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Pedunculopontine nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605052/effects-of-pedunculopontine-nucleus-stimulation-on-human-bladder-function
#1
Holly A Roy, Debbie Pond, Christopher Roy, Beth Forrow, Thomas Foltynie, Ludvic Zrinzo, Harith Akram, Tipu Z Aziz, James J FitzGerald, Alexander L Green
AIMS: The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a deep brain stimulation target for Parkinson's disease (PD). Unilateral PPN stimulation has been described in a previous case report to provoke urinary frequency, urgency and detrusor overactivity, due to probable activation of the pontine micturition center. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of bilateral PPN DBS on urodynamic parameters and to investigate the likely mechanisms using probabilistic tractography. METHODS: Six male PD subjects with bilateral PPN deep brain stimulators were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603482/dopamine-and-the-brainstem-locomotor-networks-from-lamprey-to-human
#2
REVIEW
Dimitri Ryczko, Réjean Dubuc
In vertebrates, dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion via their ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project to brainstem locomotor networks. An increased dopaminergic tone is associated with increase in locomotor activity. In pathological conditions where dopamine cells are lost, such as in Parkinson's disease, locomotor deficits are traditionally associated with the reduced ascending dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. However, a descending dopaminergic pathway originating from the substantia nigra pars compacta was recently discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590933/the-caudal-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-may-be-involved-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-activity-by-melanocortinsympathetic-pathway-a-virally-mediated-trans-synaptic-tracing-study-in-spinally-transected-transgenic-mice
#3
Zhi-Gang He, Bao-Wen Liu, Zhi-Xiao Li, Xue-Bi Tian, San-Guang Liu, Anne Manyande, Ding-Yu Zhang, Hong-Bing Xiang
Understanding neuroanatomical sympathetic circuitry and neuronal connections from the caudal pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to skeletal muscle is important to the study of possible mechanisms of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) and cuneiform nucleus (CnF) that are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle activity of the sympathetic pathway. The aim of this study was to use virus PRV-614 to trace the melanocortin-sympathetic neural pathways from PPTg and CnF to a hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius) in spinally transected MC4R-GFP transgenic mice...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579945/lfp-oscillations-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-during-voluntary-locomotion
#4
Brian R Noga, Francisco J Sanchez, Luz M Villamil, Christopher O'Toole, Stefan Kasicki, Maciej Olszewski, Anna M Cabaj, Henryk Majczyński, Urszula Sławińska, Larry M Jordan
Oscillatory rhythms in local field potentials (LFPs) are thought to coherently bind cooperating neuronal ensembles to produce behaviors, including locomotion. LFPs recorded from sites that trigger locomotion have been used as a basis for identification of appropriate targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to enhance locomotor recovery in patients with gait disorders. Theta band activity (6-12 Hz) is associated with locomotor activity in locomotion-inducing sites in the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus, but the LFPs that occur in the functionally defined mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) during locomotion have not been determined...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568506/pbb3-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders-evidence-for-binding-to-tau-and-other-proteins
#5
Alexandra Perez-Soriano, Julieta E Arena, Katie Dinelle, Qing Miao, Jessamyn McKenzie, Nicole Neilson, Andreas Puschmann, Paul Schaffer, Hitoshi Shinotoh, Jenna Smith-Forrester, Elham Shahinfard, Nasim Vafai, Daryl Wile, Zbigniew Wszolek, Makoto Higuchi, Vesna Sossi, A Jon Stoessl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To study selective regional binding for tau pathology in vivo, using PET with [(11) C]PBB3 in PSP patients, and other conditions not typically associated with tauopathy. METHODS: Dynamic PET scans were obtained for 70 minutes after the bolus injection of [(11) C]PBB3 in 5 PSP subjects, 1 subject with DCTN1 mutation and PSP phenotype, 3 asymptomatic SNCA duplication carriers, 1 MSA subject, and 6 healthy controls of similar age. Tissue reference Logan analysis was applied to each region of interest using a cerebellar white matter reference region...
