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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816489/the-path-to-an-autism-spectrum-disorders-diagnosis-in-ethiopia-parent-perspective
#1
Waganesh A Zeleke, Tammy Hughes, Morgan Chitiyo
This study explores the common characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the available diagnostic and intervention currently practiced for children with ASDs in Ethiopia based on parents' experience. Data gathered from 100 parents in Ethiopia detail the difficulties families face when they suspect their child has an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The data indicate Ethiopian parents pursued a diagnosis of ASD after noting common ASD behaviors such as hand flapping and unusual attachments to objects...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816464/influence-of-father-infant-relationship-on-infant-development-a-father-involvement-intervention-in-vietnam
#2
Lynn A Rempel, John K Rempel, Toan Nang Khuc, Le Thi Vui
We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semiurban district were recruited to the intervention group...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813289/the-transition-to-parenthood-impact-on-couples-romantic-relationships
#3
REVIEW
Brian D Doss, Galena K Rhoades
The birth of the first baby-often referred to as the transition to parenthood (TTP)-is both a time of great joy and great stress for new parents. Although the literature is mixed, the preponderance of evidence suggests that the TTP has a negative effect on relationship functioning for most couples. However, as children age, the relationship functioning of parents and non-parents converge. Notably, there are important moderators of this average trajectory; couples with higher levels of pre-birth relationship problems, insecurely attached parents, temperamentally difficult infants, and TTP following biological birth rather than adoption are associated with larger post-birth declines...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813275/child-maltreatment-the-central-roles-of-parenting-capacities-and-attachment
#4
REVIEW
Chantal Cyr, Lenneke Ra Alink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813267/protective-parenting-neurobiological-and-behavioral-dimensions
#5
REVIEW
Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
The current review focuses on a dimension of parenting that has largely been neglected in studies on human parenting, namely parental protection. Human protective parenting can be observed already during pregnancy, when mothers experiencing morning sickness avoid foods that are likely to carry pathogens and thus could be harmful to the fetus. After the birth of the baby, one of the foremost anxieties of parents is that their child will be abused or killed by strangers. Protective parenting seems to be a species-wide evolutionary-based behavior complementary to the innate bias of each newborn to strive for proximity to a potentially protective attachment figure...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813260/pairing-attachment-theory-and-social-learning-theory-in-video-feedback-intervention-to-promote-positive-parenting
#6
REVIEW
Femmie Juffer, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) is a social-learning and attachment-based intervention using video feedback to support sensitive parenting and at the same time setting firm limits. Empirical studies and meta-analyses have shown that sensitive parenting is the key determinant to promote secure child-parent attachment relationships and that adequate parental discipline contributes to fewer behavior problems in children. Building on this evidence, VIPP-SD has been tested in various populations of at-risk parents and vulnerable children (in the age range of zero to six years), as well as in the context of child care...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813257/social-learning-parenting-intervention-research-in-the-era-of-translational-neuroscience
#7
REVIEW
Philip A Fisher, Elizabeth A Skowron
In the decades since social learning parenting interventions emerged, many evidence-based programs have been implemented at scale in community settings, and much research is now focusing on ways to maintain fidelity and impact during the implementation process. Notably, a considerable amount of theoretical confluence has occurred in parenting interventions from social learning, attachment, and other theoretical perspectives, with parent coaching as an example of this new generation of relational interventions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813253/attachment-theory-progress-and-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
R M Pasco Fearon, Glenn I Roisman
Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812973/parent-adolescent-attachment-and-procrastination-the-mediating-role-of-self-worth
#9
Bin-Bin Chen
Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination...
July 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805399/mind-matters-a-meta-analysis-on-parental-mentalization-and-sensitivity-as-predictors-of-infant-parent-attachment
#10
Moniek A J Zeegers, Cristina Colonnesi, Geert-Jan J M Stams, Elizabeth Meins
Major developments in attachment research over the past 2 decades have introduced parental mentalization as a predictor of infant-parent attachment security. Parental mentalization is the degree to which parents show frequent, coherent, or appropriate appreciation of their infants' internal states. The present study examined the triangular relations between parental mentalization, parental sensitivity, and attachment security. A total of 20 effect sizes (N = 974) on the relation between parental mentalization and attachment, 82 effect sizes (N = 6,664) on the relation between sensitivity and attachment, and 24 effect sizes (N = 2,029) on the relation between mentalization and sensitivity were subjected to multilevel meta-analyses...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805141/inhibited-attachment-disordered-behavior-in-institutionalized-preschool-children-links-with-early-and-current-relational-experiences
#11
Raquel Corval, Jay Belsky, Joana Baptista, Paula Oliveira, Ana Mesquita, Isabel Soares
Inhibited attachment disordered behavior (IADB) is characterized by difficulty in establishing an attachment relationship with a primary caregiver; is associated with persistent social and emotional problems; and is observed most frequently in contexts of pathological care such as institutional rearing. Here, we seek to enhance understanding of the conditions that give rise to IADB among institutionalized children by examining prior family experiences of neglect and deprivation and concurrent relational experiences at the institution...
August 14, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803040/attachment-and-thought-problems-in-an-adolescent-inpatient-sample-the-mediational-role-of-theory-of-mind
#12
Jessica R Hart, Amanda Venta, Carla Sharp
BACKGROUND: Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist...
