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Neonatal nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306493/delivery-room-resuscitation-and-short-term-outcomes-in-moderately-preterm-infants
#1
Monika Bajaj, Girija Natarajan, Seetha Shankaran, Myra Wyckoff, Abbot R Laptook, Edward F Bell, Barbara J Stoll, Waldemar A Carlo, Betty R Vohr, Shampa Saha, Krisa P Van Meurs, Pablo J Sanchez, Carl T D'Angio, Rosemary D Higgins, Abhik Das, Nancy Newman, Michele C Walsh
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and extent of delivery room resuscitation and evaluate the association of delivery room resuscitation with neonatal outcomes in moderately preterm (MPT) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study of MPT infants delivered at 290/7 to 336/7 weeks' gestational age (GA) enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network MPT registry. Infants were categorized into 5 groups based on the highest level of delivery room intervention: routine care, oxygen and/or continuous positive airway pressure, bag and mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation including chest compressions and/or epinephrine use...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302556/process-evaluation-of-child-health-services-at-outreach-sites-during-health-and-nutrition-day-mamta-day-in-urban-slums-of-western-india
#2
Kedar Mehta, Chandresh Pandya, Paragkumar Chavda, Dipak Solanki
Introduction: Health indicators of rural and urban India show a wide variation. Rural areas have received large focus in child health services, but on the flip side, urban areas have been the last to receive such attention. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to include one randomly selected outreach session from all the 19 urban primary health centers of Vadodara city from April 2013 to May 2014. Nineteen session sites were observed for the process evaluation of three components of child health care, namely, "planning of Health and Nutrition Day," "availability of vaccines/logistics," and "direct observation of actual immunization process" at the site using a structured checklist...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301912/monitoring-the-postnatal-growth-of-preterm-infants-a-paradigm-change
#3
REVIEW
Jose Villar, Francesca Giuliani, Fernando Barros, Paola Roggero, Irma Alejandra Coronado Zarco, Maria Albertina S Rego, Roseline Ochieng, Maria Lorella Gianni, Suman Rao, Ann Lambert, Irina Ryumina, Carl Britto, Deepak Chawla, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Syed Rehan Ali, Jane Hirst, Jagjit Singh Teji, Karim Abawi, Jacqueline Asibey, Josephine Agyeman-Duah, Kenny McCormick, Enrico Bertino, Aris T Papageorghiou, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Stephen Kennedy
There is no consensus regarding how the growth of preterm infants should be monitored or what constitutes their ideal pattern of growth, especially after term-corrected age. The concept that the growth of preterm infants should match that of healthy fetuses is not substantiated by data and, in practice, is seldom attained, particularly for very preterm infants. Hence, by hospital discharge, many preterm infants are classified as postnatal growth-restricted. In a recent systematic review, 61 longitudinal reference charts were identified, most with considerable limitations in the quality of gestational age estimation, anthropometric measures, feeding regimens, and how morbidities were described...
January 4, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298359/compatibility-of-intravenous-ibuprofen-with-lipids-and-parenteral-nutrition-for-use-as-a-continuous-infusion
#4
Jowell Garcia, Alka Garg, Yunmei Song, Ambados Fotios, Chad Andersen, Sanjay Garg
There is increasing interest to administer ibuprofen as a continuous infusion instead of a traditional bolus for treating Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). However, its compatibility data with commonly used drugs in the neonatal period, including parenteral nutrition (PN) and lipids is unavailable. The aim is to determine the compatibility of intravenous ibuprofen lysine with various ANZNN parenteral nutrition consensus group standard neonatal PN formulations and lipids. The PN and lipid solutions used in a tertiary neonatal unit were obtained...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297809/congenital-nutritional-myodegeneration-white-muscle-disease-in-a-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-calf
#5
Jan H Bos, Fokko C Klip, Marja J L Kik
It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289991/effects-of-dietary-advice-on-insulin-like-growth-factors-among-healthy-newborns
#6
Emre Özgür Bulduk, Sıdıka Bulduk, Burcu Biral Coşkun
OBJECTIVES: In fetal life, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, IGF 2 and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) 3 are essential growth factors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary intervention on insulin-like growth factors in the cord blood of neonates. METHODS: The study involved 52 pregnant women who were followed up in Gazi University Medical School Hospital at Ankara, Turkey. They were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group was involved in nutrition education...
December 30, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288977/maternal-nutritional-restriction-during-late-gestation-impairs-development-of-the-reproductive-organs-in-both-male-and-female-lambs
#7
F Hoffman, E Boretto, S Vitale, V Gonzalez, G Vidal, M F Pardo, M F Flores, F Garcia, G Bagnis, O C M Queiroz, M B Rabaglino
Maternal nutritional restrictions during late gestation could lead to fetal hypoglycemia. Glucose levels in the fetal sheep regulate circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels, which stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation of reproductive organs after binding to its own receptor or estrogen receptors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subnutrition of ewes during the last trimester of gestation on the serum glucose/IGF1 levels and development of reproductive organs in their lambs...
