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Adaptive switch

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937818/divorce-in-an-island-bird-population-causes-consequences-and-lack-of-inheritance
#1
Nathaniel T Wheelwright, Céline Teplitsky
Divorce (mate switching) is widely considered an adaptive strategy that female birds use to improve their reproductive success. However, in few species are the causes and consequences of divorce well understood, and the genetic basis and inheritance of divorce have never been explored. In Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, 47.0% of pairs in which both partners survived to the following breeding season ended in divorce. Secondary females, which received less parental assistance than primary females, tended to divorce when breeding success was low or when paired with small males...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933967/aid-biology-a-pathological-and-clinical-perspective
#2
Meenal Choudhary, Anubhav Tamrakar, Amit Kumar Singh, Monika Jain, Ankit Jaiswal, Prashant Kodgire
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), primarily expressed in activated mature B lymphocytes in germinal centers, is the key factor in adaptive immune response against foreign antigens. AID is responsible for producing high-affinity and high-specificity antibodies against an infectious agent, through the physiological DNA alteration processes of antibody genes by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) and functions by deaminating deoxycytidines (dC) to deoxyuridines (dU), thereby introducing point mutations and double-stranded chromosomal breaks (DSBs)...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#3
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#4
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923944/single-master-regulatory-gene-coordinates-the-evolution-and-development-of-butterfly-color-and-iridescence
#5
Linlin Zhang, Anyi Mazo-Vargas, Robert D Reed
The optix gene has been implicated in butterfly wing pattern adaptation by genetic association, mapping, and expression studies. The actual developmental function of this gene has remained unclear, however. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to show that optix plays a fundamental role in nymphalid butterfly wing pattern development, where it is required for determination of all chromatic coloration. optix knockouts in four species show complete replacement of color pigments with melanins, with corresponding changes in pigment-related gene expression, resulting in black and gray butterflies...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923237/signals-that-drive-t-bet-expression-in-b-cells
#6
Arpita Myles, Patricia J Gearhart, Michael P Cancro
Transcription factors regulate various developmental and functional aspects of B cells. T-bet is a recently appreciated transcription factor associated with "Age-associated B cells" or ABCs, the development of autoimmunity, and viral infections. T-bet expression is favored by nucleic acid-containing antigens and immune complexes and is regulated by interplay between various cytokines, notably, the TFH cytokines IL-21, IL-4 and IFNγ. Adaptive signals by themselves cannot upregulate T-bet; however, they have a synergistic effect on induction of T-bet by innate receptors...
September 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922354/reconstructing-promoter-activity-from-lux-bioluminescent-reporters
#7
Mudassar Iqbal, Neil Doherty, Anna M L Page, Saara N A Qazi, Ishan Ajmera, Peter A Lund, Theodore Kypraios, David J Scott, Philip J Hill, Dov J Stekel
The bacterial Lux system is used as a gene expression reporter. It is fast, sensitive and non-destructive, enabling high frequency measurements. Originally developed for bacterial cells, it has also been adapted for eukaryotic cells, and can be used for whole cell biosensors, or in real time with live animals without the need for euthanasia. However, correct interpretation of bioluminescent data is limited: the bioluminescence is different from gene expression because of nonlinear molecular and enzyme dynamics of the Lux system...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919998/reciprocal-influence-of-b-cells-and-tumor-macro-and-microenvironments-in-the-apc-min-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#8
Francesca Mion, Stefania Vetrano, Silvia Tonon, Viviana Valeri, Andrea Piontini, Alessia Burocchi, Luciana Petti, Barbara Frossi, Alessandro Gulino, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo, Carlo E Pucillo