June 1, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384477/rethinking-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-from-cellular-organization-to-function
#6
REVIEW
Juan Mena-Segovia, J Paul Bolam
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has long been considered an interface between the basal ganglia and motor systems, and its ability to regulate arousal states puts the PPN in a key position to modulate behavior. Despite the large amount of data obtained over recent decades, a unified theory of its function is still incomplete. By putting together classical concepts and new evidence that dissects the influence of its different neuronal subtypes on their various targets, we propose that the PPN and, in particular, cholinergic neurons have a central role in updating the behavioral state as a result of changes in environmental contingencies...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349227/effects-of-bilateral-vestibular-deafferentation-in-rat-on-hippocampal-theta-response-to-somatosensory-stimulation-acetylcholine-release-and-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus
#7
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
Vestibular dysfunction has been shown to cause spatial memory impairment. Neurophysiological studies indicate that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL), in particular, is associated with an impairment of the response of hippocampal place cells and theta rhythm. However, the specific neural pathways through which vestibular information reaches the hippocampus are yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the hypothesised 'theta-generating pathway' from the brainstem vestibular nucleus to the hippocampus...
March 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316456/functional-connectivity-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-and-surrounding-region-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Ashwani Jha, Vladimir Litvak, Samu Taulu, Wesley Thevathasan, Jonathan A Hyam, Tom Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Marko Bogdanovic, Ludvic Zrinzo, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz, Karl Friston, Peter Brown
Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus and surrounding region (PPNR) is a novel treatment strategy for gait freezing in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, clinical results have been variable, in part because of the paucity of functional information that might help guide selection of the optimal surgical target. In this study, we use simultaneous magnetoencephalography and local field recordings from the PPNR in seven PD patients, to characterize functional connectivity with distant brain areas at rest...
January 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283747/magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-proof-of-concept-and-histological-correlation
#9
A T D L Alho, C Hamani, E J L Alho, R E da Silva, G A B Santos, R C Neves, L L Carreira, C M M Araújo, G Magalhães, D B Coelho, M C Alegro, M G M Martin, L T Grinberg, C A Pasqualucci, H Heinsen, E T Fonoff, E Amaro
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been proposed as target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with postural instability and gait disorders due to its involvement in muscle tonus adjustments and control of locomotion. However, it is a deep-seated brainstem nucleus without clear imaging or electrophysiological markers. Some studies suggested that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may help guiding electrode placement in the PPN by showing the surrounding fiber bundles, but none have provided a direct histological correlation...
March 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279773/deep-brain-stimulation-of-pedunculopontine-nucleus-for-postural-instability-and-gait-disorder-after-parkinson-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#10
Jia-Wei Wang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Yun-Peng Wang, Ji-Ping Li, Yong-Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) in Parkinson disease (PD) has been a great challenge in clinical practice because PIGD is closely linked to major morbidity and mortality in PD. Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered as a potential promising target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of PIGD. A meta-analysis of individual patient data was performed to assess the effects of PPN DBS on PIGD in patients with PD and explore the factors predicting good outcome...
June 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268275/reinforcement-learning-for-stabilizing-an-inverted-pendulum-naturally-leads-to-intermittent-feedback-control-as-in-human-quiet-standing
#11
Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura
Intermittent feedback control for stabilizing human upright stance is a promising strategy, alternative to the standard time-continuous stiffness control. Here we show that such an intermittent controller can be established naturally through reinforcement learning. To this end, we used a single inverted pendulum model of the upright posture and a very simple reward function that gives a certain amount of punishments when the inverted pendulum falls or changes its position in the state space. We found that the acquired feedback controller exhibits hallmarks of the intermittent feedback control strategy, namely the action of the feedback controller is switched-off intermittently when the state of the pendulum is located near the stable manifold of the unstable saddle-type upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum with no active control: this action provides an opportunity to exploit transiently converging dynamics toward the unstable upright position with no help of the active feedback control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226432/reinforcement-learning-for-stabilizing-an-inverted-pendulum-naturally-leads-to-intermittent-feedback-control-as-in-human-quiet-standing
#12
Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura, Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ken Kiyono, Yasushi Kobayashi, Pietro Morasso, Taishin Nomura, Ken Kiyono, Pietro Morasso, Kenjiro Michimoto, Yasushi Kobayashi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Taishin Nomura
Intermittent feedback control for stabilizing human upright stance is a promising strategy, alternative to the standard time-continuous stiffness control. Here we show that such an intermittent controller can be established naturally through reinforcement learning. To this end, we used a single inverted pendulum model of the upright posture and a very simple reward function that gives a certain amount of punishments when the inverted pendulum falls or changes its position in the state space. We found that the acquired feedback controller exhibits hallmarks of the intermittent feedback control strategy, namely the action of the feedback controller is switched-off intermittently when the state of the pendulum is located near the stable manifold of the unstable saddle-type upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum with no active control: this action provides an opportunity to exploit transiently converging dynamics toward the unstable upright position with no help of the active feedback control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212832/motor-dysfunction-and-alterations-in-glutathione-concentration-cholinesterase-activity-and-bdnf-expression-in-substantia-nigra-pars-compacta-in-rats-with-pedunculopontine-lesion
