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Adaptive switch

Antonio A Nunez, Lily Yan, Laura Smale
For humans, activity during the night is correlated with multiple pathologies that may reflect a lack of harmony among components of the circadian system; however, it remains difficult to identify causal links between nocturnal activity and different pathologies based on the data available from epidemiological studies. Animal models that use forced activity or timed sleep deprivation provide evidence of circadian disruptions that may be at the core of the health risks faced by human night and shift workers...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Beatriz Tomé, Ana Pereira, Fátima Jorge, Miguel A Carretero, D James Harris, Ana Perera
BACKGROUND: Host-parasite relationships are expected to be strongly shaped by host specificity, a crucial factor in parasite adaptability and diversification. Because whole host communities have to be considered to assess host specificity, oceanic islands are ideal study systems given their simplified biotic assemblages. Previous studies on insular parasites suggest host range broadening during colonization. Here, we investigate the association between one parasite group (haemogregarines) and multiple sympatric hosts (of three lizard genera: Gallotia, Chalcides and Tarentola) in the Canary Islands...
March 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
John W Kakareka, Anthony Z Faranesh, Randall H Pursley, Adrienne Campbell-Washburn, Daniel A Herzka, Toby Rogers, Josh Kanter, Kanishka Ratnayaka, Robert J Lederman, Thomas J Pohida
Hemodynamic recording during interventional cardiovascular procedures is essential for procedural guidance, monitoring patient status, and collection of diagnostic information. Recent advances have made interventions guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible and attractive in certain clinical scenarios. However, in the MRI environment, electromagnetic interference (EMI) can cause severe distortions and artifacts in acquired hemodynamic waveforms. The primary aim of this paper was to develop and validate a system to minimize EMI on electrocardiogram (ECG) and invasive blood pressure (IBP) signals...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Oscar J Avella Gonzalez, John K Tsotsos
Attention modulates neural selectivity and optimizes the allocation of cortical resources during visual tasks. A large number of experimental studies in primates and humans provide ample evidence. As an underlying principle of visual attention, some theoretical models suggested the existence of a gain element that enhances contrast of the attended stimuli. In contrast, the Selective Tuning model of attention (ST) proposes an attentional mechanism based on suppression of irrelevant signals. In this paper, we present an updated characterization of the ST-neuron proposed by the Selective Tuning model, and suggest that the inclusion of adaptation currents (Ih) to ST-neurons may explain the temporal profiles of the firing rates recorded in single V4 cells during attentional tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michael Freund, Nazbanou Nozari
Recent work using the Picture Word Interference (PWI) paradigm has revealed that language production, similar to non-verbal tasks, shows a robust Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE), defined as a decreased congruency effect following incongruent trials. Although CSE is considered an index of adaptive control, its mechanism is debated. In two experiments, we tested the predictions of a learning model of adaptive control in production, using a task-switching paradigm fully balanced to evaluate CSE on a PWI trial as a function of the congruency of a 2-back PWI trial (within-task CSE), as well as a 1-back trial belonging to a different task (cross-task CSE)...
March 15, 2018: Cognition
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Markus Aichhorn, Britt Anderson, James Danckert
In a constantly changing environment we must adapt to both abrupt and gradual changes to incoming information. Previously, we demonstrated that a distributed network (including the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex) was active when participants updated their initial representations (e.g., it's a cat) in a gradually morphing picture task (e.g., now it's a rabbit; Stöttinger et al., 2015). To shed light on whether these activations reflect the proactive decisions to update or perceptual uncertainty, we introduced two additional conditions...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Varun Vohra, Francesco Galeotti, Umberto Giovanella, Wojciech Mroz, Mariacecilia Pasini, Chiara Botta
Push-coating is a green and extremely low-cost process in which only few microliters of conjugated polymer solutions are used to produce thin films using capillary forces. Here, we adapt this fabrication technique to replicate self-assembled nanoporous structures on green and red light-emitting conjugated polymer thin films. These films display ring-like photoluminescence and are successfully integrated into polymer light-emitting devices as emitting layers. At low applied voltages, the green-emitting devices exhibit electroluminescence from hexagonally arranged nanopixel arrays resulting from a stronger electric field in the thinner areas inside the pores...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
IlKyoo Koh, Junghwa Cha, Junseong Park, Junjeong Choi, Seok-Gu Kang, Pilnam Kim
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common brain tumor with very aggressive and infiltrative. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in the infiltrative characteristics of GBM. To understand the invasive characteristic of GBM, it is necessary to study cell-ECM interaction in the physiologically relevant biomimetic model that recapitulates the GBM-specific ECM microenvironment. Here, we propose biomimetic GBM-specific ECM microenvironment for studying mode and dynamics of glioblastoma cell invasion...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kevin A Day, Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
Acquiring new movements requires the capacity of the nervous system to remember previously experienced motor patterns. The phenomenon of faster re-learning after initial learning is termed 'savings'. Here we studied how savings of a novel walking pattern develops over several days of practice, and how this process can be accelerated. We introduced participants to a split-belt treadmill adaptation paradigm for 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days. After 5 training days, participants were able to produce near-perfect performance when switching between split and tied-belt environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Justine M Abais-Battad, Hayley Lund, Daniel J Fehrenbach, John Henry Dasinger, David L Mattson
