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Pediatric osteomyelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336042/acute-hematogenous-osteomyelitis-in-children-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Shawn S Funk, Lawson A B Copley
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) in children is an ideal condition to study due to its representation of a wide spectrum of disorders that comprise pediatric musculoskeletal infection. Proper care for children with AHO is multidisciplinary and collaborative. AHO continues to present a significant clinical challenge due to evolving epidemiology and complex pathogenesis. A guideline-driven, multidisciplinary approach has been introduced and shown to effectively reduce hospital stay, improve the timing and selection of empirical antibiotic administration, reduce delay to initial MRI, reduce the rate of readmission, and shorten antibiotic duration...
April 2017: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301468/recessive-coding-and-regulatory-mutations-in-fblim1-underlie-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-crmo
#2
Allison J Cox, Benjamin W Darbro, Ronald M Laxer, Gabriel Velez, Xinyu Bing, Alexis L Finer, Albert Erives, Vinit B Mahajan, Alexander G Bassuk, Polly J Ferguson
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare, pediatric, autoinflammatory disease characterized by bone pain due to sterile osteomyelitis, and is often accompanied by psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease. There are two syndromic forms of CRMO, Majeed syndrome and DIRA, for which the genetic cause is known. However, for the majority of cases of CRMO, the genetic basis is unknown. Via whole-exome sequencing, we detected a homozygous mutation in the filamin-binding domain of FBLIM1 in an affected child with consanguineous parents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298206/burden-and-spectrum-of-bacterial-infections-among-sickle-cell-disease-children-living-in-cameroon
#3
Anastasie Nicole Alima Yanda, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Hubert Désiré Mbassi Awa, Sandra A Tatah, Judith Seungue, Charlotte Eposse, Paul Olivier N Koki
BACKGROUND: Although sickle cell disease (SCD) children are highly susceptible to bacterial infections (BIs), there is a dreadful lack of data related to the burden and spectrum of BIs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highest affected region with SCD. This study aimed to determine the burden and spectrum of BIs among SCD children hospitalized in a pediatric reference hospital in Cameroon, a SSA country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of records of children hospitalized from November 2012 to August 2015 in the SCD unit of the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283728/survey-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-utilization-among-the-members-of-the-society-for-pediatric-radiology-a-quality-and-safety-committee-report
#4
Einat Blumfield, Michael M Moore, Mary K Drake, Thomas R Goodman, Kristopher N Lewis, Laura T Meyer, Thang D Ngo, Christina Sammet, Arta Luana Stanescu, David W Swenson, Thomas L Slovis, Ramesh S Iyer
BACKGROUND: Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over the last three decades. Recent reports demonstrated gadolinium retention in patients' brains following intravenous administration. Since gadolinium is a highly toxic heavy metal, there is a potential for adverse effects from prolonged retention or deposition, particularly in children. For this reason, the Society (SPR) for Pediatric Radiology Quality and Safety committee conducted a survey to evaluate the current status of GBCAs usage among pediatric radiologists...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259072/a-rare-case-of-acute-osteomyelitis-due-to-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-young-healthy-adult
#5
Toshiyuki Takemori, Osamu Nakamura, Yoshiki Yamagami, Hideki Nishimura, Teruya Kawamoto, Toshihiro Akisue, Tetsuji Yamamoto
INTRODUCTION: Most community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections affect skin or soft tissues, while invasive and life-threatening illnesses including osteomyelitis are less common. CA-MRSA infections occur especially in the pediatric age group, while the occurrence of CA-MRSA osteomyelitis in adults is uncommonly reported. PRESENTATION OF CASES: A rare case of acute osteomyelitis of the femur caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive CA-MRSA in a 37-year-old man in good health is presented...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230612/nationwide-survey-of-pediatric-acute-osteomyelitis-in-the-usa
#6
Yusuke Okubo, Kotaro Nochioka, Marcia Testa
The epidemiology of pediatric acute osteomyelitis in the USA, such as annual hospitalization rates and disparities with respect to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, remains unknown. We obtained discharge records of hospitalized patients with acute osteomyelitis younger than 20 years of age from the Kids Inpatient Database for 2006, 2009, and 2012. We weighted the records to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the USA and calculated the annual rates of hospitalization because of acute osteomyelitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187064/bacterial-osteomyelitis-or-nonbacterial-osteitis-in-children-a-study-involving-the-german-surveillance-unit-for-rare-diseases-in-childhood
#7
Veit Grote, Colen C G Silier, Agnes M Voit, Annette F Jansson
