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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785785/metabolism-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-its-implication-on-cancer-progression-an-ongoing-therapeutic-target
#1
REVIEW
Ma Carmen Ocaña, Beatriz Martínez-Poveda, Ana R Quesada, Miguel Ángel Medina
Since reprogramming energy metabolism is considered a new hallmark of cancer, tumor metabolism is again in the spotlight of cancer research. Many studies have been carried out and many possible therapies have been developed in the last years. However, tumor cells are not alone. A series of extracellular components and stromal cells, such as endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, and tumor-infiltrating T cells, surround tumor cells in the so-called tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785508/lacosamide-a-review-in-focal-onset-seizures-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#2
Sheridan M Hoy
Lacosamide (Vimpat® ) is a functionalized amino acid (available orally and intravenously) approved in the EU and the USA for use as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal-onset seizures in adults, adolescents and children aged ≥ 4 years with epilepsy. In adults and adolescents (aged ≥ 16 years), oral lacosamide as adjunctive therapy to other antiepileptic drugs was generally effective in reducing seizure frequency during short-term (up to 18 weeks) treatment, with efficacy sustained over the longer-term (up to 8 years)...
May 21, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779423/cognitive-performance-and-locomotor-adaptation-in-persons-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#3
Amanda E Stone, Jaimie A Roper, Daniel C Herman, Chris J Hass
BACKGROUND: Persons with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) show deficits in gait and neuromuscular control following rehabilitation. This altered behavior extends to locomotor adaptation and learning, however the contributing factors to this observed behavior have yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in locomotor adaptation and learning between ACLR and controls, and identify underlying contributors to motor adaptation in these individuals...
May 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776923/environmental-adaptability-for-quorum-sensing-regulating-iron-uptake-during-biofilm-formation-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#4
Yang Zhang, Jie Gao, Lushan Wang, Shuangjiang Liu, Zhihui Bai, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang
Paracoccus denitrificans is a valuable model organism due to its versatile respiration capability and bioenergetic flexibility, both of which are critical to its survival in different environments. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of many cell functions; however, whether QS systems play a role in P. denitrificans is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that iron uptake systems in P. denitrificans were directly regulated by a newly identified QS system. Genes coding for TonB-dependent systems, which transport chelated iron, were transcribed at higher levels in the QS-defective mutants...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775820/adoption-of-farm-management-systems-for-cross-compliance-an-empirical-case-in-germany
#5
Ulrike Knuth, T S Amjath-Babu, Andrea Knierim
In Germany, Farm Management Systems (FMS) have been introduced as a support to farmers' compliance with environmental and other regulations, aiming at the increase of farm level performance and sustainable farming practices. Different kinds of FMS were developed and promulgated with various approaches, determined by each federal state's agricultural advisory system. Knowledge on the FMS' uptake and effectiveness has been lacking so far. The overall aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the implementation process and selected outcomes of the policy-driven instrumental innovation of FMS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#6
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771918/a-hybrid-q-learning-sine-cosine-based-strategy-for-addressing-the-combinatorial-test-suite-minimization-problem
#7
Kamal Z Zamli, Fakhrud Din, Bestoun S Ahmed, Miroslav Bures
The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769608/rapid-parallel-evolution-overcomes-global-honey-bee-parasite
#8
Melissa Oddie, Ralph Büchler, Bjørn Dahle, Marin Kovacic, Yves Le Conte, Barbara Locke, Joachim R de Miranda, Fanny Mondet, Peter Neumann
In eusocial insect colonies nestmates cooperate to combat parasites, a trait called social immunity. However, social immunity failed for Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) when the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor switched hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana). This mite has since become the most severe threat to A. mellifera world-wide. Despite this, some isolated A. mellifera populations are known to survive infestations by means of natural selection, largely by supressing mite reproduction, but the underlying mechanisms of this are poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763438/phasome-analysis-of-pathogenic-and-commensal-neisseria-species-expands-the-known-repertoire-of-phase-variable-genes-and-highlights-common-adaptive-strategies
#9
