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Pedunculopontine nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342142/midbrain-circuits-that-set-locomotor-speed-and-gait-selection
#1
V Caggiano, R Leiras, H Goñi-Erro, D Masini, C Bellardita, J Bouvier, V Caldeira, G Fisone, O Kiehn
Locomotion is a fundamental motor function common to the animal kingdom. It is implemented episodically and adapted to behavioural needs, including exploration, which requires slow locomotion, and escape behaviour, which necessitates faster speeds. The control of these functions originates in brainstem structures, although the neuronal substrate(s) that support them have not yet been elucidated. Here we show in mice that speed and gait selection are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons (GlutNs) segregated in two distinct midbrain nuclei: the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332070/pathophysiologic-basis-of-movement-disorders
#2
Thomas Wichmann
Movement disorders are common and functionally disabling neurologic diseases. Studies over the last decades have investigated the pathophysiology of these diseases in considerable detail, leading to significant insights into their generation of motor disability. While genetically and clinically heterogeneous, most of them are accompanied by prominent and characteristic changes in firing rates and patterns in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex. In recent years, researchers have placed increasing emphasis on the importance of oscillatory changes in firing in these structures, and have discovered that brain areas that were previously considered to be remote from the basal ganglia (such as the cerebellum and the pedunculopontine nucleus) are also highly significant in these disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218504/temporal-spatial-profiling-of-pedunculopontine-galanin-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-lactacystin-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Joanna L Elson, Rafael Kochaj, Richard Reynolds, Ilse S Pienaar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is conventionally seen as resulting from single-system neurodegeneration affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, accumulating evidence indicates multi-system degeneration and neurotransmitter deficiencies, including cholinergic neurons which degenerate in a brainstem nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), resulting in motor and cognitive impairments. The neuropeptide galanin can inhibit cholinergic transmission, while being upregulated in degenerating brain regions associated with cognitive decline...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181695/memri-reveals-altered-activity-in-brain-regions-associated-with-anxiety-locomotion-and-cardiovascular-reactivity-on-the-elevated-plus-maze-in-the-wky-vs-shr-rats
#4
Jasenka Zubcevic, Jacqueline Watkins, Pablo D Perez, Luis M Colon-Perez, Maureen T Long, Marcelo Febo, Linda Hayward
Individuals with anxiety/depression often have exaggerated cardiovascular responses to stressful stimuli and a comorbidity with hypertension. Alternatively, individuals with hypertension can be more anxious. In the present study cardiovascular changes were evaluated during behavioral testing of anxious behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a rodent model of neurogenic hypertension, and compared to the response of the more anxious, but normotensive, Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY)...
November 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170000/sleep-disorder-and-altered-locomotor-activity-as-biomarkers-of-the-parkinson-s-disease-cholinopathy-in-rat
#5
Jelena Ciric, Katarina Lazic, Slobodan Kapor, Milka Perovic, Jelena Petrovic, Vesna Pesic, Selma Kanazir, Jasna Saponjic
In order to find out the possible earliest biomarkers of Parkinson's disease (PD) cholinopathy, we followed the impact of bilateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) lesion in rat on: the cortical and hippocampal sleep/wake states architectures, all sleep states related EEG microstructures, sleep spindles, the basal and stimulated locomotor activity. Sleep and basal locomotor activity in adult Wistar rats were followed during their inactive circadian phase, and throughout the same aging period. The bilateral PPT lesions were done by 0...
