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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261294/characterization-and-photodegradation-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-in-car-seat-fabrics-from-end-of-life-vehicles
#1
Amina Khaled, Claire Richard, Lisa Redin, Mirva Erika Niinipuu, Stina Jansson, Farouk Jaber, Mohamad Sleiman
In this study, we examined the photodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the surface of car seat covers from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Samples were collected at two car dismantling facilities in Sweden and cover car models from 1989-1998. The content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in nine real samples (fabric and polyurethane foam) was first characterized. Fabric samples that did not contain BDE-209 were then spiked with BDE-209, and irradiated in the laboratory and under sunlight...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248618/understanding-international-road-safety-disparities-why-is-australia-so-much-safer-than-the-united-states
#2
Wesley E Marshall
Despite similarities to the US in terms of transportation, land use, and culture, Australia kills 5.3 people per 100,000 population on the roads each year, as compared to the US rate of 12.4. Similar trends hold when accounting for distance driven and the number of registered cars. This paper seeks to understand what is behind the road safety disparities between these two countries. The results suggest that a number of inter-related factors seem to play a role in the better road safety outcomes of Australia as compared to the US...
December 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219092/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-sedentary-behaviour-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#3
Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Xanne Janssen, Salome Aubert, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Gary S Goldfield, John J Reilly, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between sedentary behaviour (SB) and health indicators in children aged 0 to 4 years, and to determine what doses of SB (i.e., duration, patterns [frequency, interruptions], and type) were associated with health indicators. METHODS: Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, 1 month to 4.99 years), intervention/exposure and comparator (durations, patterns, and types of SB), and outcome/health indicator (critical: adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development; important: bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, fitness, risks/harm)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203458/evaluating-in-car-movements-in-the-design-of-mindful-commute-interventions-exploratory-study
#4
Pablo Enrique Paredes, Nur Al-Huda Hamdan, Dav Clark, Carrie Cai, Wendy Ju, James A Landay
BACKGROUND: The daily commute could be a right moment to teach drivers to use movement or breath towards improving their mental health. Long commutes, the relevance of transitioning from home to work, and vice versa and the privacy of commuting by car make the commute an ideal scenario and time to perform mindful exercises safely. Whereas driving safety is paramount, mindful exercises might help commuters decrease their daily stress while staying alert. Increasing vehicle automation may present new opportunities but also new challenges...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186136/development-of-a-shear-force-measurement-dummy-for-seat-comfort
#5
Seong Guk Kim, Chang-Yong Ko, Dong Hyun Kim, Ye Eun Song, Tae Uk Kang, Sungwoo Ahn, Dohyung Lim, Han Sung Kim
Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165122/decreased-blood-pressure-associated-with-in-vehicle-exposure-to-carbon-monoxide-in-korean-volunteers
#6
Geon-Woo Lee, Mun-Joo Bae, Ji-Yeon Yang, Jung-Woo Son, Jae-Lim Cho, Sang-Gyu Lee, Bo-Mi Jang, Hyun-Woo Lee, Jong-Soon Lim, Dong-Chun Shin, Young-Wook Lim
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the primary components of emissions from light-duty vehicles, and reportedly comprises 77% of all pollutants emitted in terms of concentration. Exposure to CO aggravates cardiovascular disease and causes other health disorders. The study was aimed to assess the negative effects by injecting different amounts of CO concentration directly to human volunteers boarding in the car. METHODS: Human volunteers were exposed to CO concentrations of 0, 33...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065063/child-seat-belt-guidelines-examining-the-4-feet-9-inches-rule-as-the-standard
#7
Amber M Morse, Mary E Aitken, Samantha H Mullins, Beverly K Miller, Mindy M Pomtree, Erin M Ulloa, Jeffrey S Montgomery, Marie E Saylors
BACKGROUND: Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement...
