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Neonatal nutrition

Feng Liu, Shu-Ping Han, Zhang-Bin Yu, Jun Zhang, Xiao-Hui Chen, Wei-Min Wu, Xue Chu, Bei-Bei Liu
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of breastfeeding quality improvement on the breastfeeding rate in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of VLBW and ELBW infants who were admitted from July 2014 to July 2015 (pre-improvement group) and those who were admitted from August 2015 to June 2016 after the implementation of breastfeeding quality improvement measures (post-improvement group)...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Christine Culpepper, Kendra Hendrickson, Susan Marshall, Jessica Benes, Theresa R Grover
BACKGROUND: Growth and nutrition are critical in neonatal care. Whether feeding guidelines improve growth and nutrition and reduce morbidity is unknown. PURPOSE: Feeding guidelines for very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants were implemented in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to start and achieve full enteral feeds sooner, and increase weight gain over the first month. METHODS: Feeding guidelines for VLBW infants were implemented in January 2014, stratified by birth weight (<750, 750-1000, and 1000-1500 g)...
October 7, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
C Aeberhard, C Steuer, C Saxer, A Huber, Z Stanga, S Mühlebach
BACKGROUND: Parenteral antiepileptic drugs are frequently used in critically ill patients for seizure control therapy or prevention. Many of these patients require additional parenteral nutrition (PN). Therefore, a parallel infusion of the frequently used antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) is interesting in terms of the restricted i.v. lines (e.g., neonates). The potential interactions of the complex PN admixture with the drug product and the appropriate admixing of a drug at effective dosages require physicochemical lab assessments to obtain specific and reliable pharmaceutical documentation for the intended admixing...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pilar Anton-Martin, Michael Papacostas, Elisabeth Lee, Paul A Nakonezny, Michael L Green
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Children requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support represent an extremely ill subset of this population. There is a lack of data on the impact of nutrition state on survival in this cohort. We examined the association between being underweight and in-hospital mortality among children supported with ECMO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article reports on an observational retrospective cohort study performed among neonatal and pediatric patients supported with ECMO in a tertiary children's hospital from May 1996 through June 2013...
October 13, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Justine M Turner, Yves Sauvé, Miyoung Suh, Paul W Wales, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, Catherine J Field
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates and those with intestinal failure require prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) during a critical time of early central nervous system maturation. Conventional lipid emulsions fed to preterm neonates lack n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs; >20 carbon chain in length). Recently, fish oil lipid emulsions have been developed that provide both n-6 (ω-6) and n-3 LC-PUFAs, precursors of very long-chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs; >24 carbon chain in length)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Jason Misurac
Neonatal chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 live births, whereas the incidence of neonatal end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is about 7.1 per million age-related population. The most frequent etiologies are renal hypoplasia/dysplasia, posterior urethral valves, and other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Other etiologies include polycystic kidney disease, cortical necrosis, and renal vascular thrombosis. Management of CKD focuses primarily on replacing renal functions such as erythropoietin, 1,25-hydroxylation of vitamin D, electrolyte homeostasis/excretion, and, in ESRD, waste product removal...
October 9, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Joseph Sacco, Rebecca Virata
The discontinuation of life sustaining medical treatment (LSMT) in severely and permanently impaired neonates, especially artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is subject to uncertainty and controversy. Definitive clinical guidelines are lacking, clinical research is limited, ethical disagreement is commonplace, and while case and statutory law provide legal underpinning for the practice in defined circumstances, uncertainty in this realm likely influences clinical practice. We use the case of a neurologically devastated neonate to highlight and review these arenas, and show how, using available legal, ethical, and clinical standards and practice, the case of Baby O was resolved, and to underline the need for further research in neonatal palliative care...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Janis Baird, Mary Barker, Nicholas C Harvey, Wendy Lawrence, Christina Vogel, Megan Jarman, Rufia Begum, Tannaze Tinati, Pamela Mahon, Sofia Strommer, Taylor Rose, Hazel Inskip, Cyrus Cooper
BACKGROUND: The nutritional status and health of mothers influence the growth and development of infants during pregnancy and postnatal life. Interventions that focus on improving the nutritional status and lifestyle of mothers have the potential to optimise the development of the fetus as well as improve the health of mothers themselves. Improving the diets of women of childbearing age is likely to require complex interventions that are delivered in a socially and culturally appropriate context...
