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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431978/temporal-niche-switching-in-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx-seasonal-plasticity-of-24h-activity-patterns-in-a-large-desert-mammal
#1
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Mads F Bertelsen, Osama B Mohammed, Jason Hemingway, Nigel C Bennett, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, a moderately large mammal that inhabits a harsh desert environment, has been shown to exhibit seasonal variations in activity and inactivity patterns. Here we analyzed the continuous year-round activity patterns of twelve free-roaming Arabian oryx under natural conditions from two varying desert environments in Saudi Arabia using abdominally implanted activity meters. We simultaneously recorded weather parameters at both sites to determine whether environmental factors are responsible for temporal niche switching as well as the seasonal structuring and timing of this behavioural plasticity...
April 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#2
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428853/coral-reef-mesopredators-switch-prey-shortening-food-chains-in-response-to-habitat-degradation
#3
Tessa N Hempson, Nicholas A J Graham, M Aaron MacNeil, David H Williamson, Geoffrey P Jones, Glenn R Almany
Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428159/development-of-a-culturally-tailored-text-message-maternal-health-program-textmatch
#4
Rosie Dobson, Robyn Whittaker, Hannah Bartley, Augusta Connor, Ruyan Chen, Mairead Ross, Judith McCool
BACKGROUND: Mobile phones are increasingly being used to deliver health information and health services globally. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions may be well-suited for minority groups with greater barriers to accessing traditional health services. However, little has been written about the process of culturally adapting interventions for multiple ethnic and cultural minorities within a population. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the process of developing a culturally tailored text message-based maternal health program (TextMATCH: Text for MATernal and Child Health) for Māori, Pacific, Asian, and South Asian families living in New Zealand...
April 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427560/stress-adaptive-response-in-ovarian-cancer-drug-resistance-role-of-trap1-in-oxidative-metabolism-driven-inflammation
#5
Maria Rosaria Amoroso, Danilo Swann Matassa, Ilenia Agliarulo, Rosario Avolio, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Matteo Landriscina, Franca Esposito
Metabolic reprogramming is one of the most frequent stress-adaptive response of cancer cells to survive environmental changes and meet increasing nutrient requirements during their growth. These modifications involve cellular bioenergetics and cross talk with surrounding microenvironment, in a dynamic network that connect different molecular processes, such as energy production, inflammatory response, and drug resistance. Even though the Warburg effect has long been considered the main metabolic feature of cancer cells, recent reports identify mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as a driving force for tumor growth in an increasing number of cellular contexts...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424623/notch-signaling-in-ischemic-damage-and-fibrosis-evidence-and-clues-from-the-heart
#6
REVIEW
Silvia Nistri, Chiara Sassoli, Daniele Bani
Notch signaling is a major intercellular coordination mechanism highly conserved throughout evolution. In vertebrates, Notch signaling is physiologically involved in embryo development, including mesenchymal cell commitment, formation of heart tissues and angiogenesis. In post-natal life, Notch signaling is maintained as a key mechanism of cell-cell communication and its dysregulations have been found in pathological conditions such as ischemic and fibrotic diseases. In the heart, Notch takes part in the protective response to ischemia, being involved in pre- and post-conditioning, reduction of reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and myocardial damage, and cardiomyogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423665/il-33-induced-alternatively-activated-macrophage-attenuates-the-development-of-tnbs-induced-colitis
#7
Lei Tu, Jie Chen, Dandan Xu, Zhongming Xie, Bing Yu, Ying Tao, Guixiu Shi, Lihua Duan
Accumulated data have shown that alternatively activated macrophage exerts a modulatory role in many diseases, including colitis. Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a critical modulator in adaptive and innate immune, has been implicated in autoimmunity and inflammation. Previously, we have reported that IL-33 functions as a protective modulator in TNBS-induced colitis, which is closely related to a Th1-to-Th2/Treg switch. Here, we present novel evidence suggesting that IL-33 primes macrophage into alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) in TNBS-induced colitis...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422489/generalized-switch-functions-in-the-multilevel-many-body-expansion-method-and-its-application-to-water-clusters
#8
Guo Dong Chen, Jingwei Weng, Guoliang Song, Zhen Hua Li
Many-body expansion (MBE) method is the basis of many fragment-based methods and is wildly applied to the computation of large molecular systems. In order to reach linear-scaling computation, a cutoff must be used to discard those subsystems with long inter-fragment distances. However, this leads to discontinuous potential energy surface (PES) that would cause various problems in geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. To solve this problem, we present a generalized-switch-function (GSF) approach to smooth the PES computed by the MBE method with the use of cutoff distance...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406996/ultrasensitivity-and-fluctuations-in-the-barkai-leibler-model-of-chemotaxis-receptors-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Ushasi Roy, Manoj Gopalakrishnan