November 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058950/development-of-a-seating-comfort-questionnaire-for-motorcycles
#8
Sai Praveen Velagapudi, Gaur Gopal Ray
Objective The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and valid Motorcycle Seating Comfort Questionnaire (MSCQ). Background Motorcycle seat development is an iterative process based on subjective evaluations; however, there are no established subjective tools for evaluation of seating comfort. Research also suggests that seating comfort in motorcycles is poor and needs improvement. The development of a MSCQ therefore is an important step that can enable further research and aid in improving the design of motorcycle seats...
December 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994725/-he-s-the-number-one-thing-in-my-world-application-of-the-precede-proceed-model-to-explore-child-car-seat-use-in-a-regional-community-in-new-south-wales
#9
Kate Hunter, Lisa Keay, Kathleen Clapham, Julie Brown, Lynne E Bilston, Marilyn Lyford, Celeste Gilbert, Rebecca Q Ivers
We explored the factors influencing the use of age-appropriate car seats in a community with a high proportion of Aboriginal families in regional New South Wales. We conducted a survey and three focus groups with parents of children aged 3-5 years enrolled at three early learning centres on the Australian south-east coast. Survey data were triangulated with qualitative data from focus groups and analysed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED conceptual framework. Of the 133 eligible families, 97 (73%) parents completed the survey including 31% of parents who reported their children were Aboriginal...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988836/parental-perceptions-risks-and-incidence-of-pediatric-unintentional-injuries
#10
Catherine M Hogan, Nancy L Weaver, Claire Cioni, Jessica Fry, Alyssa Hamilton, Samantha Thompson
INTRODUCTION: More than 9,000 children die annually from various causes of unintentional injury. Of all the pediatric unintentional injuries occurring in the United States, 8.7 million are treated in emergency departments, and 225,000 require hospitalization annually. Health education programs are available to address these injuries. The objective of this research was to examine the distribution of self-reported high priority injury risks in an urban Midwestern pediatric level 1 trauma center and investigate the relationship between parental perceptions and injury-prevention behaviors...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983939/the-association-between-pediatric-injury-risks-and-parenting-behaviours
#11
M L Jaques, T L Weaver, N L Weaver, L Willoughby
BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children ages 1-18 years. Many of these injuries to young children occur in their own homes. Although research has explored injury risk prevention strategies, historically, much of this research has focused on environmental changes and teaching safety practices. Currently, there appears to be a gap in current research exploring how parenting influences children's risk of injury. METHODS: Mothers (n = 119) of children 5 years and younger were recruited from a paediatric clinic as a part of a larger study and completed measures of parenting challenges, developmentally sensitive parenting, child neglect, parental efficacy, and risk of potential injury situations...
October 6, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954429/are-mhealth-interventions-to-improve-child-restraint-system-installation-of-value-a-mixed-methods-study-of-parents
#12
Linda Fleisher, Danielle Erkoboni, Katherine Halkyard, Emily Sykes, Marisol S Norris, Lorrie Walker, Flaura Winston
Childhood death from vehicle crashes and the delivery of information about proper child restraint systems (CRS) use continues to be a critical public health issue. Safe Seat, a sequential, mixed-methods study identified gaps in parental knowledge about and perceived challenges in the use of appropriate CRS and insights into the preferences of various technological approaches to deliver CRS education. Focus groups (eight groups with 21 participants) and a quantitative national survey (N = 1251) using MTurk were conducted...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953055/predictors-of-persistent-infant-car-seat-challenge-failure
#13
Laura Mandell, Lawrence M Rhein, Henry A Feldman, Emily Bergling, Courtney Porter, Michele DeGrazia
BACKGROUND: Premature and other at-risk infants can experience cardiorespiratory problems when positioned in their car seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all premature and at-risk infants undergo a period of observation in their car seat to monitor for apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation before hospital discharge. This Infant Car Seat Challenge (ICSC) is used to determine readiness for infant travel in a car seat. Infants failing the ICSC are discharged home in car beds and referred for a follow-up screen in the outpatient clinic...
