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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454119/anatomical-study-of-the-nutrient-foramina-of-the-posterior-axis-with-application-to-c2-pedicle-screw-placement
#1
Tamir Tawfik, Joe Iwanaga, Emre Yilmaz, Paul Choi, Charlotte Wilson, Emily Simonds, Jared J Marks, Haynes L Harkey, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
OBJECTIVE: Pedicle screws placed into C2 necessitate a thorough understanding of this bone's unique anatomy. Although multiple landmarks and measurements have been used by surgeons, these are often varied in the literature with no consensus. Herein, we studied one recently proposed landmark using the nutrient foramina of the posterior aspect of C2 for pedicle screw placement. METHODS: On 19 (38 sides) C2 dry bone specimens, the presence, size, location, and distance from the midline of the nutrient foramina found at the junction between the isthmus and lamina were documented and measured...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453075/pharmacokinetic-variability-of-valproate-during-pregnancy-implications-for-the-use-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#2
Cecilie Johannessen Landmark, Anette Huuse Farmen, Margrete Larsen Burns, Arton Baftiu, Morten I Lossius, Svein I Johannessen, Torbjörn Tomson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Use of valproate (VPA) in women of childbearing age is restricted due to dose-dependent risk of teratogenicity. The purpose of this study was to characterise pharmacokinetic variability of VPA in pregnancy, and discuss use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as guidance to exposure in women. METHOD: Measurements of trough total and unbound VPA concentrations before, during and after pregnancy, at assumed steady-state were collected from the TDM-database (2006-2016) at the National Center for Epilepsy in Norway...
February 11, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452910/three-dimensional-evaluation-of-airway-volume-changes-in-two-expansion-activation-protocols
#3
Varghah Lotfi, Ahmed Ghoneima, Manuel Lagravere, Katherine Kula, Kelton Stewart
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the airway volume changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion (RME) protocols using different activation rates. A sample of forty RME treated cases was classified into two groups according to the rate of RME activation (Group A: 0.8mm per day and Group B: 0.5mm per day). Three-dimensional images were obtained for each case before and three months after expansion. Dolphin imaging software was used to identify landmarks and calculate airway volumes. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to confirm reliability and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparison between the initial and final measurements within each group and between groups...
February 13, 2018: International Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452830/usefulness-of-reconstructed-3d-images-for-cochlear-implantation-in-a-case-with-a-facial-nerve-anomaly
#4
Kenichi Nakamura, Mari Shimada Dias, Toru Sasaki, Hisashi Sugimoto, Miyako Hatano, Makoto Ito
Facial nerve anomalies are a potential problem in patients with cochleovestibular malformations. A case of cochlear implant (CI) surgery in the presence of intra-temporalbone facial nerve bifurcation is presented. During the first surgery, the facial nerve bifurcation obscured the promontory and round window. It was difficult to perform cochleostomy because of the lack of landmarks of the basal turn of the cochlea, and the first surgical attempt at cochleostomy was abandoned. A repeat CT scan was performed after the first surgery with reconstructed 3D images of the temporal bone and the cochlea, and then the cochlea was successfully opened at revision surgery...
February 14, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452203/morphology-of-the-elytral-base-sclerites
#5
Miwa Sugimoto, Naoki Ogawa, Kazunori Yoshizawa
The elytral base sclerites (= sclerites located at the articular region between the forewing and thorax in Coleoptera) of selected taxa were examined and homologized. Although the elytral base sclerites are highly modified compared to the wing base sclerites of the other neopterans, they can be homologized by using the conservative wing flapping and folding lines as landmarks. A reduction of the first axillary sclerite was identified as a general trend of the elytral base sclerites, although the sclerite usually has a very important function to mediate flight power from the notum to the wing...