The current study, performed in Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) and SS-Rag1-/- rats lacking T- and B- lymphocytes, tested the hypothesis that immune cells amplify salt-sensitive hypertension and kidney damage in response to a high protein diet. After weaning, SS and SS-Rag1-/- rats were placed on an isocaloric, 0.4% NaCl diet containing normal (18%) or high (30%) protein. At 9 weeks of age, rats were switched to a 4.0% NaCl diet containing the same amount of dietary protein and maintained on the high salt diet for 3 weeks...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Daniëlle Krijgsman, Marianne Hokland, Peter J K Kuppen
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of CD1d-restricted T cells at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune system. NKT cells can be subdivided into functional subsets that respond rapidly to a wide variety of glycolipids and stress-related proteins using T- or natural killer (NK) cell-like effector mechanisms. Because of their major modulating effects on immune responses via secretion of cytokines, NKT cells are also considered important players in tumor immunosurveillance. During early tumor development, T helper (TH )1-like NKT cell subsets have the potential to rapidly stimulate tumor-specific T cells and effector NK cells that can eliminate tumor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Annika Wahl, Erik van den Akker, Lucija Klaric, Jerko Štambuk, Elisa Benedetti, Rosina Plomp, Genadij Razdorov, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Joris Deelen, Diana van Heemst, P Eline Slagboom, Frano Vučković, Harald Grallert, Jan Krumsiek, Konstantin Strauch, Annette Peters, Thomas Meitinger, Caroline Hayward, Manfred Wuhrer, Marian Beekman, Gordan Lauc, Christian Gieger
Immunoglobulin G (IgG), a glycoprotein secreted by plasma B-cells, plays a major role in the human adaptive immune response and are associated with a wide range of diseases. Glycosylation of the Fc binding region of IgGs, responsible for the antibody's effector function, is essential for prompting a proper immune response. This study focuses on the general genetic impact on IgG glycosylation as well as corresponding subclass specificities. To identify genetic loci involved in IgG glycosylation, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS)-measured IgG glycopeptides of 1,823 individuals in the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA F4) study cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hossein Tabari, Patrick Willems
Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns; however, the amplitude of the change may broadly differ across seasons. Combining different seasons may mask contrasting climate change signals in individual seasons, leading to weakened signals and misleading impact results. A realistic assessment of future climate change is of great importance for arid regions, which are more vulnerable to any change in extreme events as their infrastructure is less experienced or not well adapted for extreme conditions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhongyan Lu, Hong Shen, Zanming Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. METHODS: RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chisato Tomida, Naoko Yamagishi, Hikaru Nagano, Takayuki Uchida, Ayako Ohno, Katsuya Hirasaka, Takeshi Nikawa, Shigetada Teshima-Kondo
Anti-angiogenic therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGF-R) are important treatments for a number of human malignancies, including colorectal cancers. However, there is increasing evidence that VEGF/VEGF-R inhibitors promote the adaptive and evasive resistance of tumor cells to the therapies. The mechanism by which the cancer cells become resistant remains unclear. One potential mechanism is that VEGF/VEGF-R blockers directly act on tumor cells independently of anti-angiogenic effects...
April 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Joseph A McBride, Gregory M Gauthier, Bruce S Klein
This review article focuses on the mechanisms underlying temperature adaptation and virulence of the etiologic agents of blastomycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Blastomyces gilchristii, and Blastomyces percursus. In response to temperature, Blastomyces undergoes a reversible morphologic switch between hyphae and yeast known as the phase transition. The conversion to yeast for Blastomyces and related thermally dimorphic fungi is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, Blastomyces upregulates the essential virulence factor, BAD1, which promotes attachment to host cells, impairs activation of immune cells, and blunts cytokine release...
March 13, 2018: Virulence
Jakob Vowinckel, Aleksej Zelezniak, Roland Bruderer, Michael Mülleder, Lukas Reiter, Markus Ralser
Quantitative proteomics is key for basic research, but needs improvements to satisfy an increasing demand for large sample series in diagnostics, academia and industry. A switch from nanoflowrate to microflowrate chromatography can improve throughput and reduce costs. However, concerns about undersampling and coverage have so far hampered its broad application. We used a QTOF mass spectrometer of the penultimate generation (TripleTOF5600), converted a nanoLC system into a microflow platform, and adapted a SWATH regime for large sample series by implementing retention time- and batch correction strategies...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ivy Sandquist, Jay Kolls
T-helper cells that produce IL-17 are recognized as a significant subset within cell-mediated adaptive immunity. These cells are implicated in both the pathology of inflammatory disorders as well as the clearance of extracellular infections and the maintenance of the microbiota. However, the dynamic nature of this cell type has created controversy in understanding Th17 induction as well as Th17 phenotyping, since these cells may switch from Th17 to Treg or Th17 to Th1 cytokine profiles under certain conditions...
2018: F1000Research
Olivier White, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Humans have a remarkable ability to adjust the way they manipulate tools through a genuine regulation of grip force according to the task. However, rapid changes in the dynamical context may challenge this skill, as shown in many experimental approaches. Most experiments adopt perturbation paradigms that affect only one sensory modality. We hypothesize that very fast adaptation can occur if coherent information from multiple sensory modalities is provided to the central nervous system. Here, we test whether participants can switch between different and never experienced dynamical environments induced by centrifugation of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff
HIV-1, the main causative agent of AIDS, and related primate lentiviruses show a striking ability to efficiently replicate throughout the lifetime of an infected host. In addition to their high variability, the acquisition of several accessory genes has enabled these viruses to efficiently evade or counteract seemingly strong antiviral immune responses. The respective viral proteins, i.e. Vif, Vpr, Vpu, Vpx and Nef, show a stunning functional diversity, acting by various mechanisms and targeting a large variety of cellular factors involved in innate and adaptive immunity...
February 23, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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