December 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286927/carnitine-deficiency-in-preterm-infants-a-national-survey-of-knowledge-and-practices
#8
M A Clark, R E K Stein, Ellen J Silver, Sabeen Khalid, M Fuloria, N V Esteban-Cruciani
OBJECTIVE: Lipid supplementation improves developmental outcomes in preterm infants. Carnitine is essential for lipid metabolism; however, despite high risk for carnitine deficiency, there are no standards for carnitine supplementation in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Our objective was to assess knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding preterm carnitine deficiency and supplementation among neonatal practitioners. METHODS: Cross-sectional electronic survey administered via a nationally representative listserv of neonatal practitioners...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283404/key-clinical-factors-predicting-adipokine-and-oxidative-stress-marker-concentrations-among-normal-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women-using-artificial-neural-networks
#9
Mario Solis-Paredes, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez, Otilia Perichart-Perera, Araceli Montoya-Estrada, Mario Guzmán-Huerta, Héctor Borboa-Olivares, Eyerahi Bravo-Flores, Arturo Cardona-Pérez, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina, Ethel Garcia-Latorre, Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, José Alfredo Hernández-Pérez, Claudine Irles
Maternal obesity has been related to adverse neonatal outcomes and fetal programming. Oxidative stress and adipokines are potential biomarkers in such pregnancies; thus, the measurement of these molecules has been considered critical. Therefore, we developed artificial neural network (ANN) models based on maternal weight status and clinical data to predict reliable maternal blood concentrations of these biomarkers at the end of pregnancy. Adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin), and DNA, lipid and protein oxidative markers (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde and carbonylated proteins, respectively) were assessed in blood of normal weight, overweight and obese women in the third trimester of pregnancy...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280333/assessment-of-resting-energy-expenditure-and-body-composition-in-japanese-pregnant-women-with-diabetes
#10
Eriko Eto, Jota Maki, Shoko Tamada, Takashi Mitsui, Kei Hayata, Yuji Hiramatsu, Hisashi Masuyama
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To measure longitudinal changes in resting energy expenditure and body composition of Japanese pregnant women with or without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of women who had delivered a live singleton neonate after 22 weeks' gestation at Okayama University Hospital from July 2013 to June 2017. Resting energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the first trimester, second trimester, third trimester, and postpartum...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275032/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-infectious-enteritis-in-neonatal-and-juvenile-ruminants
#11
REVIEW
Meera C Heller, Munashe Chigerwe
Common causes of infectious enteritis in neonate and juvenile ruminants include viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. The most common presenting sign in ruminants with infectious enteritis is diarrhea. Diagnosis of the cause of enteritis has important zoonotic and herd health implications. Severity of clinical signs with similar pathogens may differ between calves and small ruminants. Treatment of enteritis involves supportive care to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, provision of nutritional support for neonates, prevention and treatment of endotoxemia or sepsis, and pathogen-specific treatments when relevant and available...
December 20, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273309/the-satisfactory-growth-and-development-at-2-years-of-age-of-the%C3%A2-intergrowth-21st-fetal-growth-standards-cohort-support-its%C3%A2-appropriateness-for-constructing-international-standards
#12
José Villar, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Eleonora Staines Urias, Francesca Giuliani, Eric O Ohuma, Cesar G Victora, Aris T Papageorghiou, Douglas G Altman, Cutberto Garza, Fernando C Barros, Fabien Puglia, Roseline Ochieng, Yasmin A Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ann Lambert, Cameron Chumlea, Alan Stein, Michelle Fernandes, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Stephen H Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that human growth should be monitored with the use of international standards. However, in obstetric practice, we continue to monitor fetal growth using numerous local charts or equations that are based on different populations for each body structure. Consistent with World Health Organization recommendations, the INTERGROWTH-21st Project has produced the first set of international standards to date pregnancies; to monitor fetal growth, estimated fetal weight, Doppler measures, and brain structures; to measure uterine growth, maternal nutrition, newborn infant size, and body composition; and to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240507/neonatal-jaundice-aetiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
Subhabrata Mitra, Janet Rennie
A significant proportion of term and preterm infants develop neonatal jaundice. Jaundice in an otherwise healthy term infant is the most common reason for readmission to hospital. Jaundice is caused by an increase in serum bilirubin levels, largely as a result of breakdown of red blood cells. Bilirubin is conveyed in the blood as 'unconjugated' bilirubin, largely bound to albumin. The liver converts bilirubin into a conjugated form which is excreted in the bile. Very high levels of unconjugated bilirubin are neurotoxic...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234596/exploring-the-multiple-hit-hypothesis-of-preterm-white-matter-damage-using-diffusion-mri