BACKGROUND: Although bacterial osteomyelitis (BO) is a commonly recognized diagnosis in pediatrics, it is often difficult to distinguish from nonbacterial osteitis (NBO). The goal of our study was to distinguish between the two disease entities and better define NBO. METHOD: Using the German Surveillance Unit for Rare Diseases in Childhood (Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Paediatrische Erkrankungen (ESPED) in Deutschland) this prospective study during a 5 five year period captured 657 patients at first diagnosis of either BO (n=378) or NBO (n=279) while analyzing epidemiologic, clinical and radiologic data...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186476/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-following-nonshunt-pediatric-neurosurgery-a-review-of-9296-procedures-from-a-national-database-and-comparison-with-a-single-center-experience
#8
Brandon A Sherrod, Anastasia A Arynchyna, James M Johnston, Curtis J Rozzelle, Jeffrey P Blount, W Jerry Oakes, Brandon G Rocque
OBJECTIVE Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional data set specifically for better understanding SSI. METHODS The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012-2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186474/morbidity-associated-with-30-day-surgical-site-infection-following-nonshunt-pediatric-neurosurgery
#9
Brandon A Sherrod, Brandon G Rocque
OBJECTIVE Morbidity associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze acute morbidity and mortality associated with SSI after nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide cohort. METHODS The authors reviewed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) 2012-2014 database, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167963/physicians-perspectives-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-nonbacterial-osteomyelitis
#10
Yongdong Zhao, Fatma Dedeoglu, Polly J Ferguson, Sivia K Lapidus, Ronald M Laxer, Miranda C Bradford, Suzanne C Li
Background/Purpose. Understanding the practices of pediatric rheumatologists in diagnosing and treating chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) can provide important information to guide the development of consensus treatment plans. The objectives of this study were to determine physicians' approaches to (1) diagnosing and monitoring CNO, (2) ordering a bone biopsy, and (3) making treatment decisions. Methods. A survey was distributed among members of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance using a web-based questionnaire...
2017: International Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151846/osteomyelitis-of-the-odontoid-process-in-children-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Asael Lubotzky, Ruth Cytter Kuint, Eliyahu Raccah, Orli Megged
OBJECTIVE: To report clinical, laboratory, and radiologic manifestations in two infants with osteomyelitis of the odontoid process (dens). BACKGROUND: Vertebral osteomyelitis is uncommon, and osteomyelitis of the dens has rarely been reported in the pediatric population. METHODS: The medical records of two infants diagnosed with dens osteomyelitis were reviewed. RESULTS: Both infants had fever which resolved spontaneously before admission...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049113/update-on-pediatric-overuse
#12
Eric R Coon, Paul C Young, Ricardo A Quinonez, Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Alan R Schroeder
As concerns over health care-related harms and costs continue to mount, efforts to identify and combat medical overuse are needed. Although much of the recent attention has focused on health care for adults, children are also harmed by overuse. Using a structured PubMed search and manual tables of contents review, we identified important articles on pediatric overuse published in 2015. These articles were evaluated according to the quality of the methods, the magnitude of clinical effect, and the number of patients potentially affected and were categorized into overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overutilization...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027279/the-influence-of-the-route-of-antibiotic-administration-methicillin-susceptibility-vancomycin-duration-and-serum-trough-concentration-on-outcomes-of-pediatric-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremic-osteoarticular-infection
#13
J Chase McNeil, Sheldon L Kaplan, Jesus G Vallejo
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is often one factor used in deciding the need for prolonged intravenous antimicrobial therapy in osteoarticular infections (OAI). We examined treatment practices and outcomes of bacteremic S. aureus osteoarticular infections (BOAI) evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). METHODS: Cases of acute hematogenous OAI in children with positive blood cultures for S. aureus at TCH from 2011-2014 were reviewed. Orthopedic complications included chronic osteomyelitis, growth arrest, pathologic fracture, avascular necrosis and chronic dislocation...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867536/life-threatening-mrsa-sepsis-with-bilateral-pneumonia-osteomyelitis-and-septic-arthritis-of-the-knee-in-a-previously-healthy-13-year-old-boy-a-case-report
#14
Nina Hardgrib, Michala Wang, Anne Grethe Jurik, Klaus K Petersen
The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia, arthritis of the knee, and osteomyelitis of the tibia. Radiological investigation and interpretation directed the treatment, especially the surgical debridement, and combined with clinical and biochemical findings lead to close interdisciplinary treatment with frequent surgical interventions and antimicrobial combination therapy...
