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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350452/anatomical-and-phenological-implications-between-schinus-polygama-cav-cabrera-anacardiaceae-and-the-galling-insect-calophya-rubra-blanchard-hemiptera-psylloidea
#1
Lubia M Guedes, Narciso Aguilera, Bruno G Ferreira, José Becerra, Victor Hernández, Rosy Ms Isaias
The success of galling insects could be determined by synchronization with host plant phenology and climatic conditions, ensuring suitable oviposition sites for gall induction and food resources for their survivorship. The anatomical, histochemical and phenological synchronization strategies between Calophya rubra (Blanchard) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and its host, the evergreen plant Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) (Anacardiaceae), in the Mediterranean climate of southern Chile was herein evaluated, and was compared to that of the congeneric C...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349262/mothers-labor-market-choices-and-child-development-outcomes-in-chile
#2
Sarah A Reynolds, Lia C H Fernald, Jere R Behrman
This paper examines associations between labor market participation of Chilean mothers and the cognitive, language, and socio-economic development of their children. Using a nationally-representative sample of 3-year-old children, we test if mothers' work intensity in the two previous years is associated with child development outcomes; data were collected in 2010 when children were one year old, and again in 2012, when they were three years old. We find that children who were three years old with mothers who worked for higher fractions of their children's lives in the previous two years perform significantly better on all tests (cognitive, language, socio-emotional) than children whose mothers had worked less, while controlling for baseline test performance...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342407/vitamin-d-and-iron-deficiencies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy
#3
C Le Roy, S Barja, C Sepúlveda, M L Guzmán, M Olivarez, M J Figueroa, M Alvarez
INTRODUCTION: Children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) are at a greater risk of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Two deficiencies that we can study and treat are vitaminD (VD) and iron deficiencies; however, no studies have described these deficiencies in Chile. OBJECTIVE: To describe the status of VD and iron in patients with CP and evaluate the relationship with certain factors associated with deficiencies of these micronutrients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study including 69 patients aged between 2 and 21years, from two public hospitals...
January 13, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340515/-illegitimate-patients-undocumented-immigrants-access-to-health-care-in-chile
#4
Nanette Liberona Concha, Miguel Ángel Mansilla
In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services - particularly the public health system - at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337629/biotech-crop-planting-resumes-high-adoption-in-2016
#5
Rhodora R Aldemita, Randy A Hautea
The global area of biotech crops in 2016 increased from 179.7 million hectares to 185.1 million hectares, a 3% increase equivalent to 5.4 million hectares. Some 26 countries planted biotech crops, 19 of which were developing countries and seven were industrial. Information and data collected from various credible sources showed variations from the previous year. Fluctuations in biotech crop area (both increases and decreases) are influenced by factors including, among others, acceptance and commercialization of new products, demand for meat and livestock feeds, weather conditions, global market price, disease/pest pressure, and government's enabling policies...
January 16, 2018: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337283/variability-studies-of-allochthonous-stone-pine-pinus-pinea-l-plantations-in-chile-through-nut-protein-profiling
#6
V Loewe, R M Navarro-Cerrillo, R Sánchez Lucas, F J Ruiz Gómez, J Jorrín-Novo
Stone pine (Pinus pinea) is characterized by low differentiation of growth parameters, high phenotypic plasticity and low genetic variability; detecting its diversity in introduced Chilean populations is therefore relevant for conservation and breeding programs. Here, variability among allochthonous Stone pine populations in Chile was explored using electrophoresis-based proteomic analysis of pine nuts. Cones from 30 populations distributed along a climatic gradient in Chile were surveyed and sampled, and proteins were extracted from seed flour using the TCA-acetone precipitation protocol...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336722/perceptions-on-technology-for-volunteer-respite-care-for-bedridden-elders-in-chile
#7
Esmeralda Abarca, Solange Campos, Valeria Herskovic, Carolina Fuentes
