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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812603/climate-change-upends-selection-on-ornamentation-in-a-wild-bird
#1
Simon R Evans, Lars Gustafsson
Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812466/florid-intussusceptive-like-microvascular-dysangiogenesis-in-a-preterm-lung
#2
Monique E De Paepe, Merline Kocheekkaran V Benny, Lauren Priolo, Francois I Luks, Svetlana Shapiro
The cellular mechanisms underlying the microvascular dysangiogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (chronic lung disease of the newborn) remain largely undetermined. We report unusual pulmonary vascular findings in a 27-week-gestation male newborn who died on the second day of life from intractable respiratory failure, following a pregnancy complicated by prolonged membrane rupture and persistent severe oligohydramnios. As expected, postmortem examination revealed pulmonary hypoplasia (lung/body weight ratio: 2...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812308/transcriptional-regulation-of-the-protein-kinase-a-subunits-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-during-fermentative-growth
#3
Fiorella Galello, Constanza Pautasso, Sol Reca, Luciana Cañonero, Paula Portela, Silvia Moreno, Silvia Rossi
Yeast cells can adapt their growth in response to the nutritional environment. Glucose is the favorite carbon source of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that prefers a fermentative metabolism despite the presence of oxygen. When glucose is consumed, the cell switches to the aerobic metabolism of ethanol, during the so-called diauxic shift. The difference between fermentative and aerobic growth is in part mediated by a regulatory mechanism called glucose repression. During glucose derepression a profound gene transcriptional reprogramming occurs and genes involved in the utilization of alternative carbon sources are expressed...
August 15, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#4
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811128/a-newly-synthesized-ligustrazine-stilbene-derivative-inhibits-pdgf-bb-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotypic-switch-and-proliferation-via-delaying-cell-cycle-progression
#5
Chunlian Peng, Siming Zhang, Haixin Liu, Yanxiao Jiao, Guifa Su, Yan Zhu
Vascular Smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess remarkable phenotype plasticity that allows it to rapidly adapt to fluctuating environmental cues, including the period of development and progression of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Although VSMC phenotypic switch is an attractive target, there is no effective drug so far. Using rat aortic VSMCs, we investigate the effects of Ligustrazine and its synthetic derivatives on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced proliferation and phenotypic switch by a cell image-based screening of 60 Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811100/is-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-hyphenated-to-mass-spectrometry-suitable-for-the-quality-control-of-vitamin-d3-oily-formulations
#6
B Andri, A Dispas, R Klinkenberg, B Streel, R D Marini, E Ziémons, Ph Hubert
Nowadays, many efforts are devoted to improve analytical methods regarding efficiency, analysis time and greenness. In this context, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) is often regarded as a good alternative over Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography (NPLC). Indeed, modern SFC separations are fast, efficient with suitable quantitative performances. Moreover, the hyphenation of SFC to mass spectrometry (MS) provides additional gains in specificity and sensitivity. The present work aims at the determination of vitamin D3 by SFC-MS for routine Quality Control (QC) of medicines specifically...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809706/cluster-synchronization-of-coupled-genetic-regulatory-networks-with-delays-via-aperiodically-adaptive-intermittent-control
#7
Zhi-Hong Guan, Dandan Yue, Bin Hu, Tao Li, Feng Liu
In this paper, we study the cluster synchronization of coupled genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays via aperiodically adaptive intermittent control on some nodes. The network is intermittently coupled and the intra-cluster coupling strength is adaptively adjusted. The graph of the coupling topology of each cluster is only required to have a directed spanning tree. Two cases of delays are considered. In the first case, by using the switching Lyapunov-based function and Razumikhintype technique, the cluster synchronization criterion is presented which indicates that the cluster synchronization is realized via the aperiodically adaptive intermittent control...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808562/floral-scent-and-species-divergence-in-a-pair-of-sexually-deceptive-orchids
#8
Daniel D L Gervasi, Marc-Andre Selosse, Mathieu Sauve, Wittko Francke, Nicolas J Vereecken, Salvatore Cozzolino, Florian P Schiestl
Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808161/listeria-monocytogenes-has-both-a-bd-type-and-an-aa3-type-terminal-oxidase-which-allow-growth-in-different-oxygen-levels-and-both-are-important-in-infection
#9
David Corbett, Marie Goldrick, Vitor E Fernandes, Kelly Davidge, Robert K Poole, Peter W Andrew, Jennifer Cavet, Ian S Roberts
Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen responsible for a number of life-threatening infections of humans. During an infection it invades epithelial cells before spreading from the intestine to the cells of the liver and spleen. This requires an ability to adapt to varying oxygen levels. Here we demonstrate that L. monocytogenes has two terminal oxidases, a cytochrome bd-type (CydAB) and a cytochrome aa3 -type menaquinol oxidase (QoxAB) and that both are used for respiration under different oxygen tensions...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808128/conjugative-plasmid-transfer-in-xylella-fastidiosa-is-dependent-on-tra-and-trb-operon-functions
#10
Lindsey P Burbank, Christopher R Van Horn
The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa, but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb, putatively encoding a conjugative Type IV secretion system are found in some but not all X...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808013/disaggregating-sorghum-yield-reductions-under-warming-scenarios-exposes-narrow-genetic-diversity-in-us-breeding-programs
#11
Jesse Tack, Jane Lingenfelser, S V Krishna Jagadish
Historical adaptation of sorghum production to arid and semiarid conditions has provided promise regarding its sustained productivity under future warming scenarios. Using Kansas field-trial sorghum data collected from 1985 to 2014 and spanning 408 hybrid cultivars, we show that sorghum productivity under increasing warming scenarios breaks down. Through extensive regression modeling, we identify a temperature threshold of 33 °C, beyond which yields start to decline. We show that this decline is robust across both field-trial and on-farm data...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805922/use-of-a-complete-starter-feed-in-grain-adaptation-programs-for-feedlot-cattle
#12
C J Schneider, B L Nuttelman, A L Shreck, D B Burken, W A Griffin, J L Gramkow, R A Stock, T J Klopfenstein, G E Erickson
Four experiments evaluated the use of a complete starter feed (RAMP; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) for grain adaptation. In Exp. 1, 229 yearling steers (397 ± 28.4 kg BW) were used to compare a traditional adaptation program (CON) with adapting cattle with RAMP in either a 1- (RAMP-1RS) or 2- (RAMP-2RS) ration system. From d 23 to slaughter, cattle were fed a common finishing diet. In Exp. 2, 390 yearling steers (341 ± 14 kg BW) were used to compare accelerated grain adaptation programs with RAMP with 2 control treatments where RAMP was blended with a finishing diet containing either 25 (CON25) or 47...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805814/cerebellar-granule-cell-replenishment-postinjury-by-adaptive-reprogramming-of-nestin-progenitors
#13
Alexandre Wojcinski, Andrew K Lawton, N Sumru Bayin, Zhimin Lao, Daniel N Stephen, Alexandra L Joyner
Regeneration of several organs involves adaptive reprogramming of progenitors, but the intrinsic capacity of the developing brain to replenish lost cells remains largely unknown. Here we found that the developing cerebellum has unappreciated progenitor plasticity, since it undergoes near full growth and functional recovery following acute depletion of granule cells, the most plentiful neuron population in the brain. We demonstrate that following postnatal ablation of granule cell progenitors, Nestin-expressing progenitors, specified during mid-embryogenesis to produce astroglia and interneurons, switch their fate and generate granule neurons in mice...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805635/mosquito-specific-and-mosquito-borne-viruses-evolution-infection-and-host-defense
#14
REVIEW
Rebecca Halbach, Sandra Junglen, Ronald P van Rij
Recent virus discovery programs have identified an extensive reservoir of viruses in arthropods. It is thought that arthropod viruses, including mosquito-specific viruses, are ancestral to vertebrate-pathogenic arboviruses. Mosquito-specific viruses are restricted in vertebrate cells at multiple levels, including entry, RNA replication, assembly, and by the inability to replicate at high temperatures. Moreover, it is likely that the vertebrate immune system suppresses replication of these viruses. The evolution from single to dual-host tropism may also require changes in the course of infection in the mosquito host...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802040/aged-stem-cells-reprogram-their-daily-rhythmic-functions-to-adapt-to-stress
#15
Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Eusebio Perdiguero, Mercè Jardí, Vanessa Ruiz-Bonilla, Debayan Datta, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Andrés Castellanos, Patrick-Simon Welz, Juan Martín Caballero, Paolo Sassone-Corsi, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Salvador Aznar Benitah
Normal homeostatic functions of adult stem cells have rhythmic daily oscillations that are believed to become arrhythmic during aging. Unexpectedly, we find that aged mice remain behaviorally circadian and that their epidermal and muscle stem cells retain a robustly rhythmic core circadian machinery. However, the oscillating transcriptome is extensively reprogrammed in aged stem cells, switching from genes involved in homeostasis to those involved in tissue-specific stresses, such as DNA damage or inefficient autophagy...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801461/structural-basis-of-human-prdm9-allele-c-specific-recognition-of-its-cognate-dna-sequence
#16
Anamika Patel, Xing Zhang, Robert M Blumenthal, Xiaodong Cheng
PRDM9 is the only mammalian gene that has been associated with speciation. The PR/SET domain 9 (PRDM9) protein is a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots, and acts through sequence-specific DNA binding via its C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) tandem array, which is highly polymorphic within and between species. The most common human variant, PRDM9 allele A (PRDM9a), contains 13 fingers (ZF1-13). Allele C (PRDM9c) is the second-most common among African populations, and differs from PRDM9a by an arginine-to-serine change (R764S) in ZF9, and by replacement of ZF11 with two other fingers, yielding 14 fingers in PRDM9c...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801151/correlation-between-desiccation-stress-response-and-epigenetic-modifications-of-genes-in-drosophila-melanogaster-an-example-of-environment-epigenome-interaction
#17
Vineeta Sharma, Surbhi Kohli, Vani Brahmachari
Animals from different phyla including arthropods tolerate water stress to different extent. This tolerance is accompanied by biochemical changes which in turn are due to transcriptional alteration. The changes in transcription can be an indirect effect on some of the genes, ensuing from the effect of stress on the regulators of transcription including epigenetic regulators. Within this paradigm, we investigated the correlation between stress response and epigenetic modification underlying gene expression modulation during desiccation stress in Canton-S...
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798355/active-lead-in-variability-affects-motor-memory-formation-and-slows-motor-learning
#18
Ian S Howard, Christopher Ford, Angelo Cangelosi, David W Franklin
Rapid learning can be critical to ensure elite performance in a changing world or to recover basic movement after neural injuries. Recently it was shown that the variability of follow-through movements affects the rate of motor memory formation. Here we investigate if lead-in movement has a similar effect on learning rate. We hypothesized that both modality and variability of lead-in movement would play critical roles, with simulations suggesting that only changes in active lead-in variability would exhibit slower learning...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797225/environmentally-triggered-genomic-plasticity-and-capsular-polysaccharide-formation-are-involved-in-increased-ethanol-and-acetic-acid-tolerance-in-kozakia-baliensis-nbrc-16680
#19
Julia U Brandt, Friederike-Leonie Born, Frank Jakob, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680 secretes a gum-cluster derived heteropolysaccharide and forms a surface pellicle composed of polysaccharides during static cultivation. Furthermore, this strain exhibits two colony types on agar plates; smooth wild-type (S) and rough mutant colonies (R). This switch is caused by a spontaneous transposon insertion into the gumD gene of the gum-cluster, resulting in a heteropolysaccharide secretion deficient, rough phenotype. To elucidate, whether this is a directed switch triggered by environmental factors, we checked the number of R and S colonies under different growth conditions including ethanol and acetic acid supplementation...
August 10, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797060/adaptive-fuzzy-sliding-control-of-single-phase-pv-grid-connected-inverter
#20
Juntao Fei, Yunkai Zhu
In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to control a two-stage single-phase photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected inverter. Two key technologies are discussed in the presented PV system. An incremental conductance method with adaptive step is adopted to track the maximum power point (MPP) by controlling the duty cycle of the controllable power switch of the boost DC-DC converter. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller with an integral sliding surface is developed for the grid-connected inverter where a fuzzy system is used to approach the upper bound of the system nonlinearities...
2017: PloS One
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