One of the most fascinating aspects of the immune system is its dynamism, meant as the ability to change and readapt according to the organism needs. Following an insult, we assist to the spontaneous organization of different immune cells which cooperate, locally and at distance, to build up an appropriate response. Throughout tumor progression, adaptations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis to distal organs, but also to dramatic changes in the activity and composition of the immune system...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919408/neural-oscillations-reflect-latent-learning-states-underlying-dual-context-sensorimotor-adaptation
#9
Justin M Fine, Dalton Moore, Marco Santello
Recent studies have suggested that individuals can form multiple motor memories when simultaneously adapting to multiple, but oppositely-oriented perturbations. These findings predict that individuals detect the change in learning context, allowing the selective initialization and update of motor memories. However, previous electrophysiological studies of sensorimotor adaptation have not identified a neural mechanism supporting the detection of a context switch and adaptation to separate contexts. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism is identifiable through neural oscillations measured through EEG...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918243/homeostatic-systems-biocybernetics-and-autonomic-neuroscience
#10
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this review we describe a series of major concepts introduced during the past 150years that have contributed to our current understanding about how physiological processes required for well-being and survival are regulated. One can theorize that hierarchical networks involving input-output relationships continuously orchestrate and learn adaptive patterns of observable behaviors, cognition, memory, mood, and autonomic systems. Taken together, these networks function as "good regulators" determining levels of internal variables and act as if there were homeostatic comparators ("homeostats")...
September 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916747/hormetic-potential-of-methylglyoxal-a-side-product-of-glycolysis-in-switching-tumours-from-growth-to-death
#11
Marie-Julie Nokin, Florence Durieux, Justine Bellier, Olivier Peulen, Koji Uchida, David A Spiegel, James R Cochrane, Craig A Hutton, Vincent Castronovo, Akeila Bellahcène
Metabolic reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis unavoidably favours methylglyoxal (MG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation in cancer cells. MG was initially considered a highly cytotoxic molecule with potential anti-cancer value. However, we have recently demonstrated that MG enhanced tumour growth and metastasis. In an attempt to understand this dual role, we explored MG-mediated dicarbonyl stress status in four breast and glioblastoma cancer cell lines in relation with their glycolytic phenotype and MG detoxifying capacity...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916451/switches-in-a-genetic-regulatory-system-under-multiplicative-non-gaussian-noise
#12
Xi Chen, Yan-Mei Kang, Yu-Xuan Fu
The non-Gaussian noise is multiplicatively introduced to model the universal fluctuation in the gene regulation of the bacteriophage λ. To investigate the key effect of non-Gaussian noise on the genetic on/off switch dynamics from the viewpoint of quantitative analysis, we employ the high-order perturbation expansion to deduce the stationary probability density of repressor concentration and the mean first passage time from low concentration to high concentration and vice versa. The occupation probability of different concentration states can be estimated from the height and shape of the peaks of the stationary probability density, which could be used to determine the overall expression level...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916200/islanding-detection-scheme-based-on-adaptive-identifier-signal-estimation-method
#13
M Bakhshi, R Noroozian, G B Gharehpetian
This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance...
September 12, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916180/interpreting-temporal-fluctuations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-mri
#14
REVIEW
Raphaël Liégeois, Timothy O Laumann, Abraham Z Snyder, Juan Zhou, B T Thomas Yeo
Resting-state functional connectivity is a powerful tool for studying human functional brain networks. Temporal fluctuations in functional connectivity, i.e., dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), are thought to reflect dynamic changes in brain organization and non-stationary switching of discrete brain states. However, recent studies have suggested that dFC might be attributed to sampling variability of static FC. Despite this controversy, a detailed exposition of stationarity and statistical testing of dFC is lacking in the literature...