October 12, 2016: Trials
Jennifer G Jetton, Mark Sorenson
Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are seen more frequently in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as advances in supportive care improve the survival of critically ill infants as well as those with severe, congenital kidney and urinary tract anomalies. Many aspects of the infant's care, including fluid balance, electrolyte and mineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and growth and nutrition require close monitoring by and collaboration among neonatologists, nephrologists, dieticians, and pharmacologists...
October 6, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Vigdis Staven, Herra Iqbal, Siri Wang, Ingrid Grønlie, Ingunn Tho
OBJECTIVES: Infusion of precipitate or destabilized emulsion can be harmful. The purpose of this study was to obtain Y-site compatibility data on intravenous drugs and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) relevant for children. METHODS: Two three-in-one TPN admixtures (Olimel N5E and Numeta G16E) used for children of different age groups were tested with ten drugs (ampicillin, ceftazidime, clindamycin, dexamethasone, fluconazole, fosphenytoin, furosemide, metronidazole, ondansetron and paracetamol)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Kyle A Franco, Keliana O'Mara
OBJECTIVES: To determine if computerized provider order entry (CPOE) implementation impacts the time it takes for preterm neonates to reach their parenteral macronutrient goals. METHODS: Retrospective review of neonates <1750 g receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) before and after the implementation of CPOE. Primary outcome was the attainment of parenteral macronutrient goals. Secondary outcomes included time to attainment, the frequency of electrolyte abnormalities, and the incidence of required adjustments made to PN orders by verification pharmacists...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Isabel Moreno-Indias, Lidia Sánchez-Alcoholado, Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Garrido, Gracia María Martín-Núñez, Francisco Pérez-Jiménez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Francisco J Tinahones, María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño
Alterations of gut microbiome have been proposed to play a role in metabolic disease, but the major determinants of microbiota composition remain ill defined. Nutritional and sex hormone challenges, especially during early development, have been shown to permanently alter adult female phenotype and contribute to metabolic disturbances. In this study, we implemented large-scale microbiome analyses to fecal samples from groups of female rats sequentially subjected to various obesogenic manipulations, including sex hormone perturbations by means of neonatal androgenization (A) or adult ovariectomy (OVX), as model of menopause, in order to establish whether these phenomena are related to changes in gut microbiota...
October 4, 2016: Endocrinology
Jann P Foster, Kim Psaila, Tiffany Patterson
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is used during gavage feeding and in the transition from gavage to breast/bottle feeding in preterm infants to improve the development of sucking behavior and the digestion of enteral feedings. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of non-nutritive sucking on physiologic stability and nutrition in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 25 February 2016), Embase (1980 to 25 February 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 25 February 2016)...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
William Johnson, Momodou K Darboe, Fatou Sosseh, Patrick Nshe, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore
Prenatal supplementation with protein-energy (PE) and/or multiple-micronutrients (MMNs) may improve fetal growth, but trials of lipid-based nutritional supplements (LNSs) have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of non-primary outcomes in a trial in Gambia, with the aim to test the associations of LNS with fetal growth and explore how efficacy varies depending on nutritional status. The sample comprised 620 pregnant women in an individually randomized, partially blinded trial with four arms: (a) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablet (usual care, referent group), (b) MMN tablet, (c) PE LNS, and (d) PE + MMN LNS...
October 2, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Mandy Brown Belfort, Richard A Ehrenkranz
The developing brain of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is highly sensitive to effects of the nutritional milieu during the neonatal hospitalization and after discharge. Strategies to optimize nutritional care play an important role in reducing long-term neurodevelopmental morbidities in this population. Currently available interventions to ensure that the unique nutrient requirements of the VLBW infant are met include various dietary fortification strategies and parenteral nutrition. In this article, we review evidence regarding nutritional strategies and their beneficial effects on neurodevelopment in VLBW infants...
September 29, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Andreas Repa, Ruth Lochmann, Lukas Unterasinger, Michael Weber, Angelika Berger, Nadja Haiden
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a frequently observed pathology in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Its pathogenesis is determined by the composition and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as the tolerance of enteral feeds (EF). "Aggressive" nutrition is increasingly used in ELBW infants to improve postnatal growth. Little is known about the effect of "aggressive" nutrition on the incidence of PNAC. We analyzed the influence of implementing an "aggressive" nutritional regimen on the incidence of PNAC and growth in a cohort of ELBW infants...
2016: PeerJ
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