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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471655/long-lived-transient-anion-of-c-c-4-f-8-o
#1
J Kočišek, R Janečková, J Fedor
We report partial cross sections for electron attachment to c-C4 F8 O, a gas with promising technological applications in free-electron-rich environments. The dissociative electron attachment leads to a number of anionic fragments resulting from complex bond-breaking and bond-forming processes. However, the anion with the highest abundance is the non-dissociated (transient) parent anion which is formed around 0.9 eV electron energy. Its lifetime reaches tens of microseconds. We discuss the origin of this long lifetime, the anion's strong interactions with other molecules, and the consequences for electron-scavenging properties of c-C4 F8 O in denser environments, in particular for its use in mixtures with CO2 and N2 ...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471178/a-role-for-epistemic-trust-in-speech-language-pathology-a-tutorial-paper
#2
Angela Clarke, Pamela J Meredith, Tanya A Rose, Michael Daubney
This paper provides an introduction to epistemic trust for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). 'Epistemic trust' describes a specific form of trust that an individual places in others when learning about the world, particularly the social world. To date, the relevance of epistemic trust to SLP clinical practice has received little theoretical or empirical attention. The aim of this paper is to define epistemic trust and explain its relationship with parent-child attachment and mentalization which have, in turn, been linked with language development and use...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468774/flexible-parents-joint-effects-of-handicapping-and-brood-size-manipulation-on-female-parental-care-in-nicrophorus-vespilloides
#3
Tom Ratz, Per T Smiseth
Parental care is highly variable, reflecting that parents make flexible decisions in response to variation in the cost of care to themselves and the benefit to their offspring. Much of the evidence that parents respond to such variation derives from handicapping and brood size manipulations, the separate effects of which are well understood. However, little is known about their joint effects. Here we fill this gap by conducting a joint handicapping and brood size manipulation in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451299/low-childhood-subjective-social-status-and-telomere-length-in-adulthood-the-role-of-attachment-orientations
#4
Kyle W Murdock, Annina Seiler, Diana A Chirinos, Luz M Garcini, Sally L Acebo, Sheldon Cohen, Christopher P Fagundes
Low subjective social status (SSS) in childhood places one at greater risk of a number of health problems in adulthood. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that exposure to supportive parenting may buffer the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health. Given the importance of supportive caregivers and close others for the development of attachment orientations throughout the lifespan, attachment theory may be important for understanding why some individuals are resilient to the negative effects of low childhood SSS on adult health while others are not...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449822/attachment-patterns-and-complex-trauma-in-a-sample-of-adults-diagnosed-with-gender-dysphoria
#5
Guido Giovanardi, Roberto Vitelli, Carola Maggiora Vergano, Alexandro Fortunato, Luca Chianura, Vittorio Lingiardi, Anna Maria Speranza
The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienced four or more traumatic forms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448185/the-effect-of-parental-style-on-bullying-and-cyber-bullying-behaviors-and-the-mediating-role-of-peer-attachment-relationships-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Kyriakos Charalampous, Constantina Demetriou, Loukia Tricha, Myria Ioannou, Stelios Georgiou, Militsa Nikiforou, Panayiotis Stavrinides
The purpose of the present study was the examination of the longitudinal effect of parental style on short-term changes in conventional and cyber forms of bullying/victimization, and the investigation of the mediating role of peer attachment relationships on this effect. The participants were 861 children and adolescents (52% girls, M age = 11.72 years) attending Cyprus public institutions. Students provided information during three measurement points. There was a six and a 12 week interval among the three measurement points, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436970/why-did-i-get-cancer-perceptions-of-childhood-cancer-survivors-in-korea
#7
Jaehee Yi, Min Ah Kim, Bridget G Parsons, Yelena P Wu
This study explored whether and how childhood cancer survivors in Korea ask and resolve the question of what may have caused their cancer. Thirty-one childhood cancer survivors participated in in-depth interviews about their self-questioning process in this regard. The findings indicate that Korean childhood cancer survivors pondered this question alone due to the stigma attached to cancer in the family and society. Their answers included internal factors (doing "bad things," having unhealthy eating habits, engaging in magical thinking, having a stress-prone personality, or having a biological susceptibility) or external factors (stressors, random events, the environment, or medical conditions)...
