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Naoki Wada, Takahiro Shimizu, Shun Takai, Nobutaka Shimizu, Anthony J Kanai, Pradeep Tyagi, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Naoki Yoshimura
AIMS: To examine the effects of a different number of daily bladder squeezes on bladder dysfunction in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Spinal cord was transected at the Th8/9 in female C57BL/6N mice. Their bladders were manually squeezed to eliminate urine inside every day for 4 weeks. The mice were divided into three groups depending on the number of bladder squeezes; A: once daily, B: twice daily, C: three times daily. Four weeks after transection, single-filling cystometry were performed under an awake condition...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Zhongyuan Xia, Yun Xiao, Yang Wu, Bo Zhao
Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is not completely known. Since the sodium channel Nav1.7 has been implicated in pain perception, and is upregulated in pain disorders, we investigated the effect of paclitaxel on Nav1.7 expression in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either 2 mg/kg paclitaxel or vehicle on days 0, 2, 4 and 6. To evaluate nociceptive responses, paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was measured by von Frey anesthesiometer on days 7, 14 and 21 after first paclitaxel administration...
2016: SpringerPlus
Dilip Sharma, Jitendra Narain Singh, Shyam S Sharma
Mechanisms and pathways involving in diabetic neuropathy are still not fully understood but can be unified by the process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, downstream intracellular signaling pathways and their modulation. Susceptibility of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to internal/external hyperglycemic environment stress contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic neuropathy. ER stress leads to abnormal ion channel function, gene expression, transcriptional regulation, metabolism and protein folding...
October 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Alice Nomura, Kaustav Majumder, Bhuwan Giri, Patricia Dauer, Vikas Dudeja, Sabita Roy, Sulagna Banerjee, Ashok K Saluja
NF-κB has an essential role in the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer and specifically mediates the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of activated NF-κB signaling in EMT induction, lymphovascular metastasis, and neural invasion. Modulation of NF-κB activity was accomplished through the specific NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 11-7085), triptolide, and Minnelide treatment, as well as overexpression of IKBα repressor and IKK activator plasmids...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
In Ae Chang, Hee Don Lim, Ki Joong Kim, Hwachul Shin, Uk Namgung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological symptoms, and recent experimental studies have begun to provide evidence showing its protective effects on neural cells. Yet, its function for the regenerative responses of axons in the peripheral nerve after injury is not known. AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary objective of the present study was to explore that BYHWD is involved in growth-promoting activity of the peripheral nerve axons after injury...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
So Hyun Ahn, In Ae Chang, Ki-Joong Kim, Chul-Jung Kim, Uk Namgung, Chung-Sik Cho
BACKGROUND: Bogijetong decoction (BGJTD) is a herbal drug formulation used in the traditional Asian medicine to treat neuropathic insults associated with diabetes and anticancer therapy. To understand the biological basis of BGJTD on protective effects against neuropathy, we investigated physiological and biochemical responses of the sciatic nerves deranged by taxol injection or crush injury in the rats. METHODS: Dissociated Schwann cells and neurons were prepared from the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respectively and were treated with taxol and BGJTD...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
S Pscherer, A Nüssler, C Bahrs, M Reumann, C Ihle, U Stöckle, S Ehnert, T Freude, B G Ochs, I Flesch, P Ziegler
Background: The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is also reflected in the patient population of a trauma and orthopaedic centre. Diabetics also exhibit more comorbidities than non-diabetics. In addition to surgical problems in these patients, hospitalisation is often accompanied by complications, which can prolong treatment and increase costs. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse hospitalisation of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, as well as differences in treatment costs, depending on associated age and comorbidities...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Kerui Gong, Peter T Ohara, Luc Jasmin
Patch clamp studies from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) neurons have increased our understanding of the peripheral nervous system. Currently, the majority of recordings are conducted on dissociated DRG neurons, which is a standard preparation for most laboratories. Neuronal properties, however, can be altered by axonal injury resulting from enzyme digestion used in acquiring dissociated neurons. Further, dissociated neuron preparations cannot fully represent the microenvironment of the DRG since loss of contact with satellite glial cells that surround the primary sensory neurons is an unavoidable consequence of this method...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sheng-Jie Shiue, Chi-Hsu Wang, Tao-Yeuan Wang, Yi-Chun Chen, Jen-Kun Cheng
OBJECTIVE: T-type channel (TCC) CaV3.2 plays a pivotal role in pain transmission. In this study, we examined the effects of intrathecal TCC blockers on CaV3.2 expression in a L5/6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) pain model. The neurotoxicity of TCC blockers were also evaluated. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were used for right L5/6 SNL to induce neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of saline or TCC blockers [mibefradil (0.7 μg/h) or ethosuximide (60 μg/h)] was started after surgery for 7 days...
