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car seat

Mahesh P Nagarkar, Gahininath J Vikhe Patil, Rahul N Zaware Patil
In this paper a nonlinear quarter car suspension-seat-driver model was implemented for optimum design. A nonlinear quarter car model comprising of quadratic tyre stiffness and cubic stiffness in suspension spring, frame, and seat cushion with 4 degrees of freedom (DoF) driver model was presented for optimization and analysis. Suspension system was aimed to optimize the comfort and health criterion comprising of Vibration Dose Value (VDV) at head, frequency weighted RMS head acceleration, crest factor, amplitude ratio of head RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration and amplitude ratio of upper torso RMS acceleration to seat RMS acceleration along with stability criterion comprising of suspension space deflection and dynamic tyre force...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
Holly Billie, Carolyn E Crump, Robert J Letourneau, Bethany A West
PROBLEM: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death for American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) including AI/AN children. Child safety seats prevent injury and death among children in a motor-vehicle crash, yet use is low among AI/AN children. METHODS: To increase the use of child safety seats (CSS; car seats and booster seats), five tribal communities implemented evidence-based strategies from the Guide to Community Preventive Services during 2010-2014. Increased CSS use was evaluated through direct observational surveys and CSS event data...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Malika D Shah, Keith A Dookeran, Janine Y Khan
OBJECTIVE: To assess comorbid conditions and clinical outcomes among late preterm and low birth weight term infants (<2.5 kg) who failed the Infant Car Seat Challenge (ICSC) on the Mother-Baby Unit. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive infants who failed ICSC on the Mother-Baby Unit and were subsequently admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Prentice Women's Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Regression models were used to estimate risk differences (RDs) with 95% CIs for factors related to length of stay...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
John W Hafner, Stephanie J Kok, Huaping Wang, Dale L Wren, Mary E Aitken, Beverly K Miller, Byron L Anderson, Kathy W Monroe
OBJECTIVES: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of childhood fatality, making use of properly installed child passenger restraint system (CRS) a public health priority. Motor vehicle crashes in rural environments are associated with increased injuries and fatalities, and overall CRS use tends to be lower compared with urban populations. However, it remains unclear if proper installation of car seats is lower in a rural population compared with a similar matched urban population...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Orlin Belyaev, Oleg Tcholakov, Waldemar Uhl
A 5-year-old boy sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a car crash. The buckle mechanism of the five-point harness of his child safety seat compressed his upper abdomen causing an isolated complete pancreatic rupture. Diagnosis was delayed due to subtle symptoms and normal initial findings. A CT scan confirmed diagnosis. An emergency limited central pancreatic resection was performed. The outcome was excellent.
October 13, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Renu Arya, Georgina Williams, Anna Kilonback, Martin Toward, Michael Griffin, Peter S Blair, Peter Fleming
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that preterm infants complete a predischarge 'car seat challenge' observation for cardiorespiratory compromise while in a car seat. This static challenge does not consider the more upright position in a car or the vibration of the seat when the car is moving. This pilot study was designed to assess the cardiorespiratory effects of vibration, mimicking the effect of being in a moving car, on preterm and term infants...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
P Scully, N Finner, J B Letshwiti, C O'Gorman
The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Cindy Struckman-Johnson, Kayla Nalan-Sheffield, Samuel Gaster, Dave Struckman-Johnson
In an anonymous survey of 195 men and 511 women (Mage = 19.8) at a small Midwestern university, 119 men (61%) and 303 women (59.5%) reported that they had engaged in sex while parked. Of these 422, 14% lost their virginity in a parked car. Having sex in parked cars was more likely to involve relational dating partners than hookups. In most recent incidents, the majority of respondents were with a serious but noncohabiting romantic partner (56.9%) in the back seat (63.4%) of a standard car (56.4%) parked out in the country (56...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Bruno Gonçalves Schröder E Souza, Tiago Evangelista de Melo, Tales Pereira Lisboa, Marcos Bastos Miranda, Thiago Gonçalves Schroder E Souza, Valdeci Manoel de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: to obtain information about the current knowledge and habits of parents who transport children in cars in Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional survey was conducted using specifically designed self-responded questionnaires, to parents of children attending a private pediatric office in town in southwest Brazil. Data was collected about children's age, gender, height and weight, possession of automobile children's restraint systems (CRS), its type, frequency and adequacy of use, reasons for not possessing or not using the devices...
September 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Anna Carlsson, Linda Pipkorn, Anders Kullgren, Mats Svensson
Objective Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically <25 km/h) in impacts from all directions. Rear impacts, however, are the most common in the injury statistics. Females have a 1.5-3 times higher risk of whiplash injury than males. Improved seat design is the prevailing means of increasing the protection of whiplash injury for occupants in rear impacts. Since 1997, more advanced whiplash protection systems have been introduced on the market, the Saab Active Head Restraint (SAHR) being one of the most prominent...
