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Pedunculopontine nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283747/magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-proof-of-concept-and-histological-correlation
#1
A T D L Alho, C Hamani, E J L Alho, R E da Silva, G A B Santos, R C Neves, L L Carreira, C M M Araújo, G Magalhães, D B Coelho, M C Alegro, M G M Martin, L T Grinberg, C A Pasqualucci, H Heinsen, E T Fonoff, E Amaro
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been proposed as target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with postural instability and gait disorders due to its involvement in muscle tonus adjustments and control of locomotion. However, it is a deep-seated brainstem nucleus without clear imaging or electrophysiological markers. Some studies suggested that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may help guiding electrode placement in the PPN by showing the surrounding fiber bundles, but none have provided a direct histological correlation...
March 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279773/deep-brain-stimulation-of-pedunculopontine-nucleus-for-postural-instability-and-gait-disorder-after-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#2
Jia-Wei Wang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Yun-Peng Wang, Ji-Ping Li, Yong-Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Postural instability and gait disorder(PIGD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been a great challenge in the clinical practice since PIGD is closely linked to major morbidity and mortality in PD. Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered as a potential promising target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of PIGD. Thus, this meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) was performed to assess the effects of PPN DBS on PIGD in PD patients and explore the factors predicting good outcome...
March 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268275/reinforcement-learning-for-stabilizing-an-inverted-pendulum-naturally-leads-to-intermittent-feedback-control-as-in-human-quiet-standing
#3
Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura
Intermittent feedback control for stabilizing human upright stance is a promising strategy, alternative to the standard time-continuous stiffness control. Here we show that such an intermittent controller can be established naturally through reinforcement learning. To this end, we used a single inverted pendulum model of the upright posture and a very simple reward function that gives a certain amount of punishments when the inverted pendulum falls or changes its position in the state space. We found that the acquired feedback controller exhibits hallmarks of the intermittent feedback control strategy, namely the action of the feedback controller is switched-off intermittently when the state of the pendulum is located near the stable manifold of the unstable saddle-type upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum with no active control: this action provides an opportunity to exploit transiently converging dynamics toward the unstable upright position with no help of the active feedback control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226432/reinforcement-learning-for-stabilizing-an-inverted-pendulum-naturally-leads-to-intermittent-feedback-control-as-in-human-quiet-standing
#4
Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura, Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura, Ken Kiyono, Pietro Morasso, Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasushi Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Taishin Nomura
Intermittent feedback control for stabilizing human upright stance is a promising strategy, alternative to the standard time-continuous stiffness control. Here we show that such an intermittent controller can be established naturally through reinforcement learning. To this end, we used a single inverted pendulum model of the upright posture and a very simple reward function that gives a certain amount of punishments when the inverted pendulum falls or changes its position in the state space. We found that the acquired feedback controller exhibits hallmarks of the intermittent feedback control strategy, namely the action of the feedback controller is switched-off intermittently when the state of the pendulum is located near the stable manifold of the unstable saddle-type upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum with no active control: this action provides an opportunity to exploit transiently converging dynamics toward the unstable upright position with no help of the active feedback control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212832/motor-dysfunction-and-alterations-in-glutathione-concentration-cholinesterase-activity-and-bdnf-expression-in-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta-in-rats-with-pedunculopontine-lesion
#5
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Javier Jimenez-Martin, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Maylin Wong-Guerra, Ma Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Susana Delgado-Ocaña, Yanier Núñez-Figueredo, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered a critically important region in the regulation of some of the physiological functions that fail during the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, the effects of unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN [through the injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) solution (concentration: 0.1M; volume: 0.5µL)] in motor execution and gait disorders and the changes in cellular and molecular indicators in rat nigral tissue were evaluated. The motor execution was assessed using the beam test (BT) and the gait disorders by footprint test...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203147/astrocyte-dependent-slow-inward-currents-sics-participate-in-neuromodulatory-mechanisms-in-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-ppn
#6
Adrienn Kovács, Balázs Pál
Slow inward currents (SICs) are known as excitatory events of neurons caused by astrocytic glutamate release and consequential activation of neuronal extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. In the present article we investigate the role of these astrocyte-dependent excitatory events on a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system (RAS), the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). It is well known about this and other elements of the RAS, that they do not only give rise to neuromodulatory innervation of several areas, but also targets neuromodulatory actions from other members of the RAS or factors providing the homeostatic drive for sleep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164375/pedunculopontine-network-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-postural-control-and-sleep-disorders
#7
Cecile Gallea, Claire Ewenczyk, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, David Grabli, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Romain Valabregue, Pierre Berroir, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Eric Bertasi, Sara Fernandez-Vidal, Eric Bardinet, Emmanuel Roze, Habib Benali, Cyril Poupon, Chantal François, Isabelle Arnulf, Stéphane Lehéricy, Marie Vidailhet
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate pedunculopontine nucleus network dysfunctions that mediate impaired postural control and sleep disorder in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We examined (1) Parkinson's disease patients with impaired postural control and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (further abbreviated as sleep disorder), (2) Parkinson's disease patients with sleep disorder only, (3) Parkinson's disease patients with neither impaired postural control nor sleep disorder, and (4) healthy volunteers...