A stochastic version of the Barkai-Leibler model of chemotaxis receptors in Escherichia coli is studied here with the goal of elucidating the effects of intrinsic network noise in their conformational dynamics. The model was originally proposed to explain the robust and near-perfect adaptation of E. coli observed across a wide range of spatially uniform attractant/repellent (ligand) concentrations. In the model, a receptor is either active or inactive and can stochastically switch between the two states. The enzyme CheR methylates inactive receptors while CheB demethylates active receptors and the probability for a receptor to be active depends on its level of methylation and ligand occupation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406686/cueing-cognitive-flexibility-item-specific-learning-of-switch-readiness
#10
Yu-Chin Chiu, Tobias Egner
The rich behavioral repertoire of the human species derives from our ability to flexibly reconfigure processing strategies (task sets) in response to changing requirements. This updating of task sets is effortful, as reflected by longer response times when switching a task than repeating it (switch costs). However, some recent data suggest that switch costs can be reduced by cueing switch readiness bottom-up, by associating particular stimuli with frequent switch requirements. This type of "stimulus-control (S-C) learning" would be highly adaptive, as it combines the speed of automatic (bottom-up) processing with the flexibility and generalizability of controlled (top-down) processing...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405377/modulation-of-leg-joint-function-to-produce-emulated-acceleration-during-walking-and-running-in-humans
#11
Dominic James Farris, Brent J Raiteri
Understanding how humans adapt gait mechanics for a wide variety of locomotor tasks is important for inspiring the design of robotic, prosthetic and wearable assistive devices. We aimed to elicit the mechanical adjustments made to leg joint functions that are required to generate accelerative walking and running, using metrics with direct relevance to device design. Twelve healthy male participants completed constant speed (CS) walking and running and emulated acceleration (ACC) trials on an instrumented treadmill...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403126/effector-antitumor-and-regulatory-t-cell-responses-influence-the-development-of-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#12
Elena Crespo, Loreto Fernandez, Marc Lúcia, Edoardo Melilli, Ricardo Lauzurica, Rosa Maria Penin, Ariadna Quer, Sergio Luque, Maria Quero, Anna Manonelles, Joan Torras, Josep Maria Cruzado, Laura Cañas, Josep Maria Grinyó, Oriol Bestard
BACKGROUND: Chronic immunosuppression promotes Nonmelanocytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) after kidney transplantation. Adaptive and innate immunity play a key role controlling tumor growth and are influenced by different immunosuppressive agents. We hypothesized that functional impairment of tumor-specific T cell responses due to CNI could contribute to SCC development, whereas conversion to mTOR-i could recover this protective immune response. METHODS: Peripheral tumor-specific T cell responses against main SCC-derived antigens using the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and intratumor and circulating immune phenotypes (CD4+T, CD8+T, CD20+B, CD56+NK, FOXP3+Tregs) were explored in a cross-sectional analysis in 59 kidney transplant patients with SCC on CNI (KT-CNI-SCC) or mTOR-i (KT-mTORi-SCC), 25 nontransplants developing SCC (NoKT-SCC) and 6 healthy controls...
April 11, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402325/the-bioenergetics-of-inflammation-insights-into-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
K N Keane, E K Calton, R Carlessi, P H Hart, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic metabolic disorders worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is alarmingly high. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with obesity, and the staggering rise in obesity is one of the primary factors related to the increased frequency of T2DM. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also accepted as an integral metabolic adaption in obesity and T2DM, and is believed to be a major player in the onset of insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanism(s) that cause a persistent chronic low-grade infiltration of leukocytes into insulin-target tissues such as adipose, skeletal muscle and liver are not entirely known...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399999/effects-of-glucose-and-oxygen-on-arginine-metabolism-by-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#14
María Sánchez Mainar, Fréderick Matheuse, Luc De Vuyst, Frédéric Leroy
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are not only part of the desirable microbiota of fermented meat products but also commonly inhabit skin and flesh wounds. Their proliferation depends on the versatility to use energy sources and the adaptation to fluctuating environmental parameters. In this study, the conversion of the amino acid arginine by two strains with arginine deiminase (ADI) activity (Staphylococcus carnosus 833 and S. pasteuri αs3-13) and a strain with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity (S...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398072/the-reactive-species-interactome-evolutionary-emergence-biological-significance-and-opportunities-for-redox-metabolomics-and-personalized-medicine
#15
Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott, Anne Koning, Gunter Georg Kuhnle, Peter Nagy, Christopher Bianco, Andreas Pasch, David A Wink, Jon Fukuto, Alan A Jackson, Harry van Goor, Kenneth R Olson, Martin Feelisch
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is thought to account for aberrant redox homeostasis and contribute to aging and disease. However, more often than not administration of antioxidants is ineffective, suggesting our current understanding of the underlying regulatory processes is incomplete. Recent Advances. Similar to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), reactive sulfur species (RSS) are now emerging as important signaling molecules, targeting regulatory cysteine redox switches in proteins, affecting gene regulation, ion transport, intermediary metabolism and mitochondrial function...