September 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913870/mimicry-in-butterflies-co-option-and-a-bag-of-magnificent-developmental-genetic-tricks
#15
REVIEW
Riddhi Deshmukh, Saurav Baral, A Gandhimathi, Muktai Kuwalekar, Krushnamegh Kunte
Butterfly wing patterns are key adaptations that are controlled by remarkable developmental and genetic mechanisms that facilitate rapid evolutionary change. With swift advancements in the fields of genomics and genetic manipulations, identifying the regulators of wing development and mimetic wing patterns has become feasible even in nonmodel organisms such as butterflies. Recent mapping and gene expression studies have identified single switch loci of major effects such as transcription factors and supergenes as the main drivers of adaptive evolution of mimetic and polymorphic butterfly wing patterns...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913859/changes-in-frontal-and-posterior-cortical-activity-underlie-the-early-emergence-of-executive-function
#16
Aaron T Buss, John P Spencer
Executive function (EF) is a key cognitive process that emerges in early childhood and facilitates children's ability to control their own behavior. Individual differences in EF skills early in life are predictive of quality-of-life outcomes 30 years later (Moffitt et al., 2011). What changes in the brain give rise to this critical cognitive ability? Traditionally, frontal cortex growth is thought to underlie changes in cognitive control (Bunge & Zelazo, 2006; Moriguchi & Hiraki, 2009). However, more recent data highlight the importance of long-range cortical interactions between frontal and posterior brain regions...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906432/total-power-radiometer-for-medical-sensor-applications-using-matched-and-mismatched-noise-sources
#17
Woojin Park, Jinho Jeong
This paper presents a simple total power radiometer to noninvasively measure the temperature of the human body. The proposed 3-GHz radiometer consists of an antenna collecting the noise power generated by a target, a low-noise and high-gain receiver amplifying the noise power, and a detector converting the noise power to voltage. A single-pole-triple-throw (SP3T) switch is placed between the antenna and the receiver, while a personal computer is used to control the SP3T switch, collect and process the data such as detector output voltages and physical temperatures of the reference noise sources and the target...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903047/caloric-restriction-promotes-structural-and-metabolic-changes-in-the-skin
#18
Maria Fernanda Forni, Julia Peloggia, Tárcio T Braga, Jesús Eduardo Ortega Chinchilla, Jorge Shinohara, Carlos Arturo Navas, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara, Alicia J Kowaltowski
Caloric restriction (CR) is the most effective intervention known to enhance lifespan, but its effect on the skin is poorly understood. Here, we show that CR mice display fur coat remodeling associated with an expansion of the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) pool. We also find that the dermal adipocyte depot (dWAT) is underdeveloped in CR animals. The dermal/vennule annulus vasculature is enlarged, and a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) switch and metabolic reprogramming in both the dermis and the epidermis are observed...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900892/increased-locus-coeruleus-tonic-activity-causes-disengagement-from-a-patch-foraging-task
#19
Gary A Kane, Elena M Vazey, Robert C Wilson, Amitai Shenhav, Nathaniel D Daw, Gary Aston-Jones, Jonathan D Cohen
High levels of locus coeruleus (LC) tonic activity are associated with distraction and poor performance within a task. Adaptive gain theory (AGT; Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005) suggests that this may reflect an adaptive function of the LC, encouraging search for more remunerative opportunities in times of low utility. Here, we examine whether stimulating LC tonic activity using designer receptors (DREADDs) promotes searching for better opportunities in a patch-foraging task as the value of a patch diminishes. The task required rats to decide repeatedly whether to exploit an immediate but depleting reward within a patch or to incur the cost of a time delay to travel to a new, fuller patch...
September 12, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900120/recurrent-network-dynamics-reconciles-visual-motion-segmentation-and-integration
#20
N V Kartheek Medathati, James Rankin, Andrew I Meso, Pierre Kornprobst, Guillaume S Masson
In sensory systems, a range of computational rules are presumed to be implemented by neuronal subpopulations with different tuning functions. For instance, in primate cortical area MT, different classes of direction-selective cells have been identified and related either to motion integration, segmentation or transparency. Still, how such different tuning properties are constructed is unclear. The dominant theoretical viewpoint based on a linear-nonlinear feed-forward cascade does not account for their complex temporal dynamics and their versatility when facing different input statistics...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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