November 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167325/the-modulation-of-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-by-the-vestibular-system
#6
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved over millions of years to detect acceleration of the head, both rotational and translational, in three dimensions. One of its most important functions is to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movement; however, it is also important in the control of posture and autonomic reflexes. Theta rhythm is a 3-12 Hz oscillating EEG signal that is intimately linked to self-motion and is also known to be important in learning and memory. Many studies over the last two decades have shown that selective activation of the vestibular system, either using natural rotational or translational stimulation, or electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system, can induce and modulate theta activity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149768/mitochondrial-dna-changes-in-pedunculopontine-cholinergic-neurons-in-parkinson-s
#7
Alexander G Bury, Angela Pyle, Joanna L Elson, Laura Greaves, Christopher M Morris, Gavin Hudson, Ilse S Pienaar
In Parkinson's disease (PD), mitochondrial dysfunction associates with nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Cholinergic neuronal loss co-occurs, particularly within a brainstem structure, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We isolated single cholinergic neurons from post-mortem PPNs of aged controls and PD patients. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and mtDNA deletions were increased significantly in PD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, compared to controls the PD patients had significantly more PPN cholinergic neurons containing mtDNA deletion levels exceeding 60%, a level associated with deleterious effects on oxidative phosphorylation...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#8
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128393/rem-sleep-deprivation-and-dopaminergic-d2-receptors-modulation-increase-recognition-memory-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Adriano D S Targa, Ana Carolina D Noseda, Lais S Rodrigues, Mariana F Aurich, Marcelo M S Lima
Cognitive impairment is an important non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuronal death in nigrostriatal pathway is the main factor for motor symptoms and recent studies indicate a possible influence in non-motor symptoms as well. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and basal ganglia are closely related anatomically and functionally and, since they are affected by neurodegeneration in PD, they might be involved in recognition memory. To investigate this, we promoted an ibotenic acid lesion within the PPT or a rotenone lesion within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of Wistar rats, followed by 24h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD)...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121095/the-pedunculopontine-tegmentum-controls-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-activities-in-nembutal-anesthetized-rats
#10
Anne M Fink, Caron Dean, Mariann R Piano, David W Carley
Elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) accompanies a variety of complex disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Understanding pathophysiologic renal mechanisms is important for determining why hypertension is both a common sequelae and a predisposing factor of these disorders. The role of the brainstem in regulating RSNA remains incompletely understood. The pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) is known for regulating behaviors including alertness, locomotion, and rapid eye movement sleep...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096218/feasibility-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-controlling-the-lower-urinary-tract-functions-an-animal-study
#11
Shih-Ching Chen, Pei-Yi Chu, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Yu-Ting Li, Chih-Wei Peng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and compare the potential of four DBS targets in rats for regulating bladder activity: the periaqueductal gray (PAG), locus coeruleus (LC), rostral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO), and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). METHODS: A bipolar stimulating electrode was implanted. The effects of DBS on the inhibition and activation of micturition reflexes were investigated by using isovolumetric intravesical pressure recordings...
September 30, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090004/unusual-neural-tract-between-injured-fornix-and-pedunculopontine-nucleus-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069752/the-caudal-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-may-be-involved-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-activity-by-melanocortin-sympathetic-pathway-a-virally-mediated-trans-synaptic-tracing-study-in-spinally-transected-transgenic-mice
#13
Zhi-Gang He, Bao-Wen Liu, Zhi-Xiao Li, Xue-Bi Tian, San-Guang Liu, Anne Manyande, Ding-Yu Zhang, Hong-Bing Xiang
Understanding neuroanatomical sympathetic circuitry and neuronal connections from the caudal pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to skeletal muscle is important to the study of possible mechanisms of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) and cuneiform nucleus (CnF) that are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle activity of the sympathetic pathway. The aim of this study was to use virus PRV-614 to trace the melanocortin-sympathetic neural pathways from PPTg and CnF to a hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius) in spinally transected MC4R-GFP transgenic mice...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061702/presynaptic-neuronal-nicotinic-receptors-differentially-shape-select-inputs-to-auditory-thalamus-and-are-negatively-impacted-by-aging
#14
Sarah Y Sottile, Troy A Hackett, Rui Cai, Lynne Ling, Daniel A Llano, Donald M Caspary
Acetylcholine is a potent neuromodulator capable of modifying patterns of acoustic information flow. In auditory cortex, cholinergic systems have been shown to increase salience/gain while suppressing extraneous information. However, the mechanism by which cholinergic circuits shape signal processing in the auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, MGB) is poorly understood. The present study, in male Fischer Brown Norway rats, seeks to determine the location and function of presynaptic neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the major inputs to MGB and characterize how nAChRs change during aging...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980939/pedunculopontine-glutamatergic-neurons-control-spike-patterning-in-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-neurons
#15
Daniel J Galtieri, Chad M Estep, David L Wokosin, Stephen Traynelis, D James Surmeier
Burst spiking in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons is a key signaling event in the circuitry controlling goal-directed behavior. It is widely believed that this spiking mode depends upon an interaction between synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and intrinsic oscillatory mechanisms. However, the role of specific neural networks in burst generation has not been defined. To begin filling this gap, SNc glutamatergic synapses arising from pedunculopotine nucleus (PPN) neurons were characterized using optical and electrophysiological approaches...
