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Pedunculopontine nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763677/neurotoxic-lesions-of-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-impair-the-elaboration-of-postictal-antinociception
#1
Rithiele Cristina de Oliveira, Ricardo de Oliveira, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Audrey Franceschi Biagioni, Rafael Carvalho Almada, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Guilherme Bazaglia-de-Sousa, Asmat Ullah Khan, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Generalised tonic-clonic seizures, generated by abnormal neuronal hyper-activity, cause a significant and long-lasting increase in the nociceptive threshold. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) plays a crucial role in the regulation of seizures as well as the modulation of pain, but its role in postictal antinociceptive processes remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of PPTN neurons in the postictal antinociception. Wistar rats had their tail-flick baseline recorded and were injected with ibotenic acid (1...
May 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755338/a-review-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Isobel T French, Kalai A Muthusamy
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR) in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc) and pars dissipatus (PPNd), and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and spinal cord...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714166/differential-inputs-to-striatal-cholinergic-and-parvalbumin-interneurons-imply-functional-distinctions
#3
Jason R Klug, Max D Engelhardt, Cara N Cadman, Hao Li, Jared B Smith, Sarah Ayala, Elora W Williams, Hilary Hoffman, Xin Jin
Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680272/brain-sites-mediating-cyclosomatostatin-induced-catalepsy-in-wistar-rats-a-specific-role-for-the-nigrostriatal-system-and-locus-coeruleus
#4
Ilya D Ionov, Irina I Pushinskaya, Larissa A Roslavtseva, Nicholas N Severtsev
A decrease in somatostatin activity is observed in the Parkinsonian brain. In recent experiments on rats, we simulated this abnormality by intracerebroventricular injections of a somatostatin antagonist, cyclosomatostatin. The treated animals displayed catalepsy, a state that resembles the extrapyramidal signs of Parkinson's disease. The neuroanatomical substrates mediating the catalepsy-inducing effect of cyclosomatostatin are unknown. To clarify this issue, we assessed here the action of cyclosomatostatin injected into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), dorsal striatum (DS), locus coeruleus (LC), pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), and inferior colliculus (IC)...
April 19, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574585/direct-and-indirect-nigrofugal-projections-to-the-nucleus-reticularis-pontis-caudalis-mediate-in-the-motor-execution-of-the-acoustic-startle-reflex
#5
Sebastian Hormigo, Dolores E López, Antonio Cardoso, Gladys Zapata, Jacqueline Sepúlveda, Orlando Castellano
The acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a short and intense defensive reaction in response to a loud and unexpected acoustic stimulus. In the rat, a primary startle pathway encompasses three serially connected central structures: the cochlear root neurons, the giant neurons of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC), and the spinal motoneurons. As a sensorimotor interface, the PnC has a central role in the ASR circuitry, especially the integration of different sensory stimuli and brain states into initiation of motor responses...
