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Pedunculopontine nucleus

Jiayue Cai, Soojin Lee, Fang Ba, Saurabh Garg, Laura J Kim, Aiping Liu, Diana Kim, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Falls and balance difficulties remain a major source of morbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are stubbornly resistant to therapeutic interventions. The mechanisms of gait impairment in PD are incompletely understood but may involve changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) and its associated connections. We utilized fMRI to explore the modulation of PPN connectivity by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) in healthy controls ( n = 12) and PD subjects even without overt evidence of Freezing of Gait (FOG) while on medication ( n = 23)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fei Cong, Jia-Wei Wang, Bo Wang, Zhangyan Yang, Jing An, Zhentao Zuo, Zihao Zhang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Yan Zhuo
OBJECTIVES: To image the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for Parkinson disease, using MRI with validated results. METHODS: This study used the MP2RAGE sequence with high resolution and enhanced grey-white matter contrast on a 7-T ultra-high-field MRI system to image the PPN as well as a diffusion spectrum imaging method on a 3-T MRI system to reconstruct the main fibre systems surrounding the PPN. The coordinates of the rostral and caudal PPN poles of both sides were measured in relation to the third and fourth ventricular landmarks on the 7-T image...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Nicolas Josset, Marie Roussel, Maxime Lemieux, David Lafrance-Zoubga, Ali Rastqar, Frederic Bretzner
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has been initially identified as a supraspinal center capable of initiating and modulating locomotion. Whereas its functional contribution to locomotion has been widely documented throughout the phylogeny from the lamprey to humans, there is still debate about its exact organization. Combining kinematic and electrophysiological recordings in mouse genetics, our study reveals that glutamatergic neurons of the cuneiform nucleus initiate locomotion and induce running gaits, whereas glutamatergic and cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus modulate locomotor pattern and rhythm, contributing to slow-walking gaits...
March 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
F Vitale, A Capozzo, P Mazzone, E Scarnati
The interest in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), a structure located in the brainstem at the level of the pontomesencephalic junction, has greatly increased in recent years because it is involved in the regulation of physiological functions that fail in Parkinson's disease and because it is a promising target for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders. The PPTg is highly interconnected with the main basal ganglia nuclei and relays basal ganglia activity to thalamic and brainstem nuclei and to spinal effectors...
March 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Karin Mente, Nancy A Edwards, Demelio Urbano, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Diego Iacono, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes Alho, Edson Amaro, Silvina G Horovitz, Mark Hallett
BACKGROUND: The etiology of cervical dystonia is unknown. Cholinergic abnormalities have been identified in dystonia animal models and human imaging studies. Some animal models have cholinergic neuronal loss in the striatum and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the presence of cholinergic abnormalities in the putamen and pedunculopontine nucleus in cervical dystonia human brain donors...
March 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Chuyi Huang, Heling Chu, Yan Zhang, Xiaoping Wang
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a gait disorder featured by recurrent episodes of temporary gait halting and mainly found in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). FOG has a severe impact on the quality of life of patients with PD. The pathogenesis of FOG is unclear and considered to be related to several brain areas and neural circuits. Its close connection with cognitive disorder has been proposed and some researchers explain the pathogenesis using the cognitive model theory. FOG occurs concurrently with cognitive disorder in some PD patients, who are poorly responsive to medication therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Imke Galazky, Jörn Kaufmann, Stefan Lorenzl, Georg Ebersbach, Florin Gandor, Tino Zaehle, Sylke Specht, Sabine Stallforth, Uwe Sobieray, Edyta Wirkus, Franziska Casjens, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Kupsch, Jürgen Voges
BACKGROUND: The pedunculopontine nucleus has been suggested as a potential deep brain stimulation target for axial symptoms such as gait and balance impairment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as atypical Parkinsonian disorders. METHODS: Seven consecutive patients with progressive supranuclear palsy received bilateral pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation. Inclusion criteria comprised of the clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy, a levodopa-resistant gait and balance disorder, age <75 years, and absence of dementia or major psychiatric co-morbidities...
February 19, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Joana I Soares, Ana R Afonso, Gisela H Maia, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
Prior studies showed epilepsy can be associated with reorganization of the septohippocampal cholinergic fiber system. Using the kainate model of epilepsy, we wished to further examine the structural integrity of the mesopontine tegmental nuclei (pedunculopontine, PPN, and laterodorsal, LDT), which provide the cholinergic input to the thalamus. It was found that the total numbers of the PPN and LDT cells immunoreactive to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter did not differ between control and epileptic rats...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventro-lateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T), and compared against healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 17 consecutive patients and 10 HC were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using ventro-lateral ventral (VLV) nucleus as region-of-interest (ROI), extracted using automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion MRI...
February 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kenji Morita, Ayaka Kato
Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option...