Joseph J Wanford, Luke R Green, Jack Aidley, Christopher D Bayliss
Pathogenic Neisseria are responsible for significantly higher levels of morbidity and mortality than their commensal relatives despite having similar genetic contents. Neisseria possess a disparate arsenal of surface determinants that facilitate host colonisation and evasion of the immune response during persistent carriage. Adaptation to rapid changes in these hostile host environments is enabled by phase variation (PV) involving high frequency, stochastic switches in expression of surface determinants. In this study, we analysed 89 complete and 79 partial genomes, from the NCBI and Neisseria PubMLST databases, representative of multiple pathogenic and commensal species of Neisseria using PhasomeIt, a new program that identifies putatively phase-variable genes and homology groups by the presence of simple sequence repeats (SSR)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762555/global-transcriptome-analysis-identifies-weight-regain-induced-activation-of-adaptive-immune-responses-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#10
D S Kyung, H R Sung, Y J Kim, K D Kim, S Y Cho, J H Choi, Y-H Lee, I Y Kim, J K Seong
OBJECTIVE: Studies have indicated that weight regain following weight loss predisposes obese individuals to metabolic disorders; however, the molecular mechanism of this potential adverse effect of weight regain is not fully understood. Here we investigated global transcriptome changes and the immune response in mouse white adipose tissue caused by weight regain. DESIGN: We established a diet switch protocol to compare the effects of weight regain with those of weight gain without precedent weight loss, weight loss maintenance and chow diet...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755330/the-high-costs-of-low-grade-inflammation-persistent-fatigue-as-a-consequence-of-reduced-cellular-energy-availability-and-non-adaptive-energy-expenditure
#11
REVIEW
Tamara E Lacourt, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Gabriel S Chiu, Robert Dantzer, Cobi J Heijnen
Chronic or persistent fatigue is a common, debilitating symptom of several diseases. Persistent fatigue has been associated with low-grade inflammation in several models of fatigue, including cancer-related fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome. However, it is unclear how low-grade inflammation leads to the experience of fatigue. We here propose a model of an imbalance in energy availability and energy expenditure as a consequence of low-grade inflammation. In this narrative review, we discuss how chronic low-grade inflammation can lead to reduced cellular-energy availability...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754234/rapid-control-of-genome-editing-in-human-cells-by-chemical-inducible-crispr-cas-systems
#12
Kaiwen Ivy Liu, Muhammad Nadzim Bin Ramli, Norfala-Aliah Binte Sutrisnoh, Meng How Tan
Genome editing using programmable DNA endonucleases enables the engineering of eukaryotic cells and living organisms with desirable properties or traits. Among the various molecular scissors that have been developed to date, the most versatile and easy-to-use family of nucleases derives from CRISPR-Cas, which exists naturally as an adaptive immune system in bacteria. Recent advances in the CRISPR-Cas technology have expanded our ability to manipulate complex genomes for myriad biomedical and biotechnological applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753480/characterizing-social-behavior-activity-and-associations-between-cognition-and-behavior-upon-social-grouping-of-weaned-dairy-calves
#13
K C Horvath, E K Miller-Cushon
Weaned dairy calves are commonly exposed to changing physical and social environments, and ability to adapt to novel management is likely to have performance and welfare implications. We characterized how behavioral responses of weaned heifer calves develop over time after introduction to a social group. Previously individually reared Holstein heifer calves (n = 15; 60 ± 5 d of age; mean ± standard deviation) were introduced in weekly cohorts (5 ± 3 new calves/wk) to an existing group on pasture (8 ± 2 calves/group)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752261/nk-cell-editing-mediates-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-phenotypic-and-proteomic-changes-in-melanoma-cell-lines
#14
Leticia Huergo Zapico, Monica Parodi, Claudia Cantoni, Chiara Lavarello, Juan L Fernández-Martínez, Andrea Petretto, Enrique J DeAndrés-Galiana, Mirna Balsamo, Alejandro López-Soto, Gabriella Pietra, Mattia Bugatti, Enrico Munari, Marcella Marconi, Maria Cristina Mingari, William Vermi, Lorenzo Moretta, Segundo Gonzalez, Massimo Vitale
Tumor cell plasticity is a major obstacle for the cure of malignancies as it makes tumor cells highly adaptable to micro-environmental changes, enables their phenotype switching among different forms, and favors the generation of pro-metastatic tumor cell subsets. Phenotype switching towards more aggressive forms involves different functional, phenotypic and morphologic changes, which are often related to the process known as Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). In this study, we report NK cells may increase the malignancy of melanoma cells by inducing changes relevant to EMT and, more broadly, to phenotype switching from proliferative to invasive forms...
