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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080438/maladaptive-schemas-mediate-poor-parental-attachment-and-suicidality-in-college-students
#1
Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Kali Thompson, Candice Selwyn, Heather Finnegan, Tiffany Misra
In college-aged adults (n = 766), the transition to adulthood may aggravate risk factors for suicidal behavior such as poor parental attachment and maladaptive self-schemas. Since poor parental attachment may facilitate developing maladaptive self-related schemas, this study was designed to determine whether specific maladaptive schemas mediate the relation between poor parental attachment and college students' suicide proneness and ideation. Findings supported this hypothesis. Defectiveness and emotional deprivation schemas, which are consistent with "perceived burdensomeness" and "thwarted belonging" (Joiner, 2005 ), may be important intervention targets for suicide prevention programs...
January 12, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079529/leveraging-the-skills-of-nurses-and-the-power-of-language-nutrition-to-ensure-a-better-future-for-children
#2
Ashley Darcy Mahoney, Lauren Head Zauche, Sunny Hallowell, Arianne Weldon, Jennifer Stapel-Wax
BACKGROUND: Early language exposure is critical for language acquisition and significantly influences a child's literacy skills. However, preterm infants may experience language deprivation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Nurses are vital to helping parents understand their critical role in early language development. PURPOSE: To discuss the impact of language-rich interactions and interventions that promote early language exposure, or Language Nutrition, by parents and caregivers on the long-term developmental, language, and educational outcomes of high-risk infants...
January 11, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072039/a-mother-s-borderline-personality-disorder-and-her-sensitivity-autonomy-support-hostility-fearful-disoriented-behavior-and-role-reversal-with-her-young-child
#3
Jenny Macfie, Gretchen Kurdziel, Rebecca M Mahan, Stephanie Kors
There is some evidence that maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) adversely affects parenting in infancy, resulting in disorganized attachment, which longitudinally predicts BPD symptoms in adulthood. We examined parenting related to disorganized attachment beyond infancy in offspring of mothers with BPD, when parenting becomes a goal-corrected partnership. We observed puzzle solving in a low socioeconomic status (SES) sample of mothers with BPD and their children ages 4-7, n = 36, and normative comparisons, n = 34...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064289/views-of-faculty-members-in-a-medical-school-with-regards-to-error-disclosure-and-reporting-to-parents-and-or-higher-authorities
#4
C H Wong, A C L Phuah, N S Y Naik, W S Choo, H S Y Ting, S M L Kuan, C L Teng, N Sivalingam
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the views of faculty members who train medical students concerning open disclosure. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the views of faculty in a medical school on: 1 what constitutes a medical error and the severity of such an error in relation to medication use or diagnosis; 2 information giving following such an adverse event, based on severity; and 3 acknowledgement of responsibility, remedial action, compensation, disciplinary action, legal action, and reporting to a higher body in relation to such adverse event...
October 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057318/peer-attachment-perceived-parenting-style-self-concept-and-school-adjustments-in-adolescents-with-chronic-illness
#5
Jeong-Ah Ahn, Sunhee Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the National Youth Policy Institute to measure peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment...
December 2016: Asian Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054798/parental-mentalizing-as-an-indirect-link-between-attachment-anxiety-and-parenting-satisfaction
#6
Margaret L Burkhart, Jessica L Borelli, Hannah F Rasmussen, Robin Brody, David A Sbarra
Attachment anxiety in parents is associated with lower quality parent-child relationships. An inhibited capacity to reflect on children's mental states, referred to as prementalizing, may reduce the pleasure parents derive from their relationships. In the current study, we explored the associations among attachment anxiety, prementalizing, and parenting satisfaction in two groups of participants randomly assigned either to reflect on a positive memory with their child (n = 150) or to reflect on a positive memory not involving their child (n = 150)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043901/mother-child-language-style-matching-predicts-children-s-and-mothers-emotion-reactivity
#7
Hannah F Rasmussen, Jessica L Borelli, Patricia A Smiley, Chloe Cohen, Ryan Cheuk Ming Cheung, Schuyler Fox, Matthew Marvin, Betsy Blackard
Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042513/the-development-of-children-placed-into-different-types-of-russian-families-following-an-institutional-intervention
#8
Robert B McCall, Rifkat J Muhamedrahimov, Christina J Groark, Oleg I Palmov, Natalia V Nikiforova, Jennifer L Salaway, Megan M Julian
This study examined whether interventions in Russian Baby Homes promoting warm, sensitive, and responsive caregiver-child interactions and relationships would be associated with advantages in those children's behavior years after they transitioned to family care. Children (N = 135) who had resided for at least 3 months (M = 13.8 months) in one of three intervention institutions were subsequently placed in Russian families (relatives or non-relatives) for at least 1 year (M = 33.5 months). When children were 1...
