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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922514/the-complexity-of-oral-physiology-and-its-impact-on-salivary-diagnostics
#1
Eva J Helmerhorst, Colin Dawes, Frank G Oppenheim
OBJECTIVES: Saliva contains biomarkers for systemic as well as oral diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the variability in the sources of such biomarkers (plasma, cells), and attempted to identify saliva deterioration markers in order to improve saliva diagnostic outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inter- and intra-subject variation in salivary gingival crevicular fluid levels were determined by measuring salivary albumin and transferrin levels. The purity of collected glandular secretions was determined by bacterial culture, and the variability in epithelial cell numbers by cell counting and optical density measurement...
September 18, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922171/pancreatic-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-potential-marker-of-parasympathetic-denervation
#2
Karoline Knudsen, Bolette Hartmann, Tatyana D Fedorova, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Niels Møller, Jens J Holst, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience several non-motor symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract that may partly be caused by parasympathetic deficiency. The pancreas is densely innervated by the vagus nerve, which mediates early meal-induced secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Early secretion after sham feeding has been validated as a marker of vagal integrity. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the ratio of increased PP plasma levels after sham feeding in PD and correlate findings with gastrointestinal transit time (GITT)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920411/effect-of-inclusion-level-and-adaptation-duration-on-digestible-energy-and-nutrient-digestibility-in-palm-kernel-meal-fed-to-growing-finishing-pigs
#3
Chengfei Huang, Shuai Zhang, Hans-Henrik Stein, Jinbiao Zhao, Defa Li, Changhua Lai
Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level of palm kernel meal (PKM) and adaptation duration on the digestible energy (DE) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Methods: Thirty crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) with an average initial body weight (BW) of 85.0 ± 2.1 kg were fed to 5 diets in a completely randomized design. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 4 additional diets in which corn and soybean meal (SBM) were partly replaced by 10, 20, 30, or 40% PKM...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#4
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919552/accurate-identification-of-anopheles-gambiae-giles-trophic-preferences-by-maldi-tof-ms
#5
Sirama Niare, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Bernard Davoust, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Lionel Almeras
The determination of the trophic preferences of the Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) is a decisive parameter for the monitoring and the prevention of malaria risk transmission. Currently, arthropod blood feeding sources are identified using immunological or molecular biology traditional techniques. Despite the effectiveness of these methods, they present several limitations, and notably, they are time-consuming and costly techniques. A recent study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS could be a useful tool for the identification of blood meal origins in freshly engorged mosquitoes...
September 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916403/a-case-of-severe-acquired-hypertriglyceridemia-in-a-7-year-old-girl
#6
Jessica S Lilley, MacRae F Linton, Jennifer C Kelley, T Brent Graham, Sergio Fazio, Hagai Tavori
We report a case of severe type I hyperlipoproteinemia caused by autoimmunity against lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the context of presymptomatic Sjögren's syndrome. A 7-year-old mixed race (Caucasian/African American) girl was admitted to the intensive care unit at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital with acute pancreatitis and shock. She was previously healthy aside from asthma and history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Admission triglycerides (TGs) were 2191 mg/dL but returned to normal during the hospital stay and in the absence of food intake...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916138/peptide-yy-induces-characteristic-meal-patterns-of-aged-mice
#7
Sachiko Mogami, Chihiro Yamada, Naoki Fujitsuka, Tomohisa Hattori
BACKGROUND & AIM: Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device...
September 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914474/determination-of-net-energy-content-of-soybean-oil-fed-to-growing-pigs-using-indirect-calorimetry
#8
Enkai Li, Zhiqian Lv, Hu Liu, Ling Liu, Yakui Li, Zhongchao Li, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The objectives of this experiment were: (i) to determine the net energy (NE) of soybean oil (SBO) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC); and (ii) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on heat production, oxidative status and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows were allotted to three diets based on completely randomized design with six replicate pigs (period) per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two test diets containing 5% or 10% SBO at the expense of corn and soybean meal...
September 15, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903957/within-day-protein-distribution-does-not-influence-body-composition-responses-during-weight-loss-in-resistance-training-adults-who-are-overweight
#9
Joshua L Hudson, Jung Eun Kim, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Wayne W Campbell
Background: Emerging research suggests that redistributing total protein intake from 1 high-protein meal/d to multiple moderately high-protein meals improves 24-h muscle protein synthesis. Over time, this may promote positive changes in body composition.Objective: We sought to assess the effects of within-day protein intake distribution on changes in body composition during dietary energy restriction and resistance training.Design: In a randomized parallel-design study, 41 men and women [mean ± SEM age: 35 ± 2 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903955/in-the-elderly-meat-protein-assimilation-from-rare-meat-is-lower-than-that-from-meat-that-is-well-done
#10
Caroline Buffière, Claire Gaudichon, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Carole Migné, Valérie Scislowsky, Nadezda Khodorova, Laurent Mosoni, Adeline Blot, Yves Boirie, Dominique Dardevet, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Didier Rémond
Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly.Objectives: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects.Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903804/beyond-the-dinner-table-who-s-having-breakfast-lunch-and-dinner-family-meals-and-which-meals-are-associated-with-better-diet-quality-and-bmi-in-pre-school-children
#11
Jerica M Berge, Kimberly P Truesdale, Nancy E Sherwood, Nathan Mitchell, William J Heerman, Shari Barkin, Donna Matheson, Carolyn E Levers-Landis, Simone A French
OBJECTIVE: Having frequent family dinners is associated with better diet quality in children; however, it is unknown whether the frequency of certain family meal types (i.e. dinner) is more strongly associated with better child weight and diet quality compared with other meal types (i.e. breakfast, lunch). Thus, the current study examined the frequency of eating breakfast, lunch or dinner family meals and associations with pre-school children's overall diet quality (HEI-2010) and BMI percentile...