February 13, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451317/ultrasound-guided-microinvasive-carpal-tunnel-release-using-a-novel-retractable-needle-mounted-blade-a-cadaveric-study
#6
Peter D Hebbard, Andrew I T Hebbard, Janos Tomka, Richard Appleyard
Ultrasound (US)-guided microinvasive procedures are defined as those performed via needles without notable scarring. Ten cadaver hands underwent US-guided microinvasive carpal tunnel release using a novel needle-based tool, the micro i-Blade (Summit Medical Products, Inc, Sandy, UT). A US-imaged landmark, the inflexion point of the ligaments distal to the hook of the hamate, was used to position the distal extent of the cut. The transverse carpal ligament was successfully released in all hands without damage to nerves or arteries...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450765/impact-of-platelet-reactivity-on-5-year-clinical-outcomes-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-landmark-analysis
#7
Fabio Mangiacapra, Iginio Colaiori, Elisabetta Ricottini, Antonio Creta, Giuseppe Di Gioia, Ilaria Cavallari, Edoardo Bressi, Marialessia Capuano, Emanuele Barbato, Germano Di Sciascio
We investigated the impact of suboptimal platelet reactivity on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We enrolled 500 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective PCI. Platelet reactivity was measured before PCI using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Primary endpoint was the incidence of ischemic or bleeding events at 1 month and 5 years. Patients with high platelet reactivity (HPR) showed significantly higher rates of ischemic events both during the 1st month after PCI (HR 2...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450630/outermost-layer-oriented-medial-approach-for-infrapyloric-nodal-dissection-in-laparoscopic-distal-gastrectomy
#8
Susumu Shibasaki, Koichi Suda, Masaya Nakauchi, Tetsuya Nakamura, Shinichi Kadoya, Kenji Kikuchi, Kazuki Inaba, Ichiro Uyama
BACKGROUND: Based on our experience of suprapancreatic nodal dissection in laparoscopic gastrectomy, we developed an outermost layer-oriented medial approach for infrapyloric nodal dissection. The objective of this single-institution retrospective study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and reproducibility of this novel and unique dissection procedure. METHODS: This approach can be performed in the same manner as suprapancreatic nodal dissection but by replacing the left gastric artery with the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA), the common hepatic artery with the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (ASPDA), and the splenic artery with the gastroduodenal artery...
February 15, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447893/iphone-otoscopes-currently-available-but-reliable-for-tele-otoscopy-in-the-hands-of-parents
#9
Manan Udayan Shah, Maheep Sohal, Tulio A Valdez, Christopher R Grindle
OBJECTIVES: Tele-otoscopy has been validated for tympanostomy surveillance and remote diagnosis when images are recorded by trained professionals. The CellScope iPhone Otoscope is a device that may be used for tele-otoscopy and it enables parents to record their children's ear examinations and send the films for remote physician diagnosis. This study aims to determine the ability to diagnose, and the reliability of the diagnosis when utilizing video exams obtained by a parent versus video exams obtained by an otolaryngologist...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447759/ecomorphological-analysis-of-bovid-mandibles-from-laetoli-tanzania-using-3d-geometric-morphometrics-implications-for-hominin-paleoenvironmental-reconstruction
#10
Frances L Forrest, Thomas W Plummer, Ryan L Raaum
The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447757/using-the-covariation-of-extant-hominoid-upper-and-lower-jaws-to-predict-dental-arcades-of-extinct-hominins
#11
Stefanie Stelzer, Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer, Fred Spoor
Upper and lower jaws are well represented in the fossil record of mammals and are frequently used to diagnose species. Some hominin species are only known by either their maxillary or mandibular morphology, and in this study, we explore the possibility of predicting their complementary dental arcade shape to aid the recognition of conspecific specimens in the fossil record. To this end, we apply multiple multivariate regression to analyze 3D landmark coordinates collected on associated upper and lower dental arcades of extant Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, and Hylobates...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447737/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-related-morbidity-is-prognostic-for-mortality
#12
Vallerie V McLaughlin, Marius M Hoeper, Richard N Channick, Kelly M Chin, Marion Delcroix, Sean Gaine, Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani, Pavel Jansa, Irene M Lang, Sanjay Mehta, Tomás Pulido, B K S Sastry, Gérald Simonneau, Olivier Sitbon, Rogério Souza, Adam Torbicki, Victor F Tapson, Loïc Perchenet, Ralph Preiss, Pierre Verweij, Lewis J Rubin, Nazzareno Galiè
BACKGROUND: Registry data suggest that disease progression in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is indicative of poor prognosis. However, the prognostic relevance of PAH-related morbidity has not been formally evaluated in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of these analyses was to assess the impact of morbidity events on the risk of subsequent mortality using the landmark method and data from the SERAPHIN and GRIPHON studies. METHODS: For each study, the risk of all-cause death up to the end of the study was assessed from the landmark time point (months 3, 6, and 12) according to whether a patient had experienced a primary endpoint morbidity event before the landmark...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446712/measures-of-sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-autonomic-outflow-from-heartbeat-dynamics
#13
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, J Phillip Saul, Riccardo Barbieri
