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Pedunculopontine nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058727/exppning-how-acetylcholine-improves-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-editorial-highlight-for-deletion-of-the-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-from-pedunculopontine-laterodorsal-tegmental-neurons-modifies-gait
#1
EDITORIAL
Björn Falkenburger
Gait impairment is one of the most intractable symptoms of Parkinson's disease, responding poorly to dopaminergic medication. Promising therapeutic strategies include deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and enhancing cholinergic neurotransmission by acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. This Editorial discusses an elegant study by Janickova and coworkers in the current issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors engineered mice lacking cholinergic transmission selectively in the PPN and demonstrate that cholinergic neurons of the PPN are critical for gait...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053028/activation-of-pedunculopontine-glutamate-neurons-is-reinforcing
#2
Ji Hoon Yoo, Vivien Zell, Johnathan Wu, Cindy Punta, Nivedita Ramajayam, Xinyi Shen, Lauren Faget, Varoth Lilascharoen, Byung Kook Lim, Thomas S Hnasko
: Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we investigated the role of PPTg glutamate neurons in reinforcement, with an emphasis on their projections to VTA dopamine neurons. We used cell-type-specific anterograde tracing and optogenetic methods to selectively label and manipulate glutamate projections from PPTg neurons in mice...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039375/cholinergic-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-of-the-ppt-have-distinct-effects-on-sleep-wake-behavior-in-mice
#3
Daniel Kroeger, Loris L Ferrari, Gaetan Petit, Carrie E Mahoney, Patrick M Fuller, Elda Arrigoni, Thomas E Scammell
: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) has long been implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and behavioral states, including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. For example, electrical stimulation of the PPT region during sleep leads to rapid awakening, whereas lesions of the PPT in cats reduce REM sleep. Though these effects have been linked with the activity of cholinergic PPT neurons, the PPT also includes intermingled glutamatergic and GABAergic cell populations, and the precise roles of cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic PPT cell groups in regulating cortical activity and behavioral state remains unknown...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027399/activation-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-ppt-a-novel-mechanism-for-the-homeostatic-regulation-of-rem-sleep
#4
Abigail K Barnes, Richa Koul-Tiwari, Jennifer M Garner, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
REM sleep dysregulation is a symptom of many neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the mechanisms of REM sleep homeostatic regulation are not fully understood. We have shown that, after REM sleep deprivation, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) plays a critical role in the generation of recovery REM sleep. In the present study, we used multidisciplinary techniques to show a causal relationship between BDNF-TrkB signaling in the PPT and the development of REM sleep homeostatic drive. Rats were randomly assigned to conditions of unrestricted sleep or selective REM sleep deprivation (RSD) with PPT microinjections of vehicle control or a dose of a TrkB receptor inhibitor (2, 3, or 4 nmol K252a or 4 nmol ANA-12)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956208/anatomical-evidence-for-functional-diversity-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-of-primates
#5
Sophie B Sébille, Hayat Belaid, Anne-Charlotte Philippe, Arthur André, Brian Lau, Chantal François, Carine Karachi, Eric Bardinet
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a highly preserved brainstem structure in vertebrates. The MLR performs a crucial role in locomotion but also controls various other functions such as sleep, attention, and even emotion. The MLR comprises the pedunculopontine (PPN) and cuneiform nuclei (CuN) but their specific roles are still unknown in primates. Here, we sought to characterise the inputs and outputs of the PPN and CuN to and from the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and cortex, with a specific interest in identifying functional anatomical territories...
December 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932591/the-cellular-diversity-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-relevance-to-behavior-in-health-and-aspects-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ilse S Pienaar, Anthony Vernon, Philip Winn
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a rostral brainstem structure that has extensive connections with basal ganglia nuclei and the thalamus. Through these the PPN contributes to neural circuits that effect cortical and hippocampal activity. The PPN also has descending connections to nuclei of the pontine and medullary reticular formations, deep cerebellar nuclei, and the spinal cord. Interest in the PPN has increased dramatically since it was first suggested to be a novel target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease who are refractory to medication...