February 6, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163217/neurochemical-organization-and-morphology-of-the-sleep-related-nuclei-in-the-brain-of-the-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx
#8
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Nigel C Bennett, Osama B Mohammed, Adhil Bhagwandin, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx, is a member of the superorder Cetartiodactyla and is native to the Arabian Desert. The desert environment can be considered extreme in which to sleep, as the ranges of temperatures experienced are beyond what most mammals encounter. The current study describes the nuclear organization and neuronal morphology of the systems that have been implicated in sleep control in other mammals for the Arabian oryx. The nuclei delineated include those revealed immunohistochemically as belonging to the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems within the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, midbrain and pons...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159574/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-focus-on-neurochemistry
#9
REVIEW
A Stefani, V Trendafilov, C Liguori, E Fedele, S Galati
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a standard therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is also currently under investigation for other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although many scientific, clinical and ethical issues are still unresolved, DBS delivered into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has improved the quality of life of several thousands of patients. The mechanisms underlying STN-DBS have been debated extensively in several reviews; less investigated are the biochemical consequences, which are still under scrutiny...
January 31, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143769/muscarinic-cholinergic-receptor-antagonists-in-the-vta-and-rmtg-have-opposite-effects-on-morphine-induced-locomotion-in-mice
#10
Stephan Steidl, Ekamjeet S Dhillon, Natasha Sharma, Jessica Ludwig
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) each contribute to opiate reward and each receive inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, the two principle brainstem cholinergic cell groups. We compared the contributions of VTA or RMTg muscarinic cholinergic receptors to locomotion induced by morphine infusions into the same sites. VTA co-infusion of atropine completely blocked VTA morphine-induced locomotion providing additional support for the important role of VTA muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the stimulant effects of opiates...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#11
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
January 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058727/exppning-how-acetylcholine-improves-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-editorial-highlight-for-deletion-of-the-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-from-pedunculopontine-laterodorsal-tegmental-neurons-modifies-gait
#12
EDITORIAL
Björn Falkenburger
Read the highlighted article 'Deletion of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter from Pedunculopontine/laterodorsal tegmental neurons modifies gait' on page 787.