PURPOSE:  Informal caregivers of bedridden elders need a respite. One form of obtaining a respite is through volunteers who are contacted by means of information and communication technology (ICT). METHOD:  A qualitative study was carried out in a low-income district in Santiago, Chile, to learn about how caregivers of bedridden elders perceive the possibility of using ICT to access this respite. In-depth interviews were carried out and transcribed verbatim, then analysed using open coding...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336480/species-co-occurrence-networks-can-they-reveal-trophic-and-non-trophic-interactions-in-ecological-communities
#8
Mara A Freilich, Evie Wieters, Bernardo R Broitman, Pablo A Marquet, Sergio A Navarrete
Co-occurrence methods are increasingly utilized in ecology to infer networks of species interactions where detailed knowledge based on empirical studies is difficult to obtain. Their use is particularly common, but not restricted to, microbial networks constructed from metagenomic analyses. In this study, we test the efficacy of this procedure by comparing an inferred network constructed using spatially intensive co-occurrence data from the rocky intertidal zone in central Chile to a well-resolved, empirically-based, species interaction network from the same region...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332234/attitudes-of-u-s-psychiatry-residents-and-fellows-towards-mental-illness-and-its-causes-a-comparison-study-with-medical-students
#9
Catherine Chiles, Elina Stefanovics, Robert Rosenheck
Stigma towards people with mental illness remains a burden for patients and healthcare providers. This study at a large US university examined the attitudes of psychiatry residents and fellows towards mental illness and its causes, and whether their attitudes differed from the medical student attitudes previously studied utilizing the same survey method. An electronic questionnaire examining attitudes toward people with mental illness, causes of mental Illness, and treatment efficacy was used to survey the attitudes of psychiatry residents and fellows...
January 13, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321870/contrasting-genetic-metrics-and-patterns-among-naturalized-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-in-two-patagonian-lakes-differentially-impacted-by-trout-aquaculture
#10
Cristian B Canales-Aguirre, Lisa W Seeb, James E Seeb, María I Cádiz, Selim S Musleh, Ivan Arismendi, Gonzalo Gajardo, Ricardo Galleguillos, Daniel Gomez-Uchida
Different pathways of propagation and dispersal of non-native species into new environments may have contrasting demographic and genetic impacts on established populations. Repeated introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Chile in South America, initially through stocking and later through aquaculture escapes, provide a unique setting to contrast these two pathways. Using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms, we found contrasting genetic metrics and patterns among naturalized trout in Lake Llanquihue, Chile's largest producer of salmonid smolts for nearly 50 years, and Lake Todos Los Santos (TLS), a reference lake where aquaculture has been prohibited by law...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319741/verbal-abuse-and-mobbing-in-pre-hospital-care-services-in-chile
#11
Varinia Rodríguez Campo, Tatiana Paravic Klijn
OBJECTIVE: to determine the perception of verbal abuse and mobbing and the associated factors of paramedic technicians (nursing assistants) and professionals (nurses, midwives, kinesiologists) in the pre-hospital care areas of three regions in the south of Chile. METHODS: descriptive and correlational study was performed within the professional community and a two-stage sample of the paramedic technician population in three regions. The questionnaire "workplace violence in the health sector" (spanish version) was applied after signing the informed consent...
January 8, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315337/correction-exploitation-rates-of-two-benthic-resources-across-management-regimes-in-central-chile-evidence-of-illegal-fishing-in-artisanal-fisheries-operating-in-open-access-areas
#12
Miguel Andreu-Cazenave, Maria Dulce Subida, Miriam Fernandez
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180012.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314084/proteaceae-from-phosphorus-impoverished-habitats-preferentially-allocate-phosphorus-to-photosynthetic-cells-an-adaptation-improving-phosphorus-use-efficiency
#13
Patrick E Hayes, Peta L Clode, Rafael S Oliveira, Hans Lambers
Plants allocate nutrients to specific leaf cell types; eudicots are thought to predominantly allocate phosphorus (P) to epidermal/bundle-sheath cells. However, three Proteaceae species have been shown to preferentially allocate P to mesophyll cells instead. These Proteaceae species are highly adapted to P-impoverished habitats, with exceptionally high photosynthetic P-use efficiencies (PPUE). We hypothesised that preferential allocation of P to photosynthetic mesophyll cells is an important trait in species adapted to extremely P-impoverished habitats, contributing to their high PPUE...
