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Adaptive switch

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717255/sequential-stable-isotope-analysis-reveals-differences-in-multi-year-dietary-history-of-three-sympatric-equid-species-in-sw-mongolia
#1
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
1. Competition among sympatric wild herbivores is reduced by different physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits resulting in different dietary niches. Wild equids are a rather uniform group of large herbivores which have dramatically declined in numbers and range. Correlative evidence suggests that pasture competition with livestock is one of the key factors for this decline, and the situation may be aggravated in areas where different equid species overlap. 2. The Dzungarian Gobi is currently the only place where two wild equid species coexist and share the range with the domesticated form of a third equid species...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#2
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716949/biochemical-regulatory-features-of-aid-remain-conserved-from-lamprey-to-humans
#3
Emma M Quinlan, Justin J King, Chris T Amemiya, Ellen Hsu, Mani Larijani
Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a genome-mutating enzyme that initiates class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of antibodies in jawed vertebrates. We previously described the biochemical properties of human AID and found that it is an unusual enzyme in that it exhibits binding affinities for its substrate DNA and catalytic rates several orders of magnitude higher and lower, respectively, than a typical enzyme. Recently, we solved the functional structure of AID and demonstrated that these properties are due to non-specific DNA binding on its surface, along with a catalytic pocket that predominantly assumes a closed conformation...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715040/-taste-dysfunction-dysgeusia-and-radioiodine-therapy-of-thyroid-cancer-be-aware-of-side-effects-by-antidepressants-and-sedatives
#4
Markus Dietlein, Alexander Drzezga
In addition to xerostomia, taste dysfunction (hypo-, dysgeusia) is an independent side effect of radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer. Hypogeusia results from damage of the small mucous salivary glands in the vicinity of the taste buds. Particularly in those patients, who are treated with drugs such as antidepressants or sedatives, taste dysfunction becomes frequently clinically symptomatic. If feasible, therapy regimens bearing a potential risk for taste dysfunction should be switched. Additional damage to taste function should be minimalized, including cessation of smoking, change of agents for dental hygiene, and change of toothpaste...
July 17, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714889/staphylococcus-aureus-regulator-sigma-b-is-important-to-develop-chronic-infections-in-hematogenous-murine-osteomyelitis-model
#5
Lorena Tuchscherr, Jennifer Geraci, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing bone infections that can become chronic and difficult to treat. Recently, we described the mechanism employed by S. aureus to switch to small colony variants (SCVs) and trigger intracellular bacterial persistence through the global stress regulator SigB. Here, we studied the role of SigB in the formation of chronic osteomyelitis. We used a murine hematogenous osteomyelitis model, where the mice were infected via the tail vein and subsequently developed chronic osteomyelitis...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706481/adverse-effects-of-the-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-on-episodic-memory-task-switching-and-gray-matter-volume-in-healthy-young-adults
#6
Jianfei Nao, Hongzan Sun, Qiushi Wang, Shuang Ma, Shuo Zhang, Xiaoyu Dong, Ying Ma, Xiaoming Wang, Dongming Zheng
Many studies have shown that healthy elderly subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who carry the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele have worse cognitive function and more severe brain atrophy than non-carriers. However, it remains unclear whether this ApoE polymorphism leads to changes of cognition and brain morphology in healthy young adults. In this study, we used an established model to measure verbal episodic memory and core executive function (EF) components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching) in 32 ApoE ε4 carriers and 40 non-carriers between 20 years and 40 years of age...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703114/inhibition-of-perk-dependent-pro-adaptive-signaling-pathway-as-a-promising-approach-for-cancer-treatment
#7
Wioletta Rozpędek, Dariusz Pytel, Łukasz Dziki, Alicja Nowak, Adam Dziki, J Alan Diehl, Ireneusz Majsterek
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is an organelle that is vital for cell growth and maintenance of homeostasis. Recent studies have reported that numerous human diseases, including cancer, are strictly connected to disruption of ER homeostasis. In order to counteract adverse intracellular conditions, cancer cells induce protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-dependent, pro-adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling branches. If ER stress is severe or prolonged, pro-adaptive signaling networks are insufficient, resulting in apoptotic cell death of cancer cells...
