Florence Tellier, Martin Thiel
Dispersal on floating seaweeds depends on availability, viability and trajectories of the rafts. In the southern hemisphere, the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica is one of the most common floating seaweeds, but phylogeographic studies had shown low connectivity between populations from continental Chile, which could be due to limitations in local supply and dispersal of floating kelps. To test this hypothesis, the spatiotemporal dynamics of kelp strandings were examined in four biogeographic districts along the Chilean coast (28°-42°S)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Phycology
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