September 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903773/nutritional-quality-of-meals-and-snacks-assessed-by-the-food-standards-agency-nutrient-profiling-system-in-relation-to-overall-diet-quality-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-in-british-adults
#12
Kentaro Murakami
BACKGROUND: Studies examining meal and snack eating behaviors in relation to overall diet and health markers are limited, at least partly because there is no definitive consensus about what constitutes a snack, a meal, or an eating occasion. This cross-sectional study examined how nutritional quality of meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. METHODS: Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 0600-1000, 1200-1500, and 1800-2100 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15%; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years participating in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey...
September 13, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899652/predicting-preschool-children-s-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-from-maternal-pressure-to-eat-a-longitudinal-study-of-low-income-latina-mothers
#13
Lionor Galindo, Thomas G Power, Ashley D Beck, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
Early work by Klesges et al. (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues, increasing the risk of overeating and obesity (e.g., Johnson & Birch, 1994). Subsequent cross-sectional research on pressure to eat, however, has been inconsistent. Most studies have shown that maternal self-reports of pressure to eat are negatively associated with childhood obesity, and observational studies showed inconsistent relationships with child weight status...
September 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899366/effects-of-physical-activity-calorie-expenditure-pace-labeling-study-design-and-baseline-sample-characteristics
#14
Anthony J Viera, Laura Tuttle, Emily Olsson, Julie Gras-Najjar, Ziya Gizlice, Derek Hales, Laura Linnan, Feng-Chang Lin, Seth M Noar, Alice Ammerman
BACKGROUND: Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. METHODS: In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity...
September 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895878/effect-of-oral-pre-meal-administration-of-betaglucans-on-glycaemic-control-and-variability-in-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes
#15
Anders Frid, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Martin Ridderstråle
We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover pilot study to investigate the effect of oat betaglucans (β-glucan) on glycaemic control and variability in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n = 14). Stomacol(®) tablets (1.53 g of β-glucan) or placebo (Plac) were administered three times daily before meals for two weeks. Glucose levels were monitored during the second week by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). There was an increase in basic measures of glycaemic control (maximal glucose value 341 ± 15 vs...
September 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895794/effect-of-a-short-course-treatment-with-synbiotics-on-plasma-p-cresol-concentration-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#16
Bruna Guida, Mauro Cataldi, Andrea Memoli, Rossella Trio, Martina di Maro, Lucia Grumetto, Ivana Capuano, Stefano Federico, Antonio Pisani, Massimo Sabbatini
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether a short-term course with synbiotics may lower plasma p-Cresol concentrations in kidney transplant patients (KTRs) who accumulate this uremic toxin both because of increased production by their dysbiotic gut microbiome and because of reduced elimination by the transplanted kidneys. METHODS: Thirty-six KTRs (29 males, mean age 49.6 ± 9.1 years) with transplant vintage > 12 months, stable graft function, and no episode of acute rejection or infection in the last 3 months were enrolled in this single-center, parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized (2:1 synbiotic to placebo) study...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895431/timing-of-meal-insulin-and-its-relation-to-adherence-to-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#17
Karishma A Datye, Claire T Boyle, Jill Simmons, Daniel J Moore, Sarah S Jaser, Nicole Sheanon, Julie M Kittelsrud, Stephanie E Woerner, Kellee M Miller
The purpose of this study is to examine timing of meal insulin and further determine whether an association exists between timing of meal insulin and missed meal insulin doses. The cohort included 4768 T1D Exchange clinic registry participants <26 years with type 1 diabetes ≥1 year. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and regression were used to assess the relationship between participant characteristics and timing of meal insulin and missed meal doses, respectively. Timing of meal insulin and association with missed meal doses was analyzed using logistic regression...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894623/ethnopharmacological-values-of-cassava-and-its-potential-for-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-management-knowledge-survey-and-critical-review-of-report
#18
Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Bonaventure C Onodu, Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor, Mathew O Sedowo, John N Okuzor, Richard J Culas
BACKGROUND: Beyond nutritional values are the pharmacological potentials of cassava comparative with other staple carbohydrate plant-based foods such as wheat. The knowledge of applicability to diabetes and its cardiovascular complications management seems not just limited but unacknowledged. As a preliminary study, a community's knowledge of pharmacological value of cassava is investigated. METHODS: Descriptive observational study using questionnaire-based "cross-sectional" survey was conducted...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893333/review-use-of-human-edible-animal-feeds-by-ruminant-livestock
#19
J M Wilkinson, M R F Lee
The drive to increase the output of animal product in some sectors of ruminant livestock production has led to greater use of feeds such as cereal grains and soyabean meal that are potentially human-edible. This trend has caused concern since, by so doing, ruminants compete not only with monogastric livestock but also with the human population for a limited global area of cultivatable land on which to produce grain crops. Reasons for using potentially human-edible feeds in ruminant diets include increased total daily energy intake, greater supply of essential amino acids and improved ruminal balance between fermentable energy and degradable protein...
September 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891723/state-mandated-nutrition-physical-activity-and-screen-time-policies-in-child-care-centers
#20
Catherina Chang-Martinez, Nasar U Ahmed, Ruby A Natale, Sarah E Messiah
BACKGROUND: The child care center (CCC) environment presents opportunities for healthy weight promotion in preschoolers. Our study examined the current state of CCC adherence to nutrition, physical activity, and screen time legislative regulations and the differences in their adherence by center socioeconomic position (SEP: low, middle, high) in Miami-Dade County. METHOD: In 34 CCC, we used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool to evaluate nutrition, physical activity, and screen time practices during 1-school day...
September 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
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