June 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699353/radiation-hormesis-the-link-to-nanomolar-hydrogen-peroxide
#8
Helmut Sies, Ludwig E Feinendegen
Hydrogen peroxide is a stable product of water radiolysis, occurring at nanomolar concentration upon low dose ionizing radiation (<100 mGy). In view of the recent recognition of H2O2 as a central redox signaling molecule which, likewise, is maintained in the nanomolar range in cells, we propose a role for H2O2 in radiation hormesis. Low dose ionizing radiation is capable of utilizing known molecular redox master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-kB/IkB to effect adaptive resistance. This leads to the hypothesis that, as a normal component of the exposome, low dose ionizing radiation mediates hormetic effects by hydrogen peroxide signaling...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698107/dynamic-graph-metrics-tutorial-toolbox-and-tale
#9
REVIEW
Ann E Sizemore, Danielle S Bassett
The central nervous system is composed of many individual units - from cells to areas - that are connected with one another in a complex pattern of functional interactions that supports perception, action, and cognition. One natural and parsimonious representation of such a system is a graph in which nodes (units) are connected by edges (interactions). While applicable across spatiotemporal scales, species, and cohorts, the traditional graph approach is unable to address the complexity of time-varying connectivity patterns that may be critically important for an understanding of emotional and cognitive state, task-switching, adaptation and development, or aging and disease progression...
July 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695899/innate-scavenger-receptor-a-regulates-adaptive-t-helper-cell-responses-to-pathogen-infection
#10
Zhipeng Xu, Lei Xu, Wei Li, Xin Jin, Xian Song, Xiaojun Chen, Jifeng Zhu, Sha Zhou, Yong Li, Weiwei Zhang, Xiaoxiao Dong, Xiaowei Yang, Feng Liu, Hui Bai, Qi Chen, Chuan Su
The pattern recognition receptor (PRR) scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) has an important function in the pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases and in innate immune responses to pathogen infections. However, little is known about the role of SR-A in the host adaptive immune responses to pathogen infection. Here we show with mouse models of helminth Schistosoma japonicum infection and heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation that SR-A is regulated by pathogens and suppresses IRF5 nuclear translocation by direct interaction...
July 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691824/sustained-sub-60-mv-decade-switching-via-the-negative-capacitance-effect-in-mos2-transistors
#11
Felicia A McGuire, Yuh-Chen Lin, Katherine Price, G Bruce Rayner, Sourabh Khandelwal, Sayeef Salahuddin, Aaron D Franklin
It has been shown that a ferroelectric material integrated into the gate stack of a transistor can create an effective negative capacitance (NC) that allows the device to overcome "Boltzmann tyranny". While this switching below the thermal limit has been observed with Si-based NC field-effect transistors (NC-FETs), the adaptation to 2D materials would enable a device that is scalable in operating voltage as well as size. In this work, we demonstrate sustained sub-60 mV/dec switching, with a minimum subthreshold swing (SS) of 6...
July 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686198/towards-a-cognitive-radar-canada-s-third-generation-high-frequency-surface-wave-radar-hfswr-for-surveillance-of-the-200-nautical-mile-exclusive-economic-zone
#12
Anthony Ponsford, Rick McKerracher, Zhen Ding, Peter Moo, Derek Yee
Canada's third-generation HFSWR forms the foundation of a maritime domain awareness system that provides enforcement agencies with real-time persistent surveillance out to and beyond the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Cognitive sense-and-adapt technology and dynamic spectrum management ensures robust and resilient operation in the highly congested High Frequency (HF) band. Dynamic spectrum access enables the system to simultaneously operate on two frequencies on a non-interference and non-protected basis, without impacting other spectrum users...
July 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683754/physiological-mechanisms-of-adaptive-developmental-plasticity-in-rana-temporaria-island-populations
#13
Pablo Burraco, Ana Elisa Valdés, Frank Johansson, Ivan Gomez-Mestre
BACKGROUND: Adaptive plasticity is essential for many species to cope with environmental heterogeneity. In particular, developmental plasticity allows organisms with complex life cycles to adaptively adjust the timing of ontogenetic switch points. Size at and time to metamorphosis are reliable fitness indicators in organisms with complex cycles. The physiological machinery of developmental plasticity commonly involves the activation of alternative neuroendocrine pathways, causing metabolic alterations...