March 24, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541016/galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-gvs-augments-deficient-pedunculopontine-nucleus-ppn-connectivity-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease-fmri-effects-of-different-stimuli
#6
Jiayue Cai, Soojin Lee, Fang Ba, Saurabh Garg, Laura J Kim, Aiping Liu, Diana Kim, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Falls and balance difficulties remain a major source of morbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are stubbornly resistant to therapeutic interventions. The mechanisms of gait impairment in PD are incompletely understood but may involve changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) and its associated connections. We utilized fMRI to explore the modulation of PPN connectivity by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) in healthy controls ( n = 12) and PD subjects even without overt evidence of Freezing of Gait (FOG) while on medication ( n = 23)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532240/direct-localisation-of-the-human-pedunculopontine-nucleus-using-mri-a-coordinate-and-fibre-tracking-study
#7
Fei Cong, Jia-Wei Wang, Bo Wang, Zhangyan Yang, Jing An, Zhentao Zuo, Zihao Zhang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Yan Zhuo
OBJECTIVES: To image the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for Parkinson disease, using MRI with validated results. METHODS: This study used the MP2RAGE sequence with high resolution and enhanced grey-white matter contrast on a 7-T ultra-high-field MRI system to image the PPN as well as a diffusion spectrum imaging method on a 3-T MRI system to reconstruct the main fibre systems surrounding the PPN. The coordinates of the rostral and caudal PPN poles of both sides were measured in relation to the third and fourth ventricular landmarks on the 7-T image...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526593/distinct-contributions-of-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-nuclei-to-locomotor-control-in-the-freely-behaving-mouse
#8
Nicolas Josset, Marie Roussel, Maxime Lemieux, David Lafrance-Zoubga, Ali Rastqar, Frederic Bretzner
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has been initially identified as a supraspinal center capable of initiating and modulating locomotion. Whereas its functional contribution to locomotion has been widely documented throughout the phylogeny from the lamprey to humans, there is still debate about its exact organization. Combining kinematic and electrophysiological recordings in mouse genetics, our study reveals that glutamatergic neurons of the cuneiform nucleus initiate locomotion and induce running gaits, whereas glutamatergic and cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus modulate locomotor pattern and rhythm, contributing to slow-walking gaits...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524600/neurophysiology-of-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus
#9
REVIEW
F Vitale, A Capozzo, P Mazzone, E Scarnati
The interest in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), a structure located in the brainstem at the level of the pontomesencephalic junction, has greatly increased in recent years because it is involved in the regulation of physiological functions that fail in Parkinson's disease and because it is a promising target for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders. The PPTg is highly interconnected with the main basal ganglia nuclei and relays basal ganglia activity to thalamic and brainstem nuclei and to spinal effectors...
March 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518566/abstinence-to-chronic-methamphetamine-switches-connectivity-between-striatal-hippocampal-and-sensorimotor-regions-and-increases-cerebral-blood-volume-response
#10
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Yin-Ching Iris Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508906/pedunculopontine-nucleus-cholinergic-deficiency-in-cervical-dystonia
#11
Karin Mente, Nancy A Edwards, Demelio Urbano, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Diego Iacono, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes Alho, Edson Amaro, Silvina G Horovitz, Mark Hallett
BACKGROUND: The etiology of cervical dystonia is unknown. Cholinergic abnormalities have been identified in dystonia animal models and human imaging studies. Some animal models have cholinergic neuronal loss in the striatum and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the presence of cholinergic abnormalities in the putamen and pedunculopontine nucleus in cervical dystonia human brain donors...
March 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503606/deep-brain-stimulation-to-alleviate-freezing-of-gait-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-update-on-current-research-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Chuyi Huang, Heling Chu, Yan Zhang, Xiaoping Wang
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a gait disorder featured by recurrent episodes of temporary gait halting and mainly found in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). FOG has a severe impact on the quality of life of patients with PD. The pathogenesis of FOG is unclear and considered to be related to several brain areas and neural circuits. Its close connection with cognitive disorder has been proposed and some researchers explain the pathogenesis using the cognitive model theory. FOG occurs concurrently with cognitive disorder in some PD patients, who are poorly responsive to medication therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503154/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-for-treatment-of-gait-and-balance-disorder-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-effects-of-frequency-modulations-and-clinical-outcome
#13
Imke Galazky, Jörn Kaufmann, Stefan Lorenzl, Georg Ebersbach, Florin Gandor, Tino Zaehle, Sylke Specht, Sabine Stallforth, Uwe Sobieray, Edyta Wirkus, Franziska Casjens, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Kupsch, Jürgen Voges
BACKGROUND: The pedunculopontine nucleus has been suggested as a potential deep brain stimulation target for axial symptoms such as gait and balance impairment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as atypical Parkinsonian disorders. METHODS: Seven consecutive patients with progressive supranuclear palsy received bilateral pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation. Inclusion criteria comprised of the clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy, a levodopa-resistant gait and balance disorder, age <75 years, and absence of dementia or major psychiatric co-morbidities...