May 11, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751004/mutations-affecting-the-actin-regulator-wdr1-lead-to-aberrant-lymphoid-immunity
#15
Laurène Pfajfer, Nina K Mair, Raúl Jiménez-Heredia, Ferah Genel, Nesrin Gulez, Ömür Ardeniz, Birgit Hoeger, Sevgi Köstel Bal, Christoph Madritsch, Artem Kalinichenko, Rico Chandra Ardy, Bengü Gerçeker, Javier Rey-Barroso, Hanna Ijspeert, Stuart G Tangye, Ingrid Simonitsch-Klupp, Johannes B Huppa, Mirjam van der Burg, Loïc Dupré, Kaan Boztug
BACKGROUND: The actin-interacting protein WDR1 promotes cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover. Biallelic WDR1 mutations have recently been identified in an immunodeficiency/autoinflammatory syndrome with aberrant morphology and function of myeloid cells. OBJECTIVE: Given the pleiotropic expression of WDR1, we here investigated to what extent it might control the lymphoid arm of the immune system in humans. METHODS: Histological and detailed immunological analyses were performed to elucidate the role of WDR1 in development and function of B and T lymphocytes...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748611/light-driven-transformable-optical-agent-with-adaptive-functions-for-boosting-cancer-surgery-outcomes
#16
Ji Qi, Chao Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xianglong Hu, Shenglu Ji, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Dan Ding, Ben Zhong Tang
Fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging have different advantages in cancer diagnosis; however, combining effects in one agent normally requires a trade-off as the mechanisms interfere. Here, based on rational molecular design, we introduce a smart organic nanoparticle whose absorbed excitation energy can be photo-switched to the pathway of thermal deactivation for photoacoustic imaging, or to allow opposed routes for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy. The molecule is made of a dithienylethene (DTE) core with two surrounding 2-(1-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)ethylidene)malononitrile (TPECM) units (DTE-TPECM)...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747682/the-biology-and-role-of-cd44-in-cancer-progression-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Chen Chen, Shujie Zhao, Anand Karnad, James W Freeman
CD44, a non-kinase transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in several cell types including cancer stem cells and frequently shows alternative spliced variants that are thought to play a role in cancer development and progression. Hyaluronan, the main ligand for CD44, binds to and activates CD44 resulting in activation of cell signaling pathways that induces cell proliferation, increases cell survival, modulates cytoskeletal changes, and enhances cellular motility. The different functional roles of CD44 standard (CD44s) and specific CD44 variant (CD44v) isoforms are not fully understood...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744038/generating-and-repairing-genetically-programmed-dna-breaks-during-immunoglobulin-class-switch-recombination
#18
REVIEW
Laura Nicolas, Montserrat Cols, Jee Eun Choi, Jayanta Chaudhuri, Bao Vuong
Adaptive immune responses require the generation of a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins (Igs) that can recognize and neutralize a seemingly infinite number of antigens. V(D)J recombination creates the primary Ig repertoire, which subsequently is modified by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). SHM promotes Ig affinity maturation whereas CSR alters the effector function of the Ig. Both SHM and CSR require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to produce dU:dG mismatches in the Ig locus that are transformed into untemplated mutations in variable coding segments during SHM or DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in switch regions during CSR...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743361/a-novel-strategy-to-adapt-shiv-e1-carrying-env-from-an-rv144-volunteer-to-rhesus-macaques-coreceptor-switch-and-final-recovery-of-a-pathogenic-virus-with-exclusive-r5-tropism
#19
Hanna B Scinto, Sandeep Gupta, Swati Thorat, Muhammad M Mukhtar, Anthony Griffiths, Jennifer Delgado, Elizabeth Plake, Hemant K Vyas, Amanda Strickland, Siddappa N Byrareddy, David C Montefiori, Celia LaBranche, Ranajit Pal, Jim Treece, Sharon Orndorff, Maria Grazia Ferrari, Deborah Weiss, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Robert McLinden, Nelson Michael, Jerome H Kim, Merlin Robb, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Ruth M Ruprecht
The Phase III RV144 HIV vaccine trial conducted in Thailand remains the only study to show efficacy in decreasing HIV acquisition risk. In Thailand, circulating recombinant forms of HIV clades A/E (CRF01_AE) predominate; in such viruses, env originates from clade E (HIV-E). We constructed a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) chimera carrying env isolated from an RV144 placebo recipient in the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone. The latter contains long terminal repeats (LTRs) with duplicated NF-κB sites, thus resembling HIV LTRs...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742410/motor-like-properties-of-nonmotor-enzymes
#20
David R Slochower, Michael K Gilson
Molecular motors are thought to generate force and directional motion via nonequilibrium switching between energy surfaces. Because all enzymes can undergo such switching, we hypothesized that the ability to generate rotary motion and torque is not unique to highly adapted biological motor proteins but is instead a common feature of enzymes. We used molecular dynamics simulations to compute energy surfaces for hundreds of torsions in three enzymes-adenosine kinase, protein kinase A, and HIV-1 protease-and used these energy surfaces within a kinetic model that accounts for intersurface switching and intrasurface probability flows...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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