October 2016: International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041836/the-neurobiology-of-human-attachments
#9
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman
Attachment bonds are a defining feature of mammals. A conceptual framework on human attachments is presented, integrating insights from animal research with neuroimaging studies. Four mammalian bonds are described, including parent-infant, pair-bonds, peers, and conspecifics, all built upon systems shaped by maternal provisions during sensitive periods, and evolution from rodents to humans is detailed. Bonding is underpinned by crosstalk of oxytocin and dopamine in striatum, combining motivation and vigor with social focus, and their time sensitivity/pulsatility enables reorganization of neural networks...
December 29, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039139/n-glycosylation-is-important-for-proper-haloferax-volcanii-s-layer-stability-and-function
#10
Adi Tamir, Jerry Eichler
: N-glycosylation, the covalent linkage of glycans to select Asn residues of target proteins, is an almost universal post-translational modification in archaea. However, whereas roles for N-glycosylation have been defined in eukarya and bacteria, the function of archaeal N-glycosylation remains unclear. Here, the impact of perturbed N-glycosylation on the structure and physiology of the haloarchaea Haloferax volcanii was considered. Cryo-electron microscopy was used to examine right-side out membrane vesicles prepared from cells of a parent strain and from strains lacking genes encoding glycosyltransferases involved in assembling the N-linked pentasaccharide decorating the surface (S)-layer glycoprotein, the sole component of the S-layer surrounding Hfx...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038375/synthesis-and-photophysical-properties-of-halogenated-derivatives-of-dibenzoylmethanato-boron-difluoride
#11
Yuriy N Kononevich, Nikolay M Surin, Viacheslav A Sazhnikov, Evgeniya A Svidchenko, Vladimir M Aristarkhov, Andrei A Safonov, Alexander A Bagaturyants, Mikhail V Alfimov, Aziz M Muzafarov
A series of (dibenzoylmethanato)boron difluoride (BF2DBM) derivatives with a halogen atom in one of the phenyl rings at the para-position were synthesized and used to elucidate the effects of changing the attached halogen atom on the photophysical properties of BF2DBM. The room-temperature absorption and fluorescence maxima of fluoro-, chloro-, bromo- and iodo-substituted derivatives of BF2DBM in THF are red-shifted by about 2-10nm relative to the corresponding peaks of the parent BF2DBM. The fluorescence quantum yields of the halogenated BF2DBMs (except the iodinated derivative) are larger than that of the unsubstituted BF2DBM...
December 19, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035593/a-qualitative-study-of-factors-influencing-decision-making-after-prenatal-diagnosis-of-down-syndrome
#12
Amy R Reed, Kathryn L Berrier
Previous research has identified twenty-six factors that may affect pregnancy management decisions following prenatal diagnosis of DS; however, there is no consensus about the relative importance or effects of these factors. In order to better understand patient decision-making, we conducted expansive cognitive interviews with nine former patients who received a prenatal diagnosis of DS. Our results suggest that patients attached unique meanings to factors influencing decision-making regardless of the pregnancy outcome...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029169/the-past-is-present-representations-of-parents-friends-and-romantic-partners-predict-subsequent-romantic-representations
#13
Wyndol Furman, Charlene Collibee
This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7...