#14
Madeleine L Barnett, Nora Tusor, Gareth Ball, Andrew Chew, Shona Falconer, Paul Aljabar, Jessica A Kimpton, Nigel Kennea, Mary Rutherford, A David Edwards, Serena J Counsell
Background: Preterm infants are at high risk of diffuse white matter injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. The multiple hit hypothesis suggests that the risk of white matter injury increases with cumulative exposure to multiple perinatal risk factors. Our aim was to test this hypothesis in a large cohort of preterm infants using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Methods: We studied 491 infants (52% male) without focal destructive brain lesions born at < 34 weeks, who underwent structural and dMRI at a specialist Neonatal Imaging Centre...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234319/they-are-what-you-eat-can-nutritional-factors-during-gestation-and-early-infancy-modulate-the-neonatal-immune-response
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Prentice
The ontogeny of the human immune system is sensitive to nutrition even in the very early embryo, with both deficiency and excess of macro- and micronutrients being potentially detrimental. Neonates are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease due to the immaturity of the immune system and modulation of nutritional immunity may play a role in this sensitivity. This review examines whether nutrition around the time of conception, throughout pregnancy, and in early neonatal life may impact on the developing infant immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228972/impact-of-prematurity-and-nutrition-on-the-developing-gut-microbiome-and-preterm-infant-growth
#16
Alex Grier, Xing Qiu, Sanjukta Bandyopadhyay, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Haeja A Kessler, Ann L Gill, Brooke Hamilton, Heidie Huyck, Sara Misra, Thomas J Mariani, Rita M Ryan, Lori Scholer, Kristin M Scheible, Yi-Horng Lee, Mary T Caserta, Gloria S Pryhuber, Steven R Gill
BACKGROUND: Identification of factors that influence the neonatal gut microbiome is urgently needed to guide clinical practices that support growth of healthy preterm infants. Here, we examined the influence of nutrition and common practices on the gut microbiota and growth in a cohort of preterm infants. RESULTS: With weekly gut microbiota samples spanning postmenstrual age (PMA) 24 to 46 weeks, we developed two models to test associations between the microbiota, nutrition and growth: a categorical model with three successive microbiota phases (P1, P2, and P3) and a model with two periods (early and late PMA) defined by microbiota composition and PMA, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222250/iron-deficiency-in-gynecology-and-obstetrics-clinical-implications-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Christian Breymann, Michael Auerbach
Iron deficiency is the commonest cause of anemia during pregnancy; however, its prevalence is highly determined by nutritional and socioeconomic status. Oral iron is the frontline therapy, but is often poorly tolerated. Awareness of the available intravenous formulations is essential for management. Before delivery, risk factors such as multiparity and heavy uterine bleeding increase the prevalence of iron deficiency and should be motivation for early diagnosis and treatment. Neonates born with iron deficiency have a statistically significant increment in both cognitive and behavioral abnormalities that persist after repletion, highlighting the need for heightened awareness of the diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221566/physiology-of-milk-secretion
#18
REVIEW
Sandrine Truchet, Edith Honvo-Houéto
Milk is a unique and complete nutritive source for the mammal neonate, also providing immune protection and developmental signals. Lactation is a complex process, proper to the mother and child dyad, and including numerous variables ranging from psychological aspects to the secretory functioning of the mammary epithelial cells, all contributing to a successful breastfeeding. This review gives an integrated overview of the physiology of lactation with a particular focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in milk product secretion and their regulations...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217722/successfully-implementing-and-embedding-guidelines-to-improve-the-nutrition-and-growth-of-preterm-infants-in-neonatal-intensive-care-a-prospective-interventional-study
#19
Mark J Johnson, Alison A Leaf, Freya Pearson, Howard W Clark, Borislav D Dimitrov, Catherine Pope, Carl R May
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to improve the nutritional care of preterm infants by developing a complex (multifaceted) intervention intended to translate current evidence into practice. We used the sociological framework of Normalization Process Theory (NPT), to guide implementation in order to embed the new practices into routine care. DESIGN: A prospective interventional study with a before and after methodology. PARTICIPANTS: Infants <30 weeks gestation or <1500 g at birth...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216029/disparities-in-hospital-reported-breast-milk-use-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-united-states-2015
#20
Ellen O Boundy, Cria G Perrine, Jennifer M Nelson, Heather C Hamner
Breast milk is the recommended nutrition for infants. For preterm infants, when mother's milk is not available, pasteurized donor milk is recommended (1). Non-Hispanic black mothers are at increased risk for having a preterm birth and for not breastfeeding (2,3); however, it is not known whether demographic disparities exist in the use of breast milk in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Data from CDC's 2015 Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey, which does not collect patient-level demographics, were linked to the 2011-2015 U...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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