March 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053028/activation-of-pedunculopontine-glutamate-neurons-is-reinforcing
#13
Ji Hoon Yoo, Vivien Zell, Johnathan Wu, Cindy Punta, Nivedita Ramajayam, Xinyi Shen, Lauren Faget, Varoth Lilascharoen, Byung Kook Lim, Thomas S Hnasko
Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we investigated the role of PPTg glutamate neurons in reinforcement, with an emphasis on their projections to VTA dopamine neurons. We used cell-type-specific anterograde tracing and optogenetic methods to selectively label and manipulate glutamate projections from PPTg neurons in mice...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039375/cholinergic-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-of-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-have-distinct-effects-on-sleep-wake-behavior-in-mice
#14
Daniel Kroeger, Loris L Ferrari, Gaetan Petit, Carrie E Mahoney, Patrick M Fuller, Elda Arrigoni, Thomas E Scammell
The pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus has long been implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and behavioral states, including rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. For example, electrical stimulation of the PPT region during sleep leads to rapid awakening, whereas lesions of the PPT in cats reduce REM sleep. Though these effects have been linked with the activity of cholinergic PPT neurons, the PPT also includes intermingled glutamatergic and GABAergic cell populations, and the precise roles of cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic PPT cell groups in regulating cortical activity and behavioral state remain unknown...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027399/activation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-tropomyosin-receptor-kinase-b-signaling-in-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-a-novel-mechanism-for-the-homeostatic-regulation-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#15
Abigail K Barnes, Richa Koul-Tiwari, Jennifer M Garner, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dysregulation is a symptom of many neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the mechanisms of REM sleep homeostatic regulation are not fully understood. We have shown that, after REM sleep deprivation, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) plays a critical role in the generation of recovery REM sleep. In this study, we used multidisciplinary techniques to show a causal relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling in the PPT and the development of REM sleep homeostatic drive...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956208/anatomical-evidence-for-functional-diversity-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-of-primates
#16
Sophie B Sébille, Hayat Belaid, Anne-Charlotte Philippe, Arthur André, Brian Lau, Chantal François, Carine Karachi, Eric Bardinet
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a highly preserved brainstem structure in vertebrates. The MLR performs a crucial role in locomotion but also controls various other functions such as sleep, attention, and even emotion. The MLR comprises the pedunculopontine (PPN) and cuneiform nuclei (CuN) but their specific roles are still unknown in primates. Here, we sought to characterise the inputs and outputs of the PPN and CuN to and from the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and cortex, with a specific interest in identifying functional anatomical territories...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932591/the-cellular-diversity-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-relevance-to-behavior-in-health-and-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ilse S Pienaar, Anthony Vernon, Philip Winn
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a rostral brainstem structure that has extensive connections with basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus. Through these the PPN contributes to neural circuits that effect cortical and hippocampal activity. The PPN also has descending connections to nuclei of the pontine and medullary reticular formations, deep cerebellar nuclei, and the spinal cord. Interest in the PPN has increased dramatically since it was first suggested to be a novel target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease who are refractory to medication...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891082/reward-and-behavioral-factors-contributing-to-the-tonic-activity-of-monkey-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-neurons-during-saccade-tasks
#18
Ken-Ichi Okada, Yasushi Kobayashi
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in the brainstem plays a role in controlling reinforcement learning and executing conditioned behavior. We previously examined the activity of PPTg neurons in monkeys during a reward-conditioned, visually guided saccade task, and reported that a population of these neurons exhibited tonic responses throughout the task period. These tonic responses might depend on prediction of the upcoming reward, successful execution of the task, or both. Here, we sought to further distinguish these factors and to investigate how each contributes to the tonic neuronal activity of the PPTg...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884739/structural-and-functional-improvements-due-to-robot-assisted-gait-training-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#19
Hea Eun Yang, Sunghyon Kyeong, Seung Hwa Lee, Won-Jae Lee, Sang Won Ha, Seung Min Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Won Min Lee, Chang Soon Kang, Dae Hyun Kim
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) can improve walking ability after stroke. Because the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, we analyzed changes in post-stroke injured brains after RAGT. Ten non-ambulatory patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation were examined within 3 months of stroke onset. RAGT consisted of 45min of training, 3days per week. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data before and after 20 sessions of RAGT. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were then used to determine neural changes after RAGT...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875755/individual-differences-in-brainstem-and-basal-ganglia-structure-predict-postural-control-and-balance-loss-in-young-and-older-adults
#20
Matthieu P Boisgontier, Boris Cheval, Sima Chalavi, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Inge Leunissen, Oron Levin, Alice Nieuwboer, Stephan P Swinnen
It remains unclear which specific brain regions are the most critical for human postural control and balance, and whether they mediate the effect of age. Here, associations between postural performance and corticosubcortical brain regions were examined in young and older adults using multiple structural imaging and linear mixed models. Results showed that of the regions involved in posture, the brainstem was the strongest predictor of postural control and balance: lower brainstem volume predicted larger center of pressure deviation and higher odds of balance loss...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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