October 17, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists
(no author information available yet)
Purpose: Radiology represents a highly relevant part of undergraduate medical education from preclinical studies to subinternship training. It is therefore important to establish a content base for teaching radiology in German Medical Faculties. Materials and Methods: The German Society of Radiology (DRG) developed a model curriculum for radiological teaching at German medical universities, which is presented in this article. There is also a European model curriculum for undergraduate teaching (U-level curriculum of the European Society of Radiology)...
November 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Petra Mrozkova, Diana Spicarova, Jiri Palecek
Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear...
2016: PloS One
F Bonnaire, M Goepel, P Bula
The requirements of the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) for the new treatment procedure were presented on 1 January 2013 in a new catalogue. The implementation of the certification of hospitals for the very severe injury procedure (SAV) by the DGUV should have been completed by 2014. These requirements placed high demands on trauma-oriented hospitals because of the high structural and personnel prerequisites. The background to the new organization was the wish of the DGUV for quality improvement in patient treatment in hospitals for patients with very severe occupational and occupation-related trauma by placement in qualified centers with high case numbers...
October 17, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Guang-Lun Xie, Da-Peng Guo, Zhi-Gang Li, Chang Liu, Wei Zhang
This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia on lung cancer rib metastasis-related refractory pain which has no response to conventional therapy.This study contained 27 patients with lung cancer rib metastasis-related moderate or severe pain which had no response to conventional therapy. Under computed tomography (CT)-guidance, radiofrequency puncture need reached the corresponding intervertebral foramens to ensure needle point near dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by sensory and motor stimulation tests, and then radiofrequency thermocoagulation was performed on each corresponding DRG followed by injection of 0...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ming-Fong Chang, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, Hao Chiang, Hung-Wei Kan, Cho-Min Huang, Luke Chellis, Bo-Shiou Lin, Shi-Chuen Miaw, Chun-Liang Pan, Chi-Chao Chao, Sung-Tsang Hsieh
Delivering gene constructs into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a powerful but challenging therapeutic strategy for sensory disorders affecting the DRG and their peripheral processes. The current delivery methods of direct intra-DRG injection and intrathecal injection have several disadvantages, including potential injury to DRG neurons and low transfection efficiency, respectively. This study aimed to develop a spinal nerve injection strategy to deliver polyethylenimine mixed with plasmid (PEI/DNA polyplexes) containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zheng Lu, Teng-Hui Dong, Pei-Ren Si, Wei Shen, Yi-Liang Bi, Min Min, Xin Chen, Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: Perineural invasion (PNI) is a histopathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PanCa). The aim of this study was to observe the treatment effect of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation to PNI and assess the PNI-related pain relief caused by iodine-125 ( 125 I) seed implantation. METHODS: The in vitro PNI model established by co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cancer cells was interfered under 2 and 4 Gy of 125 I seeds CLDR irradiation...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Stefan Erb, Reno Frei, Marc Dangel, Andreas F Widmer
BACKGROUND Infections and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) identified >48 hours after hospital admission are considered healthcare-acquired according to the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Some may originate from delayed diagnosis rather than true acquisition in the hospital, potentially diluting the impact of infection control programs. In addition, such infections are not necessarily reimbursed in a healthcare system based on the diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)...
October 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Sami Ridwan, Horst Urbach, Susanne Greschus, Johanna von Hagen, Jonas Esche, Azize Boström
BACKGROUND: Given the young age of onset and the high probability of long-term disability after SAH, the financial impact is expected to be substantial. Primary objective was to highlight subsequent treatment costs after the acute in-hospital stay including rehabilitation and home care in comparison to ischemic stroke. METHODS: The study included 101 patients with aneurysmal SAH treated July 2007 through April 2009. In-hospital expenses were calculated using the German Diagnose Related Groups DRG...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Mohammad T Abu-Rub, Ben Newland, Michelle Naughton, Wenxin Wang, Siobhan McMahon, Abhay Pandit
Reactive astrocytosis and the subsequent glial scar is ubiquitous to injuries of the central nervous system, especially spinal cord injury (SCI) and primarily serves to protect against further damage, but is also a prominent inhibitor of regeneration. Manipulating the glial scar by targeting chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) has been the focus of much study as a means to improve axon regeneration and subsequently functional recovery. In this study we investigate the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered by a non-viral polymer vector to silence the rate-limiting enzyme involved in CSPG synthesis...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
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