December 28, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026196/unresolved-loss-a-risk-factor-for-offspring-predicts-event-related-potential-responses-to-death-related-imagery
#14
Naomi I Gribneau Bahm, Emiliana R Simon-Thomas, Mary Main, Erik Hesse
This study investigates whether individual differences in attachment status can be detected by electrophysiological responses to loss-themed pictures. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to identify discourse/reasoning lapses during the discussion of loss experiences via death that place speakers in the Unresolved/disorganized AAI category. In parents, Unresolved AAI status has been associated with Disorganized infant Strange Situation response, a known risk factor for psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing/dissociation)...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013063/emotional-attachment-of-pre-weaning-pups-to-mothers-and-fathers-in-mandarin-voles
#15
Zhixiong He, Shuwei Zhang, Chengjun Yu, Yani Li, Rui Jia, Fadao Tai
Studies into the effects of maternal and paternal deprivation on the brain and behavior are traditionally done on animals from postnatal day 0 to 14 when parents display high levels of licking and grooming. Deprivation experiments that reveal attachment conducted during this period are confounded because physiological and emotional deprivation occur simultaneously. Whether rodent pups of greater physiological independence from postnatal 14 to 21days show emotional attachment towards mothers and fathers remains unclear...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007448/bioreductively-activatable-prodrug-conjugates-of-phenstatin-designed-to-target-tumor-hypoxia
#16
Blake A Winn, Zhe Shi, Graham J Carlson, Yifan Wang, Benson L Nguyen, Evan M Kelly, R David Ross, Ernest Hamel, David J Chaplin, Mary L Trawick, Kevin G Pinney
A variety of solid tumor cancers contain significant regions of hypoxia, which provide unique challenges for targeting by potent anticancer agents. Bioreductively activatable prodrug conjugates (BAPCs) represent a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention. BAPCs are designed to be biologically inert until they come into contact with low oxygen tension, at which point reductase enzyme mediated cleavage releases the parent anticancer agent in a tumor-specific manner. Phenstatin is a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization, mimicking the chemical structure and biological activity of the natural product combretastatin A-4...
December 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004962/failing-the-duck-test-reply-to-barbaro-boutwell-barnes-and-shackelford-2017
#17
Marije L Verhage, Carlo Schuengel, R M Pasco Fearon, Sheri Madigan, Mirjam Oosterman, Rosalinda Cassibba, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
In this reply, we respond to the critique by Barbaro, Boutwell, Barnes, and Shackelford (2017) in regard to our recent meta-analysis of intergenerational transmission of attachment (Verhage et al., 2016). Barbaro et al. (2017) claim that the influence of shared environment on attachment decreases with age, whereas unique environmental and genetic influences increase, which they felt was disregarded in our meta-analysis. Their criticisms, we argue, are based on a misunderstanding of the core tenets of attachment theory...
January 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004961/rethinking-the-transmission-gap-what-behavioral-genetics-and-evolutionary-psychology-mean-for-attachment-theory-a-comment-on-verhage-et-al-2016
#18
Nicole Barbaro, Brian B Boutwell, J C Barnes, Todd K Shackelford
Traditional attachment theory posits that attachment in infancy and early childhood is the result of intergenerational transmission of attachment from parents to offspring. Verhage et al. (2016) present meta-analytic evidence addressing the intergenerational transmission of attachment between caregivers and young children. In this commentary, we argue that their appraisal of the behavioral genetics literature is incomplete. The suggested research focus on shared environmental effects may dissuade the pursuit of profitable avenues of research and may hinder progress in attachment theory...
January 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999555/intergenerational-transmission-of-reflective-functioning
#19
Anna M Rosso, Cinzia Airaldi
The present study investigated whether, and to what extent, reflective functioning (RF) during preadolescence is associated with maternal attachment security and RF, and with the child's attachment security. Thirty-nine mother-preadolescent child dyads from a non-clinical population participated in the study. Maternal and child RF were assessed by applying the Reflective Functioning Scale to the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and to the Child Attachment Interview transcripts. Children of mothers who showed a secure attachment model regarding the relationship with their parents during childhood reported higher levels of RF than the children of mothers who were classified as insecure on the AAI...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995832/importance-of-mental-performance-in-parental-choice-of-food-for-children-aged-4-10-years-a-study-in-four-european-countries
#20
Heather Gage, Bernadette Egan, Peter Williams, Brigitte Brands, Eszter Györei, Juan-Carlos López-Robles, Cristina Campoy, Tamas Decsi, Berthold Koletzko, Monique Raats
OBJECTIVE: Typically, attention focuses on how nutrition affects physical health. The present study investigated the importance that parents attach to the impact of diet on mental performance when choosing food for their child. DESIGN: Questionnaire. SETTING: Four European countries. SUBJECTS: Parents of children aged 4-10 years (n 1574): England (n 397), Germany (n 389), Hungary (n 398) and Spain (n 390). RESULTS: Most parents (80-85 %) considered the effect of food on four elements of mental performance (child's ability to learn, attention, behaviour, mood) to be moderately, very, extremely (v...
December 20, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
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