February 13, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436774/oxytocin-structure-and-function-in-new-world-monkeys-from-pharmacology-to-behavior
#8
Aaryn Mustoe, Jack H Taylor, Jeffrey A French
Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic nonapeptide that mediates a host of physiological and behavioral processes including reproductive physiology and social attachments. While the OT sequence structure is highly conserved among mammals, New World monkeys (NWMs) represent an unusual 'hot spot' in OT structure variability among mammals. At least six distinct OT ligand variants among NWMs exist, yet it is currently unclear whether these evolved structural changes result in meaningful functional consequences. NWMs offer a new area to explore how these modifications to OT and its canonical G-protein coupled OT receptor (OTR) may mediate specific cellular, physiological, and behavioral outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435357/right-from-the-start-protocol-for-a-pilot-study-for-a-randomised-trial-of-the-new-baby-programme-for-improving-outcomes-for-children-born-to-socially-vulnerable-mothers
#9
Geraldine Macdonald, Fiona Alderdice, Mike Clarke, Oliver Perra, Fiona Lynn, Theresa McShane, Sharon Millen
Background: Children born to mothers who experience social complexity (e.g. substance misuse, intimate partner violence, mental ill health, a history of maltreatment) are at increased risk for a range of adverse outcomes at birth and during development. Home visiting programmes have been advocated as a strategy for improving outcomes for disadvantaged mothers and children, such as the Nurse-Family Partnership for young, socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. However, no evidence-based programme is available for multiparous women or older first-time mothers...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433399/death-caused-by-appendicular-knotting-and-small-bowel-strangulation-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-review
#10
Andres Rodriguez Zorro, Jairo Hernando Vivas Diaz
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies in paediatrics. However, acute appendicitis in early infancy is an uncommon condition. Furthermore, strangulation of the small intestine through appendicular knotting is described as very unusual in the literature and is generally not well-diagnosed in the clinical context. This article reports the case of a 23-month-old girl who entered the emergency department with a three-day history of abdominal symptoms and who died in less than 24 hours without receiving surgical intervention...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421367/mothers-fathers-sons-and-daughters-are-there-sex-differences-in-the-organization-of-secure-base-behavior-during-early-childhood
#11
Carla Fernandes, Manuela Veríssimo, Ligia Monteiro, Marta Antunes, Brian E Vaughn, António J Santos
Recent empirical studies reporting sex differences in attachment relationships have prompted investigators to consider why and under what conditions such results might be observed. This study was designed to explore possibilities of identifying sex differences in the organization of attachment-relevant behavior during early childhood. Observations of 119 children (59 boys) with their mothers and (separately) with their fathers were completed and children were described using the AQS. Results indicated that girls and boys did not differ with respect to global attachment security but at more specific level analyses revealed differences between parents that reflected differences in the behaviors of girls vs...
February 5, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413138/mitigating-the-effect-of-persistent-postnatal-depression-on-child-outcomes-through-an-intervention-to-treat-depression-and-improve-parenting-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Alan Stein, Elena Netsi, Peter J Lawrence, Charlotte Granger, Claire Kempton, Michelle G Craske, Alecia Nickless, Jill Mollison, D Anne Stewart, Elizabeth Rapa, Valerie West, Gaia Scerif, Peter J Cooper, Lynne Murray
BACKGROUND: Maternal postnatal depression occurs following 10-15% of births and is associated with a range of negative child outcomes. Risks to children are particularly increased when postnatal depression is persistent. We aimed to examine whether a parenting video-feedback therapy (VFT) intervention versus a control treatment of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), both added to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for persistent postnatal depression, would lead to improved child outcomes at age 2 years...
February 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408095/promoting-or-suppressing-resilience-to-mental-health-outcomes-in-at-risk-young-people-the-role-of-parental-and-peer-attachment-and-school-connectedness
#13
Jeremy Oldfield, Andrew Stevenson, Emily Ortiz, Bethany Haley
Adolescent attachment relationships formed with parents are salient predictors of mental health. Few studies, however, have demonstrated whether peer attachment or school connectedness can predict resilience to mental health difficulties when a young person is at risk due to poor parental attachment. Ninety adolescents (44 females and 46 males) living in economically disadvantaged areas and attending informal schooling projects in and around Guatemala City participated. Participants completed self-report measures of parental and peer attachment, school connectedness and mental health...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405368/proactive-telephone-support-provided-to-breastfeeding-mothers-of-preterm-infants-after-discharge-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Jenny Ericson, Mats Eriksson, Lena Hellström-Westas, Pat Hoddinott, Renée Flacking
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants after discharge from neonatal intensive care units (NICU). METHODS: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a randomised controlled trial was conducted at six NICUs across Sweden. At each NICU, a breastfeeding support team recruited, randomised and delivered the support to participating mothers. The intervention group received a daily proactive telephone call up to 14 days after discharge from the support team...