January 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312813/domestic-carnivore-interactions-with-wildlife-in-the-cape-horn-biosphere-reserve-chile-husbandry-and-perceptions-of-impact-from-a-community-perspective
#14
Elke Schüttler, Lorena Saavedra-Aracena, Jaime E Jiménez
Background: Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. Methods: To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires (n = 244) to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311035/the-reality-of-disability-multidimensional-poverty-of-people-with-disabled-and-their-families-in-latin-america
#15
Mónica Pinilla-Roncancio
BACKGROUND: Disability and poverty are interconnected and although this relationship has been recognised, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support any possible causal relationship in this topic, particularly in the context of Latin America (LA). HYPOTHESIS: This study tests the hypothesis "Disability increases the risk of multidimensional poverty of people living with disabilities and their families". METHODS: Using national census data from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico, the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (Global MPI) was calculated with the aim of measuring and comparing the levels of multidimensional poverty of people living in households with and without disabled members in the five countries...
December 30, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306873/a-critical-review-of-conscientious-objection-and-decriminalisation-of-abortion-in-chile
#16
Adela Montero, Raúl Villarroel
From 1989 through September 2017, Chile's highly restrictive abortion laws exposed women to victimisation and needlessly threatened their health, freedom and even lives. However, after decades of unsuccessful attempts to decriminalise abortion, legislation regulating pregnancy termination on three grounds was recently enacted. In the aftermath, an aggressive conservative drive designed to turn conscientious objection into a pivotal new obstacle, mounted during the congressional debate, has led to extensive, complex arguments about the validity and legitimacy of conscientious objection...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306004/genetic-diversity-and-clonal-characteristics-of-ciprofloxacin-resistant-campylobacter-jejuni-isolated-from-chilean-patients-with-gastroenteritis
#17
Luis Collado, Nataly Muñoz, Lorena Porte, Sofía Ochoa, Carmen Varela, Ivo Muñoz
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, it has also been associated with other diseases such as bacteremia and with several post-infection sequelae. Although campylobacteriosis is usually a self-limited infection, antibiotics are indicated for severe and chronic conditions. Unfortunately, several industrialised nations have reported a substantial increase in antibiotic resistance of C. jejuni. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of resistance developed by this pathogen in the developing world...
January 3, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304181/public-opinion-towards-castration-without-anaesthesia-and-lack-of-access-to-pasture-in-beef-cattle-production
#18
Dayane Lemos Teixeira, Rafael Larraín, Oscar Melo, María José Hötzel
Recent publications have shown that citizens in developing nations are gaining interest in farm animal welfare. The aims of this study were to assess the opinion of Chilean citizens about surgical castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production, to investigate how involvement in livestock production influences opinions, and to evaluate if different types of information would affect their opinion towards these management practices. The study was carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, and consisted of two surveys with 400 participants in each study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297771/social-medicine-and-international-expert-networks-in-latin-america-1930-1945
#19
Eric D Carter
This paper examines the international networks that influenced ideas and policy in social medicine in the 1930s and 1940s in Latin America, focusing on institutional networks organised by the League of Nations Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau. After examining the architecture of these networks, this paper traces their influence on social and health policy in two policy domains: social security and nutrition. Closer scrutiny of a series of international conferences and local media accounts of them reveals that international networks were not just 'conveyor belts' for policy ideas from the industrialised countries of the US and Europe into Latin America; rather, there was often contentious debate over the relevance and appropriateness of health and social policy models in the Latin American context...
January 3, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297362/ethical-challenges-posed-by-clinical-trials-in-preterm-labor-a-case-study
#20
Sofía P Salas
This paper explores the ethical implications of a randomized double-blind clinical trial aimed to determine effectiveness and safety of an oxytocin receptor antagonist versus a betamimetic in the treatment of preterm labor, presented to a teaching hospital affiliated with a private university in Santiago, Chile. Though this trial protocol fulfills one of the conditions under which pregnant women could be enrolled in a clinical trial-the intervention has the potential to benefit the pregnant woman (by reducing adverse effects associated to salbutamol administration) and her fetus (if the new drug prolongs pregnancy)-there are some specific ethical issues raised...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
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