July 13, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795817/achieving-high-performances-of-nondoped-oleds-using-carbazole-and-diphenylphosphoryl-functionalized-ir-iii-complexes-as-active-components
#13
Hui-Ting Mao, Chun-Xiu Zang, Guo-Gang Shan, Hai-Zhu Sun, Wen-Fa Xie, Zhong-Min Su
Nondoped electroluminescent devices offer advantages over their doped counterparts such as good reproducibility, reduced phase separation between host and guest materials, and potential of lower-cost devices. However, low luminance efficiencies and significant roll-off values are longstanding issues for nondoped devices, and a rational design strategy for the preparation of efficient phosphors is highly desired. In this work, cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes 3CzIr(mtpy), 4CzIr(mtpy), 3POIr(mtpy), and 4POIr(mtpy) bearing carbazole (Cz) or diphenylphosphoryl (Ph2PO) groups substituted at different positions of 1,2-diphenyl-H-benzimidazole (HPBI) were designed and synthesized...
August 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790146/cyp1a1-mediated-intramolecular-rearrangement-of-aminoazepane-in-gdc-0339
#14
Ryan H Takahashi, Xiaojing Wang, Nathaniel L Segraves, Jing Wang, Jae H Chang, Siamak Cyrus Khojasteh, Shuguang Ma
GDC-0339 is a novel small molecule pan-Pim kinase inhibitor that was discovered as a potential treatment for multiple myeloma. During the in vitro and in vivo metabolite profiling of GDC-0339, a metabolite was detected that had the same elemental composition as the parent but was distinct based on chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern. High resolution MS/MS data indicated the metabolite was modified at the aminoazepane moiety. The structure was solved by NMR analysis of the isolated metabolite and further confirmed by comparing it to a synthetic standard...
August 8, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789530/dissociation-dynamics-of-transient-anion-formed-via-electron-attachment-to-sulfur-dioxide
#15
K Gope, V S Prabhudesai, N J Mason, E Krishnakumar
We report the molecular dynamics of dissociative electron attachment to sulfur dioxide (SO2) by measuring the momentum distribution of fragment anions using the velocity slice imaging technique in the electron energy range of 2-10 eV. The S(-) channel results from symmetric dissociation which exhibits competition between the stretch mode and bending mode of vibration in the excited parent anion. The asymmetric dissociation of parent anions leads to the production of O(-) and SO(-) channels where the corresponding neutral fragments are formed in their ground as well as excited electronic states...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766081/casual-effects-of-informal-care-and-health-on-falls-and-other-accidents-among-the-elderly-population-in-china
#16
Hong Wu, Naiji Lu, Chenguang Wang, Xinming Tu
PURPOSE: This article analyzes the causal effects of informal care, mental health, and physical health on falls and other accidents (e.g., traffic accidents) among elderly people. We also examine if there are heterogeneous impacts on elderly of different gender, urban status, and past accident history. METHODS: To purge potential reversal causal effects, e.g., past accidents induce more future informal care, we use two-stage least squares to identify the impacts...
August 1, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753089/emerging-criteria-for-the-low-coherence-cannot-classify-category
#17
Anna Maria Speranza, Giampaolo Nicolais, Carola Maggiora Vergano, Nino Dazzi
As suggested by Main et al., to respond to the need for an adaptation of the existing Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) coding system, especially regarding the application to nonnormative samples, this study presents additional criteria that characterize the low-coherence cannot classify (CC) category. Three AAIs were selected from a sample of parents of maltreated children. All transcripts indicated a very low coherence, with no evidence of contradictory insecure discourse strategies. Moreover, global category descriptors were identified, together with specific indices of discourse characteristics and features that highlight the breakdown in reasoning and discourse experienced by the speakers...
July 28, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747508/mutations-in-the-e2-glycoprotein-and-the-3-untranslated-region-enhance-chikungunya-virus-virulence-in-mice
#18
David W Hawman, Kathryn S Carpentier, Julie M Fox, Nicholas A May, Wes Sanders, Stephanie A Montgomery, Nathaniel J Moorman, Michael S Diamond, Thomas E Morrison
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal pain and inflammation and can persist for months to years after acute infection. Although studies in humans and experimentally-infected animals suggest that CHIKV infection persists in musculoskeletal tissues, the mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. To evaluate this further, we isolated CHIKV from the serum of persistently infected Rag1(-/-) mice at day 28. When inoculated into naïve WT mice, this persistently circulating CHIKV strain displayed a capacity for earlier dissemination and greater pathogenicity compared with the parental virus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747497/the-genetic-stability-of-piv5-vectored-rsv-vaccine-candidates-after-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-passage
#19
Shannon I Phan, Carolyn M Adam, Zhenhai Chen, Michael Citron, Xiaoping Liang, Amy S Espeseth, Dai Wang, Biao He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infections in children, but no licensed vaccine exists. Previously, our laboratory developed two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based RSV vaccine candidates that protect mice against RSV challenge. PIV5 was engineered to express either the RSV fusion protein (F) or the RSV major attachment glycoprotein (G) between the HN and L genes of the PIV5 genome [PIV5-RSV-F (HN-L) or PIV5-RSV-G (HN-L)]. To investigate the stability of the vaccine candidates in vitro, they were passaged in Vero cells at high and low multiplicities of infection (MOI) for eleven generations and the genome sequences, growth kinetics, and protein expression of the resulting viruses were compared with those of the parent viruses...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745311/outer-membrane-vesicle-associated-lipase-ftla-enhances-cellular-invasion-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis-lvs
#20
Fei Chen, Guolin Cui, Shuxia Wang, Manoj Kumar Mohan Nair, Lihong He, Xinyi Qi, Xiangmin Han, Hanqi Zhang, Jing-Ren Zhang, Jingliang Su
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen that infects a wide range of host species and causes fatal pneumonic tularemia in humans. ftlA was identified as a potential virulence determinant of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in our previous transposon screen, but its function remained undefined. Here, we show that an unmarked deletion mutant of ftlA was avirulent in a pneumonia mouse model with a severely impaired capacity to infect host cells. Consistent with its sequence homology with GDSL lipase/esterase family proteins, the FtlA protein displayed lipolytic activity in both E...
July 26, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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