#13
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Javier Jimenez-Martin, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Maylin Wong-Guerra, Ma Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Susana Delgado-Ocaña, Yanier Núñez-Figueredo, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered a critically important region in the regulation of some of the physiological functions that fail during the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, the effects of unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN [through the injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) solution (concentration: 0.1M; volume: 0.5µL)] in motor execution and gait disorders and the changes in cellular and molecular indicators in rat nigral tissue were evaluated. The motor execution was assessed using the beam test (BT) and the gait disorders by footprint test...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203147/astrocyte-dependent-slow-inward-currents-sics-participate-in-neuromodulatory-mechanisms-in-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-ppn
#14
Adrienn Kovács, Balázs Pál
Slow inward currents (SICs) are known as excitatory events of neurons caused by astrocytic glutamate release and consequential activation of neuronal extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. In the present article we investigate the role of these astrocyte-dependent excitatory events on a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system (RAS), the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). It is well known about this and other elements of the RAS, that they do not only give rise to neuromodulatory innervation of several areas, but also targets neuromodulatory actions from other members of the RAS or factors providing the homeostatic drive for sleep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164375/pedunculopontine-network-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-postural-control-and-sleep-disorders
#15
Cecile Gallea, Claire Ewenczyk, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, David Grabli, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Romain Valabregue, Pierre Berroir, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Eric Bertasi, Sara Fernandez-Vidal, Eric Bardinet, Emmanuel Roze, Habib Benali, Cyril Poupon, Chantal François, Isabelle Arnulf, Stéphane Lehéricy, Marie Vidailhet
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate pedunculopontine nucleus network dysfunctions that mediate impaired postural control and sleep disorder in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We examined (1) Parkinson's disease patients with impaired postural control and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (further abbreviated as sleep disorder), (2) Parkinson's disease patients with sleep disorder only, (3) Parkinson's disease patients with neither impaired postural control nor sleep disorder, and (4) healthy volunteers...
February 6, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163217/neurochemical-organization-and-morphology-of-the-sleep-related-nuclei-in-the-brain-of-the-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx
#16
Joshua G Davimes, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Nigel C Bennett, Osama B Mohammed, Adhil Bhagwandin, Paul R Manger, Nadine Gravett
The Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx, is a member of the superorder Cetartiodactyla and is native to the Arabian Desert. The desert environment can be considered extreme in which to sleep, as the ranges of temperatures experienced are beyond what most mammals encounter. The current study describes the nuclear organization and neuronal morphology of the systems that have been implicated in sleep control in other mammals for the Arabian oryx. The nuclei delineated include those revealed immunohistochemically as belonging to the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems within the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, midbrain and pons...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159574/subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-focus-on-neurochemistry
#17
REVIEW
A Stefani, V Trendafilov, C Liguori, E Fedele, S Galati
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a standard therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is also currently under investigation for other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although many scientific, clinical and ethical issues are still unresolved, DBS delivered into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has improved the quality of life of several thousands of patients. The mechanisms underlying STN-DBS have been debated extensively in several reviews; less investigated are the biochemical consequences, which are still under scrutiny...
April 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143769/muscarinic-cholinergic-receptor-antagonists-in-the-vta-and-rmtg-have-opposite-effects-on-morphine-induced-locomotion-in-mice
#18
Stephan Steidl, Ekamjeet S Dhillon, Natasha Sharma, Jessica Ludwig
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) each contribute to opiate reward and each receive inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, the two principle brainstem cholinergic cell groups. We compared the contributions of VTA or RMTg muscarinic cholinergic receptors to locomotion induced by morphine infusions into the same sites. VTA co-infusion of atropine completely blocked VTA morphine-induced locomotion providing additional support for the important role of VTA muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the stimulant effects of opiates...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#19
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
February 28, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058727/exppning-how-acetylcholine-improves-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-editorial-highlight-for-deletion-of-the-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-from-pedunculopontine-laterodorsal-tegmental-neurons-modifies-gait
#20
EDITORIAL
Björn Falkenburger
Read the highlighted article 'Deletion of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter from Pedunculopontine/laterodorsal tegmental neurons modifies gait' on page 787.
March 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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