September 12, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
A Niesler, G Ścigała, B Łudzeń-Izbińska
Pets are an important source of indoor allergens. The aim of the study was to compare cat and dog allergen levels in cars, schools and homes. The study was carried out in 17 cars, 14 classrooms and 19 dwellings located in the highly industrialized and urbanized region of Poland. Dust and air samples were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 using a double monoclonal ELISA assay. The highest amounts of cat and dog allergens (Fel d 1: 1169 μg/g; Can f 1: 277 μg/g) were found in dwellings with pets. Allergen concentrations were correlated with the number of animals kept at home...
2016: Aerobiologia
Elise Omaki, Wendy C Shields, Eileen McDonald, Mary E Aitken, David Bishai, James Case, Andrea Gielen
BACKGROUND: Although proven measures for reducing injury due to motor vehicle collision and residential fires exist, the number of families properly and consistently using child passenger restraints and smoke alarms remains low. This paper describes the design of the Safety In Seconds (SIS) 2.0 study, which aims to evaluate the impact of a smartphone app on parents' use of child restraints and smoke alarms. METHODS: SIS is a multisite randomised controlled trial...
September 5, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
David C Schwebel, Anna Johnston, Jenni Rouse
OBJECTIVE: A large portion of child restraint systems (car seats) are installed incorrectly, especially when first-time parents install infant car seats. Expert instruction greatly improves the accuracy of car seat installation but is labor intensive and difficult to obtain for many parents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 3 ways of communicating instructions for proper car seat installation: phone conversation; HelpLightning, a mobile application (app) that offers virtual interactive presence permitting both verbal and interactive (telestration) visual communication; and the manufacturer's user manual...
August 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
S Treviño-Siller, L E Pacheco-Magaña, P Bonilla-Fernández, C Rueda-Neria, L Arenas-Monreal
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe a public school-based educational intervention (EI) designed to increase knowledge, improve attitudes, and change practices related to road safety. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods evaluation of a road traffic safety baseline diagnosis conducted in 4 public schools, 2 primary and 2 secondary. Research was organized into 4 phases: (1) diagnosis, (2) EI design, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation. We used convenience sampling (n = 219 students) across schools and applied a pre-/posttest design based on quantitative and qualitative data...
August 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ellen M Cooper, Gretchen Kroeger, Katherine Davis, Charlotte R Clark, P Lee Ferguson, Heather M Stapleton
Flame retardant (FR) chemicals have often been added to polyurethane foam to meet required state and federal flammability standards. However, some FRs (e.g., PBDEs and TDCIPP) are associated with health hazards and are now restricted from use in some regions. In addition, California's residential furniture flammability standard (TB-117) has undergone significant amendments over the past few years, and TDCIPP has been added to California's Proposition 65 list. These events have likely led to shifts in the types of FRs used, and the products to which they are applied...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Chris Moir, Kim Meredith-Jones, Barry J Taylor, Andrew Gray, Anne-Louise M Heath, Kelly Dale, Barbara Galland, Julie Lawrence, Rachel M Sayers, Rachael W Taylor
INTRODUCTION: Few physical activity interventions have been undertaken in infants and toddlers, despite concerns they are insufficiently active. The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy trial encouraged parents to be physically active with their child from birth, including prone-based play ('tummy time'), while reducing time spent restrained in car seats and 'strollers'. METHODS: 802 women, recruited in late pregnancy, were randomized to a physical activity intervention which provided information antenatally, and active group sessions with their infant at 3, 9 and 18 months of age...
July 27, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
S C Kim, K H Lee, H Y Choi, J Noble, K Lee, H J Jeon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine on-scene factors that predict severe injury to the occupants of passenger cars involved in frontal crashes. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2014, we collected data from patients who were taken to two emergency centres following a frontal motor vehicle crash. Binomial logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (sex, age, body mass index), vehicle damage (according to the collision deformation classification code), and safety devices on severe injuries (injury severity score >15)...
July 28, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
U Kilincsoy, A Wagner, P Vink, H Bubb
BACKGROUND: In designing a car seat the ideal pressure distribution is important as it is the largest contact surface between the human and the car. Because of obstacles hindering a more general application of the ideal pressure distribution in seating design, multidimensional measuring techniques are necessary with extensive user tests. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to apply and integrate the knowledge about the ideal pressure distribution in the seat design process for a car manufacturer in an efficient way...
July 19, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
J Douglas Thornton, Arijita Deb, Pamela J Murray, Kimberly M Kelly
Objective Parenting practices differ for a variety of reasons, and three parenting behaviors may be directly influenced by research, policy, and overall parenting trends: car safety seats, vaccination, and breastfeeding. Mothers were categorized in terms of their rear-facing car safety seat utilization and its relationship to other parental health and safety behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional, online survey of mothers of children under 3 years of age (n = 124) was conducted. Items assessed mother's perceived risk and worry about being in an automobile accident, as well as duration of rear-facing car seat utilization...
July 19, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Julie Brown, John Kam Hung Sinn, Aileen Chua, Elizabeth Clare Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Child restraint fit is important for crash protection. For newborns, standards universally require a rear-facing restraint and some upper limit on size, but historically there has been no specification of a lower design limit and there is concern over whether low birthweight infants (LBW) are adequately restrained. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of harness fit for newborns of low and normal weight in a range of modern child restraints. METHODS: A convenience sample of infants (1...
July 15, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
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