July 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678722/adaptive-neural-networks-prescribed-performance-control-design-for-switched-interconnected-uncertain-nonlinear-systems
#14
Yongming Li, Shaocheng Tong
In this paper, an adaptive neural networks (NNs)-based decentralized control scheme with the prescribed performance is proposed for uncertain switched nonstrict-feedback interconnected nonlinear systems. It is assumed that nonlinear interconnected terms and nonlinear functions of the concerned systems are unknown, and also the switching signals are unknown and arbitrary. A linear state estimator is constructed to solve the problem of unmeasured states. The NNs are employed to approximate unknown interconnected terms and nonlinear functions...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676784/development-and-plasticity-of-cognitive-flexibility-in-early-and-middle-childhood
#15
REVIEW
Frances Buttelmann, Julia Karbach
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to flexibly switch between tasks, is a core dimension of executive functions (EFs) allowing to control actions and to adapt flexibly to changing environments. It supports the management of multiple tasks, the development of novel, adaptive behavior and is associated with various life outcomes. Cognitive flexibility develops rapidly in preschool and continuously increases well into adolescence, mirroring the growth of neural networks involving the prefrontal cortex. Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in interventions designed to improve cognitive flexibility in children in order to support the many developmental outcomes associated with cognitive flexibility...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676215/identification-of-a-novel-t1151k-alk-mutation-in-a-patient-with-alk-rearranged-nsclc-with-prior-exposure-to-crizotinib-and-ceritinib
#16
Viola W Zhu, J Jean Cui, Maria Fernandez-Rocha, Alexa B Schrock, Siraj M Ali, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou
Patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) derive significant clinic benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors. Crizotinib was the first approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) for this distinct molecular subset of NSCLC. Disease progression on TKI inevitably arises secondary to diverse resistance mechanisms among which emergence of secondary ALK mutations is one of many ways in which tumor cells have adapted to survive. Therefore there is a clinical imperative to identify acquired ALK mutations via repeat tissue biopsy if clinically feasible...
August 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671174/case-of-postural-complex-sleep-apnea-effect-of-gravitational-forces
#17
Kamender Singh Pawar, Abhishek Goyal, Alkesh Khurana, Senthil Kumar, Amit Kumar Sen
We report a case of an elderly male with predominant obstructive sleep apnea and who developed or complex sleep apnea (CxSA) at the start of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration. This CxSA was more prominent in supine position, and he was not settling with either CPAP/bilevel positive airway pressure (PAP) in supine position. He finally settled with CPAP along with position therapy. This case highlights the importance of treating CxSA with basic PAP modes like CPAP along with positional therapy before switching to costlier therapies such as adaptive servo-ventilation...
July 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669798/the-pars-tuberalis-the-site-of-the-circannual-clock-in-mammals
#18
REVIEW
Shona Wood, Andrew Loudon
Accurate timing and physiological adaptation to anticipate seasonal changes are an essential requirement for an organism's survival. In contrast to all other environmental cues, photoperiod offers a highly predictive signal that can be reliably used to activate a seasonal adaptive programme at the correct time of year. Coupled to photoperiod sensing, it is apparent that many organisms have evolved innate long-term timekeeping systems, allowing reliable anticipation of forthcoming environmental changes. The fundamental biological processes giving rise to innate long-term timing, with which the photoperiod-sensing pathway engages, are not known for any organism...
June 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668433/scan-time-adapted-contrast-agent-injection-protocols-with-low-volume-for-low-tube-voltage-ct-angiography-an-in-vitro-study
#19
Matthias R Benz, Zsolt Szucs-Farkas, Johannes M Froehlich, Geraldine Stadelmann, Georg Bongartz, Luc Bouwman, Sebastian T Schindera
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were twofold. First, we investigated the extent of changes in arterial peak enhancement and changes in the duration of a diagnostic arterial enhancement when small amounts of CA volumes (≤30mL) were administered at varying tube voltages. Second, we investigated how to optimize CA injection protocols for CT-angiography with long scan times at various tube voltages to achieve optimal vascular enhancement at the lowest reasonable CA dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurements were performed with a custom-made dynamic flow phantom...
August 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662839/what-does-not-kill-you-makes-you-stronger
#20
Miles T Wetherington, Juan E Keymer
Colicin production is an extreme form of labor division; cells lyse after making the toxin! Stochastic phenotype switching allows producers to outcompete sensitive strains since colicin release frees up vacancy. If patch dynamics does not kill you, it stimulates adaptation to a dynamic habitat landscape which selects for rapid dispersal.
June 26, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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