January 2018: ENeuro
Changzheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Peiling Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Wuming He, Ti-Fei Yuan
The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a pivotal brain region of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, is substantially innervated and modulated by cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In this review, we focus mainly on the current findings on VTA cholinergic compositions and functions, including VTA cholinergic innervations and synaptic connectivity, acetylcholine receptor expression and functional characteristics, cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity and dopamine efflux, cholinergic modulation of VTA-mediated behaviors such as reward and addiction, stress and depression, locomotion, etc...
February 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, María Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Javier Jiménez-Martín, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
BACKGROUND: The degeneration of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) precedes the degeneration of the nigral cells in the pre-symptomatic stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the literature recognizes that a lesion of the PPN increases the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells, it is unknown if this risk is associated with the loss of capability of handling the dopaminergic function. METHODS: In this paper, the effects of a unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in nigrostriatal tissue were evaluated...
February 1, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Haruko Kinoshita, Naoya Nishitani, Yuma Nagai, Chihiro Andoh, Nozomi Asaoka, Hiroyuki Kawai, Norihiro Shibui, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Takayuki Nakagawa, Shuji Kaneko
Background: Ketamine rapidly elicits antidepressive effects in humans and mice, in which serotonergic activity is involved. Although α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2 nAChR) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays a key role in the ketamine-induced prefrontal serotonin release, the source of cholinergic afferents and its role are unclear. Methods: Prefrontal serotonin levels after ketamine injection were measured by microdialysis in rats. Electrolytic lesion of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) was made with constant direct current...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
E Garcia-Rill, S Mahaffey, James R Hyde, F J Urbano
Maintained gamma band activity is a key element of higher brain function, participating in perception, executive function, and memory. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as part of the reticular activating system (RAS), is a major source of the "bottom-up" flow of gamma activity to higher regions. However, interruption of gamma band activity is associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review will focus on the role of the PPN in activating higher regions to induce arousal and descending pathways to modulate posture and locomotion...
January 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
V Caggiano, R Leiras, H Goñi-Erro, D Masini, C Bellardita, J Bouvier, V Caldeira, G Fisone, O Kiehn
Locomotion is a fundamental motor function common to the animal kingdom. It is implemented episodically and adapted to behavioural needs, including exploration, which requires slow locomotion, and escape behaviour, which necessitates faster speeds. The control of these functions originates in brainstem structures, although the neuronal substrate(s) that support them have not yet been elucidated. Here we show in mice that speed and gait selection are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons (GlutNs) segregated in two distinct midbrain nuclei: the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)...
January 17, 2018: Nature
Thomas Wichmann
Movement disorders are common and functionally disabling neurologic diseases. Studies over the last decades have investigated the pathophysiology of these diseases in considerable detail, leading to significant insights into their generation of motor disability. While genetically and clinically heterogeneous, most of them are accompanied by prominent and characteristic changes in firing rates and patterns in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex. In recent years, researchers have placed increasing emphasis on the importance of oscillatory changes in firing in these structures, and have discovered that brain areas that were previously considered to be remote from the basal ganglia (such as the cerebellum and the pedunculopontine nucleus) are also highly significant in these disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Joanna L Elson, Rafael Kochaj, Richard Reynolds, Ilse S Pienaar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is conventionally seen as resulting from single-system neurodegeneration affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, accumulating evidence indicates multi-system degeneration and neurotransmitter deficiencies, including cholinergic neurons which degenerate in a brainstem nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), resulting in motor and cognitive impairments. The neuropeptide galanin can inhibit cholinergic transmission, while being upregulated in degenerating brain regions associated with cognitive decline...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Jasenka Zubcevic, Jacqueline Watkins, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Maureen T Long, Marcelo Febo, Linda Hayward
Individuals with anxiety/depression often have exaggerated cardiovascular responses to stressful stimuli and a comorbidity with hypertension. Alternatively, individuals with hypertension can be more anxious. In the present study cardiovascular changes were evaluated during behavioral testing of anxious behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a rodent model of neurogenic hypertension, and compared to the response of the more anxious, but normotensive, Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY)...
November 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jelena Ciric, Katarina Lazic, Slobodan Kapor, Milka Perovic, Jelena Petrovic, Vesna Pesic, Selma Kanazir, Jasna Saponjic
In order to find out the possible earliest biomarkers of Parkinson's disease (PD) cholinopathy, we followed the impact of bilateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) lesion in rat on: the cortical and hippocampal sleep/wake states architectures, all sleep states related EEG microstructures, sleep spindles, the basal and stimulated locomotor activity. Sleep and basal locomotor activity in adult Wistar rats were followed during their inactive circadian phase, and throughout the same aging period. The bilateral PPT lesions were done by 0...
February 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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