May 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476797/the-pedunculopontine-and-laterodorsal-tegmental-nuclei-in-the-kainate-model-of-epilepsy
#14
Joana I Soares, Ana R Afonso, Gisela H Maia, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
Prior studies showed that epilepsy can be associated with reorganization of the septohippocampal cholinergic fiber system. Using the kainate model of epilepsy, we wished to further examine the structural integrity of the mesopontine tegmental nuclei (pedunculopontine, PPN, and laterodorsal, LDT), which provide the cholinergic input to the thalamus. It was found that the total numbers of the PPN and LDT cells immunoreactive to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter did not differ between control and epileptic rats...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475059/ventrolateral-motor-thalamus-abnormal-connectivity-in-essential-tremor-before-and-after-thalamotomy-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) of the ventrolateral thalamus, a common target for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), resting-state data were analyzed before and 1 year after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy and compared against healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: In total, 17 consecutive patients with ET and 10 HCs were enrolled. Tremor network was investigated using the ventrolateral ventral (VLV) thalamic nucleus as the region of interest, extracted with automated segmentation from pretherapeutic diffusion magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468191/a-neural-circuit-mechanism-for-the-involvements-of-dopamine-in-effort-related-choices-decay-of-learned-values-secondary-effects-of-depletion-and-calculation-of-temporal-difference-error
#16
Kenji Morita, Ayaka Kato
Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438716/cholinergic-tone-in-ventral-tegmental-area-functional-organization-and-behavioral-implications
#17
REVIEW
Changzheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Peiling Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Wuming He, Ti-Fei Yuan
The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a pivotal brain region of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, is substantially innervated and modulated by cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In this review, we focus mainly on the current findings on VTA cholinergic compositions and functions, including VTA cholinergic innervations and synaptic connectivity, acetylcholine receptor expression and functional characteristics, cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity and dopamine efflux, cholinergic modulation of VTA-mediated behaviors such as reward and addiction, stress and depression, locomotion, etc...
March 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389881/tyrosine-hydroxylase-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-and-dopamine-transporter-mrna-expression-in-nigrostriatal-tissue-of-rats-with-pedunculopontine-neurotoxic-lesion
#18
Lisette Blanco-Lezcano, Esteban Alberti-Amador, Mei-Li Díaz-Hung, María Elena González-Fraguela, Bárbara Estupiñán-Díaz, Teresa Serrano-Sánchez, Liliana Francis-Turner, Javier Jiménez-Martín, Yamilé Vega-Hurtado, Isabel Fernández-Jiménez
BACKGROUND: The degeneration of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) precedes the degeneration of the nigral cells in the pre-symptomatic stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the literature recognizes that a lesion of the PPN increases the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells, it is unknown if this risk is associated with the loss of capability of handling the dopaminergic function. METHODS: In this paper, the effects of a unilateral neurotoxic lesion of the PPN in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in nigrostriatal tissue were evaluated...
February 1, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370396/ketamine-induced-prefrontal-serotonin-release-is-mediated-by-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus
#19
Haruko Kinoshita, Naoya Nishitani, Yuma Nagai, Chihiro Andoh, Nozomi Asaoka, Hiroyuki Kawai, Norihiro Shibui, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Takayuki Nakagawa, Shuji Kaneko
Background: Ketamine rapidly elicits antidepressive effects in humans and mice in which serotonergic activity is involved. Although α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2 nAChR) in the dorsal raphe nucleus plays a key role in the ketamine-induced prefrontal serotonin release, the source of cholinergic afferents, and its role is unclear. Methods: Prefrontal serotonin levels after ketamine injection were measured by microdialysis in rats. Electrolytic lesion of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus was made with constant direct current...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353013/bottom-up-gamma-maintenance-in-various-disorders
#20
REVIEW
E Garcia-Rill, S Mahaffey, James R Hyde, F J Urbano
Maintained gamma band activity is a key element of higher brain function, participating in perception, executive function, and memory. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), as part of the reticular activating system (RAS), is a major source of the "bottom-up" flow of gamma activity to higher regions. However, interruption of gamma band activity is associated with a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review will focus on the role of the PPN in activating higher regions to induce arousal and descending pathways to modulate posture and locomotion...
January 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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