December 7, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891082/reward-and-behavioral-factors-contributing-to-the-tonic-activity-of-monkey-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-neurons-during-saccade-tasks
#7
Ken-Ichi Okada, Yasushi Kobayashi
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in the brainstem plays a role in controlling reinforcement learning and executing conditioned behavior. We previously examined the activity of PPTg neurons in monkeys during a reward-conditioned, visually guided saccade task, and reported that a population of these neurons exhibited tonic responses throughout the task period. These tonic responses might depend on prediction of the upcoming reward, successful execution of the task, or both. Here, we sought to further distinguish these factors and to investigate how each contributes to the tonic neuronal activity of the PPTg...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884739/structural-and-functional-improvements-due-to-robot-assisted-gait-training-in-the-stroke-injured-brain
#8
Hea Eun Yang, Sunghyon Kyeong, Seung Hwa Lee, Won-Jae Lee, Sang Won Ha, Seung Min Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Won Min Lee, Chang Soon Kang, Dae Hyun Kim
Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) can improve walking ability after stroke. Because the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, we analyzed changes in post-stroke injured brains after RAGT. Ten non-ambulatory patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation were examined within 3 months of stroke onset. RAGT consisted of 45min of training, 3days per week. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data before and after 20 sessions of RAGT. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were then used to determine neural changes after RAGT...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875755/individual-differences-in-brainstem-and-basal-ganglia-structure-predict-postural-control-and-balance-loss-in-young-and-older-adults
#9
Matthieu P Boisgontier, Boris Cheval, Sima Chalavi, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Inge Leunissen, Oron Levin, Alice Nieuwboer, Stephan P Swinnen
It remains unclear which specific brain regions are the most critical for human postural control and balance, and whether they mediate the effect of age. Here, associations between postural performance and corticosubcortical brain regions were examined in young and older adults using multiple structural imaging and linear mixed models. Results showed that of the regions involved in posture, the brainstem was the strongest predictor of postural control and balance: lower brainstem volume predicted larger center of pressure deviation and higher odds of balance loss...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872585/the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-as-a-motor-and-cognitive-interface-between-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#10
REVIEW
Fumika Mori, Ken-Ichi Okada, Taishin Nomura, Yasushi Kobayashi
As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition), and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779555/a-meta-analysis-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-effects-on-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Han Wang, Huiqin Gao, Tianyu Jiao, Zhongli Luo
Postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) are common symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) shows a promising effect on PIGD. However, the quantitative effects of PPN DBS for PD, especially for PIGD, and the efficacy of PPN DBS combined with levodopa are controversial and ambiguous to clinical practice. We carried out a meta-analysis of original researches on PPN to PIGD/PD from the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE...
October 24, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771371/rem-sleep-disorder-following-general-anesthesia-in-rats
#12
Katarina Lazic, Jelena Petrovic, Jelena Ciric, Aleksandar Kalauzi, Jasna Saponjic
Postoperative sleep disorders, particularly the REM sleep disorder, may have a significant deleterious impact on postoperative outcomes and may contribute to the genesis of certain delayed postoperative complications. We have followed the effect of distinct anesthesia regimens (ketamine/diazepam vs. pentobarbital) over 6days following the induction of a stable anesthetized state in adult male Wistar rats, chronically instrumented for sleep recording. In order to compare the effect of both anesthetics in the physiological controls vs...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728909/pedunculopontine-nucleus-region-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-disease-surgical-techniques-side-effects-and-postoperative-imaging
#13
Clement Hamani, Andres M Lozano, Paolo A M Mazzone, Elena Moro, William Hutchison, Peter A Silburn, Ludvic Zrinzo, Mesbah Alam, Laurent Goetz, Erlick Pereira, Anand Rughani, Wesley Thevathasan, Tipu Aziz, Bastiaan R Bloem, Peter Brown, Stephan Chabardes, Terry Coyne, Kelly Foote, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Etienne C Hirsch, Michael S Okun, Joachim K Krauss
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region has received considerable attention in clinical studies as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease. These studies have yielded variable results with an overall impression of improvement in falls and freezing in many but not all patients treated. We evaluated the available data on the surgical anatomy and terminology of the PPN region in a companion paper. Here we focus on issues concerning surgical technique, imaging, and early side effects of surgery...