October 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960543/pedunculopontine-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#16
REVIEW
Wesley Thevathasan, Bettina Debu, Tipu Aziz, Bastiaan R Bloem, Christian Blahak, Christopher Butson, Virginie Czernecki, Thomas Foltynie, Valerie Fraix, David Grabli, Carole Joint, Andres M Lozano, Michael S Okun, Jill Ostrem, Nicola Pavese, Christoph Schrader, Chun-Hwei Tai, Joachim K Krauss, Elena Moro
Pedunculopontine nucleus region deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising but experimental therapy for axial motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly gait freezing and falls. Here, we summarise the clinical application and outcomes reported during the past 10 years. The published dataset is limited, comprising fewer than 100 cases. Furthermore, there is great variability in clinical methodology between and within surgical centers. The most common indication has been severe medication refractory gait freezing (often associated with postural instability)...
September 28, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951251/opioid-induced-rewards-locomotion-and-dopamine-activation-a-proposed-model-for-control-by-mesopontine-and-rostromedial-tegmental-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Stephan Steidl, David I Wasserman, Charles D Blaha, John S Yeomans
Opioids, such as morphine or heroin, increase forebrain dopamine (DA) release and locomotion, and support the acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) or self-administration. The most sensitive sites for these opioid effects in rodents are in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). Opioid inhibition of GABA neurons in these sites is hypothesized to lead to arousing and rewarding effects through disinhibition of VTA DA neurons. We review findings that the laterodorsal tegmental (LDTg) and pedunculopontine tegmental (PPTg) nuclei, which each contain cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic cells, are important for these effects...
September 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852442/cardiovascular-effects-of-nitrergic-system-of-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-in-anesthetized-rats
#18
Mohammad Naser Shafei, Tahereh Nikyar, Mahmoud Hosseini, Saeed Niazmand, Maryam Paseban
OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important neurotransmitter in central nervous system involved in central cardiovascular regulation. The presence of NO in the pedunculopontine tegmental (PPT) nucleus has been shown, but its cardiovascular effect has not been determined. In the present study, the cardiovascular effect of NO in the PPT nucleus was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After induction of anesthesia, a polyethylene catheter (PE-50) filled with heparinized saline inserted into the femoral artery, and the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803956/selective-cholinergic-depletion-of-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-aggravates-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinsonian-rats
#19
Hu Xiao, Min Li, Junbin Cai, Nanxiang Li, Ming Zhou, Peng Wen, Zhengyuan Xie, Qiang Wang, Jingyu Chang, Wangming Zhang
Many patients of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from intractable axial symptoms (severe gait and postural impairments), which were recently speculated to be more relevant to cholinergic degeneration in the brainstem than dopaminergic degeneration in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc). To investigate the role of the cholinergic cells of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) on motor deficits, especially the axial motor impairments, we measured and analyzed the gait performance of sham lesion rats, SNc dopaminergic lesion rats, PPTg cholinergic lesion rats, and combined lesion rats by using the CatWalk system...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729115/arousal-and-drug-abuse
#20
REVIEW
Francisco J Urbano, Verónica Bisagno, Edgar Garcia-Rill
The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies...
August 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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