December 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938225/occupant-level-injury-severity-analyses-for-taxis-in-hong-kong-a-bayesian-space-time-logistic-model
#14
Fanyu Meng, Pengpeng Xu, S C Wong, Helai Huang, Y C Li
This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the crash-related severity level of injuries in taxis and quantify the associations between these factors and taxi occupant injury severity. Casualties resulting from taxi crashes from 2004 to 2013 in Hong Kong were divided into four categories: taxi drivers, taxi passengers, private car drivers and private car passengers. To avoid any biased interpretation caused by unobserved spatial and temporal effects, a Bayesian hierarchical logistic modeling approach with conditional autoregressive priors was applied, and four different model forms were tested...
November 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934184/rural-and-urban-differences-in-passenger-vehicle-occupant-deaths-and-seat-belt-use-among-adults-united-states-2014
#15
Laurie F Beck, Jonathan Downs, Mark R Stevens, Erin K Sauber-Schatz
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. REPORTING PERIOD: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918223/an-ecological-model-to-factors-associated-with-booster-seat-use-a-population-based-study
#16
Sarit Shimony Kanat, Rosa Gofin
Belt-positioning booster seat use (BPB) is an effective technology to prevent severe child injury in cases of car crash. However, in many countries, age-appropriate car restraint use for children aged 4-7 years old remains the lowest among all age groups. The aim of this study was to identify the main determinants of BPB use through a comprehensive approach. An ecological model was used to analyze individual, parent-child relationships, and neighborhood characteristics. Parents of children enrolled in the first and second grades completed a self-reported questionnaire (n=745)...
November 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882272/using-interactive-virtual-presence-to-support-accurate-installation-of-child-restraints-efficacy-and-parental-perceptions
#17
David C Schwebel, M Alison Tillman, Marie Crew, Matthew Muller, Anna Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Child restraint systems (car seats) reduce injury risk for young children involved in motor-vehicle crashes, but parents experience significant difficulty installing child restraints correctly. Installation by certified child passenger safety (CPS) technicians yields more accurate installation, but is impractical for broad distribution. A potential solution is use of interactive virtual presence via smartphone application (app), which permits "hands on" teaching through simultaneous and remote joint exposure to 3-dimensional images...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771646/assessing-disaster-preparedness-among-select-children-s-summer-camps-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#18
Megan Chang, Alan Sielaff, Stuart Bradin, Kevin Walker, Michael Ambrose, Andrew Hashikawa
OBJECTIVE: Children's summer camps are at risk for multiple pediatric casualties during a disaster. The degree to which summer camps have instituted disaster preparedness is unknown. We assessed disaster preparedness among selected camps nationally for a range of disasters. METHODS: We partnered with a national, web-based electronic health records system to send camp leadership of 315 camp organizations a 14-question online survey of disaster preparedness. One response from each camp was selected in the following order of importance: owner, director, physician, nurse, medical technician, office staff, and other...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756360/combined-intra-and-extraperitoneal-urinary-bladder-rupture-a-rare-seat-belt-injury-a-case-report
#19
Lisanne Grünherz, Xenia Startseva, Marko Kozomara-Hocke, Borna K Barth, Hans-Peter Simmen, Ladislav Mica, Thomas Rauer
INTRODUCTION: While isolated traumatic urinary bladder injuries are rare, combined intra- and extraperitoneal traumatic urinary bladder ruptures without an underlying fracture are an absolute rarity. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of combined intra- and extraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture without an underlying fracture resulting from blunt abdominal trauma during a high velocity car accident. A midline laparotomy was performed, and the intra- and extraperitoneal bladder ruptures were surgically treated...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735244/legacy-and-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-in-interior-car-dust%C3%A2-%C3%A2-implications-for-human-exposure
#20
Athanasios Besis, Christina Christia, Giulia Poma, Adrian Covaci, Constantini Samara
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are organobromine compounds with an inhibitory effect on combustion chemistry tending to reduce the flammability of products. Concerns about health effects and environmental threats have led to phase-out or restrictions in the use of Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDE technical formulations, increasing the demand for Novel BFRs (NBFRs) as replacements for the banned formulations. This study examined the occurrence of legacy and NBFRs in the dust from the interior of private cars in Thessaloniki, Greece, aged from 1 to 19 years with variable origin and characteristics...
November 2017: Environmental Pollution
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