2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723662/pedunculopontine-nucleus-region-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-disease-surgical-anatomy-and-terminology
#14
Clement Hamani, Tipu Aziz, Bastiaan R Bloem, Peter Brown, Stephan Chabardes, Terry Coyne, Kelly Foote, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Etienne C Hirsch, Andres M Lozano, Paolo A M Mazzone, Michael S Okun, William Hutchison, Peter Silburn, Ludvic Zrinzo, Mesbah Alam, Laurent Goetz, Erlick Pereira, Anand Rughani, Wesley Thevathasan, Elena Moro, Joachim K Krauss
Several lines of evidence over the last few years have been important in ascertaining that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region could be considered as a potential target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat freezing and other problems as part of a spectrum of gait disorders in Parkinson disease and other akinetic movement disorders. Since the introduction of PPN DBS, a variety of clinical studies have been published. Most indicate improvements in freezing and falls in patients who are severely affected by these problems...
2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684729/recording-gamma-band-oscillations-in-pedunculopontine-nucleus-neurons
#15
Francisco J Urbano, Brennon R Luster, Stasia D'Onofrio, Susan Mahaffey, Edgar Garcia-Rill
Synaptic efferents from the PPN are known to modulate the neuronal activity of several intralaminar thalamic regions (e.g., the centrolateral/parafascicular; Cl/Pf nucleus). The activation of either the PPN or Cl/Pf nuclei in vivo has been described to induce the arousal of the animal and an increment in gamma band activity in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). The cellular mechanisms for the generation of gamma band oscillations in Reticular Activating System (RAS) neurons are the same as those found to generate gamma band oscillations in other brains nuclei...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681043/localization-of-choline-acetyltransferase-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactivities-in-the-superior-colliculus-of-the-microbat-rhinolophus-ferrumequinum
#16
Se-Jin Jeong, Chang-Jin Jeon
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the superior colliculus (SC) of the microbat has the same neurochemical makeup as that of other mammals. We examined the organization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers/cells using standard immunohistochemistry with antibodies against ChAT and TH. ChAT-IR fibers observed in the superficial layers were denser than those in the deeper layers, and these fibers were classified into two types: small varicose fibers and large varicose fibers...
September 29, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660264/cholinergic-oculomotor-nucleus-activity-is-induced-by-rem-sleep-deprivation-negatively-impacting-on-cognition
#17
Patrícia Dos Santos, Adriano D S Targa, Ana Carolina D Noseda, Lais S Rodrigues, Juliane Fagotti, Marcelo M S Lima
Several efforts have been made to understand the involvement of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for cognitive processes. Consolidation or retention of recognition memories is severely disrupted by REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). In this regard, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and other brainstem nuclei, such as pontine nucleus (Pn) and oculomotor nucleus (OCM), appear to be candidates to take part in this REM sleep circuitry with potential involvement in cognition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between the performance of Wistar rats in a declarative memory and PPT, Pn, and OCM activities after different periods of REMSD...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649270/physiology-of-freezing-of-gait
#18
REVIEW
Anke H Snijders, Kaoru Takakusaki, Bettina Debu, Andres M Lozano, Vibhor Krishna, Alfonso Fasano, Tipu Z Aziz, Stella M Papa, Stewart A Factor, Mark Hallett
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating, but largely mysterious, symptom of Parkinson disease. In this review, we will discuss the cerebral substrate of FOG focusing on brain physiology and animal models. Walking is a combination of automatic movement processes, afferent information processing, and intentional adjustments. Thus, normal gait requires a delicate balance between various interacting neuronal systems. To further understand gait control and specifically FOG, we will discuss the basic physiology of gait, animal models of gait disturbance including FOG, alternative etiologies of FOG, and functional magnetic resonance studies investigating FOG...
November 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568569/pontomesencephalic-tegmental-afferents-to-vta-non-dopamine-neurons-are-necessary-for-appetitive-pavlovian-learning
#19
Hau-Jie Yau, Dong V Wang, Jen-Hui Tsou, Yi-Fang Chuang, Billy T Chen, Karl Deisseroth, Satoshi Ikemoto, Antonello Bonci
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561839/nicotinic-and-muscarinic-cholinergic-receptors-are-recruited-by-acetylcholine-mediated-neurotransmission-within-the-locus-coeruleus-during-the-organisation-of-post-ictal-antinociception
#20
Rithiele Cristina de Oliveira, Ricardo de Oliveira, Audrey Franceschi Biagioni, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Post-ictal antinociception is characterised by an increase in the nociceptive threshold that accompanies tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS). The locus coeruleus (LC) receives profuse cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Different concentrations (1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL) of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine were microinjected into the LC of Wistar rats to investigate the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the severity of TCS and the post-ictal antinociceptive response...
August 22, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
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