Reliable and effective non-invasive measures of sympathetic and parasympathetic peripheral outflow are of crucial importance in cardiovascular physiology. Although many techniques have been proposed to take up this long-lasting challenge, none has proposed a satisfying discrimination of the dynamics of the two separate branches. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability is the most currently used technique for such assessment. Despite its widespread use, it has been demonstrated that the subdivision in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands does not fully reflect separate influences of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches, respectively, mainly due to their simultaneous action in the LF...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446467/morphological-integration-in-the-gorilla-chimpanzee-and-human-neck
#14
Mikel Arlegi, Aida Gómez-Robles, Asier Gómez-Olivencia
OBJECTIVES: Although integration studies are important to understand the evolution of organisms' traits across phylogenies, vertebral integration in primates is still largely unexplored. Here we describe and quantify patterns of morphological integration and modularity in the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) in extant hominines incorporating the potential influence of size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 546 subaxial cervical vertebrae from 141 adult individuals of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446438/three-dimensional-3d-geometric-morphometric-analysis-of-human-premolars-to-assess-sexual-dimorphism-and-biological-ancestry-in-australian-populations
#15
Robin Yong, Sarbin Ranjitkar, Dimitra Lekkas, Demetrios Halazonetis, Alistair Evans, Alan Brook, Grant Townsend
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate size and shape variation of human premolars between Indigenous Australians and Australians of European ancestry, and to assess whether sex and ancestry could be differentiated between these groups using 3D geometric morphometrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy dental casts from each group, equally subdivided by sex, were scanned using a structured-light scanner. The 3D meshes of upper and lower premolars were processed using geometric morphometric methods...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445773/leveraging-tuberculosis-case-relative-locations-to-enhance-case-detection-and-linkage-to-care-in-swaziland
#16
Marie Brunetti, Sathyanath Rajasekharan, Piluca Ustero, Katherine Ngo, Welile Sikhondze, Buli Mzileni, Anna Mandalakas, Alexander W Kay
Background: In Swaziland, as in many high HIV/TB burden settings, there is not information available regarding the household location of TB cases for identifying areas of increased TB incidence, limiting the development of targeted interventions. Data from "Butimba", a TB REACH active case finding project, was re-analyzed to provide insight into the location of TB cases surrounding Mbabane, Swaziland. Objective: The project aimed to identify geographical areas with high TB burdens to inform active case finding efforts...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445570/a-new-perspective-on-the-nail-plate-for-treatment-of-ingrown-toenail
#17
Jia Tian, Jin Li, Fabin Wang, Zhenbing Chen
Background: Our routine treatment for ingrown toenail was removal of the surrounding soft tissue and shortening the bone of the distal phalanx. We determined the range and volume of excision based on our experience without an objective standard and routinely performed avulsion of the nail plate. Objective: To take the nail plate as an objective mark during surgical treatment of ingrown toenail to ensure accurate excision. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with ingrown toenails were treated with this technique...
January 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445428/the-danger-zone-in-the-anterior-neck-anatomical-landmarks-to-avoid-injury-to-anterior-jugular-vein-during-face-lift-and-neck-lift
#18
Andrew M Swiergosz, J Stephen Gunn, Steven A Schulz, Joshua T Henderson, Joshua H Choo, Arian Mowlavi, Bradon J Wilhelmi
Background : An estimated 125,711 face-lifts and 54,281 neck-lifts were performed in 2015. Regardless of the technique employed, facial and neck flap elevation carries with it anatomical risk of which any surgeon performing these procedures should be aware of. Statistics related to anterior jugular vein injury during these procedures have not been published. Objective : To define a "danger zone" that will contain both of the anterior jugular veins on the basis of anatomical landmarks to aid surgeons with planning their surgical approach during rhytidectomy in the anterior neck region...
2018: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444541/functional-regions-of-the-medial-patellofemoral-ligament
#19
Gang Ji, Yifei Sun, Jiangfeng Lu, Yingzhen Niu, Fei Wang
The purpose of this study was to explore the anatomy and discuss functional regions of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Twelve fresh-frozen knees specimens were dissected. All medial surfaces of knees were intact and did not have indication of injury. General feature of the MPFL were observed. All anatomical landmarks were carefully identified and marked. The length of the two functional regions were conducted and recorded. All data were obtained, described, and analyzed in the form of mean ± standard deviation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444180/the-bogazici-face-database-standardized-photographs-of-turkish-faces-with-supporting-materials
#20
S Adil Saribay, Ali Furkan Biten, Erdem Ozan Meral, Pinar Aldan, Vít Třebický, Karel Kleisner
Many sets of human facial photographs produced in Western cultures are available for scientific research. We report here on the development of a face database of Turkish undergraduate student targets. High-resolution standardized photographs were taken and supported by the following materials: (a) basic demographic and appearance-related information, (b) two types of landmark configurations (for Webmorph and geometric morphometrics (GM)), (c) facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) measurement, (d) information on photography parameters, (e) perceptual norms provided by raters...
2018: PloS One
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