October 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830102/the-usefulness-of-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-for-diagnosis-of-acute-leukemia-manifesting-musculoskeletal-symptoms-prior-to-appearance-of-peripheral-blood-abnormalities
#15
Toshihide Yoshikawa, Akihiko Tanizawa, Koji Suzuki, Nanae Tanaka, Taihei Hayashi, Masayo Tsuda, Genrei Ohta, Naoko Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Takehiko Sakai, Yoshihiro Taniguchi, Yusei Ohshima
The patients with acute leukemia occasionally present with musculoskeletal symptoms initially, including bone pain, joint pain, muscular pain, and functional impairment. Without abnormal findings of peripheral blood cell counts or smear, the correct diagnosis tends to be delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging is often performed to examine musculoskeletal abnormalities; it can simultaneously reveal the bone marrow composition with high anatomical resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast. We present 4 pediatric patients who were initially diagnosed with acute pyogenic osteomyelitis or arthritis, based on the elevated white blood cell counts and/or C-reactive protein in addition to the localized high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745829/-treatment-and-progression-of-acute-communautary-osteoarticular-infections-in-healthy-children-a-retrospective-monocentric-study-of-64%C3%A2-patients
#16
A Lemoine, F Baudin, R Vialle, E Grimprel
INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of osteoarticular infections has improved over the past 20 years but it still remains potentially severe. The treatment of these infections has been simplified and shortened. In 2008, the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) established new therapeutic guidelines in order to standardize treatment in France. The aim of this study is to analyze practices in a Parisian hospital and assess the efficacy of this treatment in short and medium terms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study focused on patients older than 3 months, without comorbidities, who were hospitalized for an acute osteoarticular infection in 2012 at Trousseau Hospital (Paris), with a follow-up of at least 4 weeks...
November 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730289/unexpectedly-high-incidences-of-chronic-non-bacterial-as-compared-to-bacterial-osteomyelitis-in-children
#17
A Schnabel, U Range, G Hahn, T Siepmann, R Berner, C M Hedrich
Historically, osteomyelitis was considered an infectious disorder. More recently, inflammatory mechanisms were recognized causing a significant proportion of pediatric osteomyelitis. This study was to compare characteristics of children with chronic non-bacterial (CNO) and bacterial osteomyelitis (BOM). A chart review of osteomyelitis patients from the departments of pediatrics, pediatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, and oral and maxillofacial surgery was conducted in a tertiary referral center, covering the years 2004-2014...
December 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726743/mr-imaging-of-pediatric-bone-marrow
#18
Brian Y Chan, Kara G Gill, Susan L Rebsamen, Jie C Nguyen
The bone marrow is one of the largest organs in the body and is visible in every magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study. It is composed of a combination of hematopoietic red marrow and fatty yellow marrow, and its composition changes throughout life in response to normal maturation (red to yellow conversion) and stress (yellow to red reconversion). MR imaging is highly sensitive for detection of altered marrow signal intensity, and the T1-weighted spin-echo sequence provides the most robust contrast between yellow marrow and disease...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662446/thoracic-osteomyelitis-and-epidural-abscess-formation-due-to-cat-scratch-disease-case-report
#19
David Dornbos, Jocelyn Morin, Joshua R Watson, Jonathan Pindrik
Osteomyelitis of the spine with associated spinal epidural abscess represents an uncommon entity in the pediatric population, requiring prompt evaluation and diagnosis to prevent neurological compromise. Cat scratch disease, caused by the pathogen Bartonella henselae, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; however, an association with osteomyelitis and epidural abscess has been reported in only 4 other instances in the literature. The authors report a rare case of multifocal thoracic osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess in a patient with a biopsy-proven pathogen of cat scratch disease...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644427/successful-treatment-of-chronic-osteomyelitis-in-children-with-debridement-antibiotic-laden-cement-spacer-and-bone-graft-substitute
#20
Federico Canavese, Marco Corradin, Ahmad Khan, Mounira Mansour, Marie Rousset, Antoine Samba
PURPOSE: Chronic osteomyelitis and infected nonunion are relatively rare conditions in pediatric patients and are more frequently seen in developing countries. Although relatively rare, they are medically and surgically challenging. Here we report a novel surgical technique used to manage five patients with chronic osteomyelitis of long bones. METHODS: Five skeletally immature patients with chronic osteomyelitis and infected nonunion of the long bones were treated surgically between 2010 and 2014 by a combination of resection of necrotic infected bone, debridement of surrounding soft tissue, and application of antibiotic-laden cement spacer inducing periosteal membrane before final bone reconstruction...
February 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
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