February 6, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402240/internal-structure-and-reliability-of-the-attachment-insecurity-screening-inventory-aisi-for-children-age-6-to-12
#15
Anouk Spruit, Inge Wissink, Marc J Noom, Cristina Colonnesi, Nelleke Polderman, Lucia Willems, Charlotte Barning, Geert Jan J M Stams
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the internal structure and reliability of the Attachment Insecurity Screening Inventory (AISI) 6-12. The AISI 6-12 years is a parent-report questionnaire for assessing the parents' perspective on the quality of the attachment relationship with their child aged between 6 and 12 years. METHODS: The sample consisted of 681 mothers and fathers reporting on 372 children (72.3% adoption parents, 14.9% non-biological primary care takers including foster parents, and 12...
February 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402188/middle-childhood-attachment-strategies-validation-of-an-observational-measure
#16
Laura E Brumariu, Kathryn R Giuseppone, Kathryn A Kerns, Magali Van de Walle, Jean-François Bureau, Guy Bosmans, Karlen Lyons-Ruth
The purpose of this study was to assess behavioral manifestations of attachment in middle childhood, and to evaluate their relations with key theoretical correlates. The sample consisted of 87 children (aged 10-12 years) and their mothers. Dyads participated in an 8-min videotaped discussion of a conflict in their relationships, later scored with the Middle Childhood Attachment Strategies Coding System (MCAS) for key features of all child attachment patterns described in previous literature (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, disorganized-disoriented, caregiving/role-confused, hostile/punitive)...
February 5, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402159/death-is-not-the-end-a-register-based-study-of-the-effect-of-parental-death-on-adult-children-s-childbearing-behavior-in-sweden
#17
Johan Dahlberg
Macro-level studies have shown that rapid increases in mortality can affect fertility rates. Parental death has also been linked to negative psychological and physical outcomes, reduced relationship quality, and making bereaved children attach more importance to their families. No prior study has examined whether parental death influences adult children's fertility at the microlevel. This study applies event history techniques to Swedish multigeneration registers listing 1.5 million individuals with micro data on mortality and fertility to investigate short-term (first birth risk) and long-term (childlessness at age 45) effects of parental death on adult children's fertility...
January 1, 2018: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398086/autolysin-mediated-adherence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-with-fibronectin-gelatin-and-heparin
#18
Chandni Porayath, Maneesha K Suresh, Raja Biswas, Bipin G Nair, Nandita Mishra, Sanjay Pal
Major autolysin (Atl) of Staphylococcus aureusis a cell surface associated peptidoglycan hydrolase with amidase and glucosaminidase domains. Atl enzymes (amidase and glucosaminidase) are known to participate in biofilm formation and also can bind with host matrices. Earlier studies demonstrated the binding of Atlwithfibronectin, thrombospondin 1, vitronectin and heat shock cognate protein Hsc70. Here, we have shown, Atl mediates attachment of S.aureus to heparin and gelatine as well. The atl mutant strain demonstrated around 2...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392524/is-mindful-parenting-associated-with-adolescents-well-being-in-early-and-middle-late-adolescence-the-mediating-role-of-adolescents-attachment-representations-self-compassion-and-mindfulness
#19
Helena Moreira, Maria João Gouveia, Maria Cristina Canavarro
There is some evidence that mindful parenting, a parenting approach that involves the practice of bringing mindful awareness to the parent-child relationship, is associated with several positive psychosocial outcomes in adolescents. However, only a few studies have investigated the mechanisms that may underlie that association. This study explores whether the link between mindful parenting and adolescents' well-being is mediated by adolescents' attachment representations, self-compassion and mindfulness skills...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388115/breastfeeding-parenting-and-infant-attachment-behaviors
#20
Benjamin G Gibbs, Renata Forste, Emily Lybbert
Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting...
January 31, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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