April 11, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392969/preliminary-experiments-with-a-unified-controller-for-a-powered-knee-ankle-prosthetic-leg-across-walking-speeds
#16
David Quintero, Dario J Villarreal, Robert D Gregg
This paper presents the experimental validation of a novel control strategy that unifies the entire gait cycle of a powered knee-ankle prosthetic leg without the need to switch between controllers for different periods of gait. Current control methods divide the gait cycle into several sequential periods each with independent controllers, resulting in many patient-specific control parameters and switching rules that must be tuned for a specific walking speed. The single controller presented is speed-invariant with a minimal number of control parameters to be tuned...
October 2016: Proceedings of the ... IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392608/stem-girdling-indicates-prioritized-carbon-allocation-to-the-root-system-at-the-expense-of-radial-stem-growth-in-norway-spruce-under-drought-conditions
#17
Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Gruber, Gina Lethaus, Andrea Winkler, Gerhard Wieser
The early culmination of maximum radial growth (RG) in late spring has been found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment. We hypothesized that an early decrease in RG is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon (C) allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally subjected six-year-old Norway spruce saplings (tree height: 1.35 m; n = 80 trees) to two levels of soil water availability (watered versus drought conditions) and manipulated tree C status by physically blocking phloem transport at three girdling dates (GD)...
June 2017: Environmental and Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391366/defining-stimulus-representation-in-stimulus-response-associations-formed-on-the-basis-of-task-execution-and-verbal-codes
#18
Christina U Pfeuffer, Theresa Hosp, Eva Kimmig, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
Responding to stimuli leads to the formation of stimulus-response (S-R) associations that allow stimuli to subsequently automatically trigger associated responses. A recent study has shown that S-R associations are established not only by active task execution, but also by the simultaneous presentation of stimuli and verbal codes denoting responses in the absence of own action [Pfeuffer et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 43:328-347, 2017)]. Here, we used an item-specific priming paradigm to investigate whether the stimulus part of S-R associations formed based on task execution and verbal codes is represented in abstract or specific format by examining whether S-R associations are retrieved for perceptually different forms of the same stimulus or not...
April 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389697/antioxidant-capacity-lipid-peroxidation-and-lipid-composition-changes-during-long-term-and-short-term-thermal-acclimation-in-daphnia
#19
Bret L Coggins, John W Collins, Kailea J Holbrook, Lev Y Yampolsky
Examples of phenotypic plasticity-the ability of organisms of identical genotypes to produce different phenotypes in response to the environment-are abundant, but often lack data on the causative physiology and biochemistry. Phenotypes associated with increased protection against or reduced damage from harmful environments may, in fact, be downstream effects of hidden adaptive responses that remain elusive to experimental measurement or be obscured by homeostatic or over-compensatory effects. The freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia drastically increases its heat tolerance as the result of acclimation to high temperatures, an effect often assumed to be based on plastic responses allowing better protection against oxidative stress...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386236/metabolic-response-of-visceral-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice-exposed-for-5-days-to-human-room-temperature-compared-to-mouse-thermoneutrality
#20
Inge van der Stelt, Femke Hoevenaars, Jitka Široká, Lidwien de Ronde, David Friedecký, Jaap Keijer, Evert van Schothorst
Housing of laboratory mice at room temperature (22°C) might be considered a constant cold stress, which induces a thermogenic program in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, the early adaptive response of white adipose tissue (WAT), the fat storage organ of the body, to a change from thermoneutrality to room temperature is not known. This was investigated here for various WAT depots, focusing on epididymal WAT (eWAT), widely used as reference depot. Male adult diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice housed at thermoneutrality (29°C), were for 5 days either switched to room temperature (22°C) or remained at thermoneutrality...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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