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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922615/the-impact-of-incorporating-antimicrobials-into-implant-surfaces
#1
N J Hickok, I M Shapiro, A F Chen
With the increase in numbers of joint replacements, spinal surgeries, and dental implantations, there is an urgent need to combat implant-associated infection. In addition to stringent sterile techniques, an efficacious way to prevent this destructive complication is to create new implants with antimicrobial properties. Specifically, these implants must be active in the dental implant environment where the implant is bathed in the glycoprotein-rich salivary fluids that enhance bacterial adhesion, and propagation, and biofilm formation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920854/in-vitro-activity-of-tedizolid-and-comparator-agents-against-gram-positive-pathogens-responsible-for-bone-and-joint-infections
#2
Pauline Ract, Caroline Piau-Couapel, Fabrice Compain, Michel Auzou, Jocelyn Michon, Vincent Cattoir
Tedizolid, a second-generation oxazolidinone that displays a potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens, could be an interesting option for the treatment of bone and joint infections (BJIs). The aim of the study was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tedizolid against a collection of 359 clinical isolates involved in clinically-documented BJIs and to compare them to those of comparator agents used in Gram-positive infections. Of the 104 Staphylococcus aureus and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates, 99 and 92 % were categorized as susceptible to tedizolid, respectively (MIC25=0...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920813/mycobacteriosis-in-captive-psittacines-a-brief-review-and-case-series-in-common-companion-species-eclectus-roratus-amazona-oratrix-and-pionites-melanocephala
#3
Anna Elizabeth McRee, Christine T Higbie, Javier G Nevarez, Nathalie T Rademacher, Thomas N Tully
In 2015, three psittacines were presented within 30 days, each with differing clinical signs and patient histories. A 13-yr-old male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was presented for weakness, depression, and acute anorexia. On presentation it was determined to have a heart murmur, severely elevated white blood cell count (93.9 10(3)/μl) with a left shift (2.8 10(3)/μl bands), and anemia (30%). Severe hepatomegaly was noted on radiographs, ultrasonography, and computed tomography. A cytological sample of the liver obtained through a fine needle aspirate revealed intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium avium...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920425/a-far-red-emitting-fluorescence-probe-for-sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-peroxynitrite-in-live-cells-and-tissues
#4
Di Wu, Jae-Chan Ryu, Youn Wook Chung, Dayoung Lee, Ji-Hwan Ryu, Joo Heon Yoon, Juyoung Yoon
In this study, the far-red emitting fluorescence probe 1, containing a rhodamine derivative and a hydrazide reactive group, was developed for peroxynitrite detection and imaging. This probe, which is cell permeable and shows high sensitivity and selectivity in fluorometric detection of peroxynitrite over other ROS/RNS, was successfully utilized to detect exogenous and endogenous peroxynitrite in HeLa and RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. More importantly, 1 can also be used to detect endogenous peroxynitrite generated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) infected mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919390/-histoplasma-capsulatum-bone-and-joint-infection
#5
M Gaume, L Marie-Hardy, F Larousserie, M Lavielle, C Roux, P Leclerc, A Paugam, D Archambeau, L Eyrolle, R Gauzit, O Lortholary, P Anract, D Salmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918656/diagnosing-kingella-kingae-infections-in-infants-and-young-children
#6
Pablo Yagupsky
Kingella kingae is currently recognized as the prime etiology of skeletal system infections in children aged 6-48 months. The organism is notoriously fastidious, its growth is inhibited by synovial fluid and bone exudates, and its presence in clinical specimens is commonly missed by traditional culture methods. Areas covered. The present review discusses the use of improved laboratory methods to detect the organism in normally sterile body fluids, exudates, and upper respiratory tract specimens. Expert commentary...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918266/nanomedicine-for-safe-healing-of-bone-trauma-opportunities-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Shahed Behzadi, Gaurav A Luther, Mitchel B Harris, Omid C Farokhzad, Morteza Mahmoudi
Historically, high-energy extremity injuries resulting in significant soft-tissue trauma and bone loss were often deemed unsalvageable and treated with primary amputation. With improved soft-tissue coverage and nerve repair techniques, these injuries now present new challenges in limb-salvage surgery. High-energy extremity trauma is pre-disposed to delayed or unpredictable bony healing and high rates of infection, depending on the integrity of the soft-tissue envelope. Furthermore, orthopedic trauma surgeons are often faced with the challenge of stabilizing and repairing large bony defects while promoting an optimal environment to prevent infection and aid bony healing...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918187/surface-modification-of-titanium-substrates-for-enhanced-osteogenetic-and-antibacterial-properties
#8
Peng Liu, Yansha Hao, Yongchun Zhao, Zhang Yuan, Yao Ding, Kaiyong Cai
The insufficient osseointegration and bacterial infection of titanium and its alloys remain the key challenges in their clinic applications, which may result in failure implantation. To improve osteogenetic and antibacterial properties, TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated on titanium substrates for loading of antibacterial drug. Then, TiO2 nanotube arrays were covered with chitosan/sodium alginate multilayer films. The successful construction of this system was verified via scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement...
August 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917708/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-balb-c-mice-are-more-susceptible-to-granulomatous-amoebic-encephalitis-immunohistochemical-study
#9
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Miriam Romero Grijalva, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Imelda Juarez-Avelar, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Arturo Gonzalez-Robles, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Ismael Castelan-Ramirez, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a chronic, difficult to resolve infection caused by amphizoic amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba, which in most cases occurs in immunosuppressed persons or with chronic diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we describe the early events of A. culbertsoni infection of GAE in diabetic mice model. Diabetes was induced in male BALB/c mice, with a dose of streptozotocin (130 mg/kg). Healthy and diabetic mice were inoculated via intranasal with 1 × 10(6) trophozoites of A...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916732/il-4-producing-b-cells-regulate-t-helper-cell-dichotomy-in-type-1-and-type-2-controlled-diseases
#10
Ramona Hurdayal, Hlumani H Ndlovu, Mélanie Revaz-Breton, Suraj P Parihar, Justin Komguep Nono, Melissa Govender, Frank Brombacher
Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced T helper (Th) 2 cells promote susceptibility to the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, while conferring immunity to the intestinal trematode Schistosoma mansoni Here, we report that abrogation of IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling on B cells in BALB/c mice (mb1(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox)) transformed nonhealer BALB/c to a healer phenotype with an early type 1 and dramatically reduced type 2 immune response and an absence of ulceration and necrosis during cutaneous leishmaniasis. From adoptive reconstitution and mixed bone-marrow chimera studies in B cell-deficient (µMT) mice, we reveal a central role for B cell-derived IL-4 and IL-4Rα in the optimal induction of the susceptible type 2 phenotype to L...
September 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915961/short-stem-total-hip-arthroplasty-potential-explanations-for-persistent-post-surgical-thigh-pain
#11
Isabel A C Baert, Enrique Lluch, Francis Van Glabbeek, Rudy Nuyts, Salim Rufai, Joanna Tuynman, Filip Struyf, Mira Meeus
Short stem uncemented femoral implants were developed with the aim of preserving proximal bone stock for future revisions, improving biomechanical reconstruction, aiding insertion through smaller incisions and potentially decreasing or limiting the incidence of thigh pain. Despite all the advantages of short stem designs, it remains unclear whether they are able to limit post-surgical thigh pain. In patients with short stem hip arthroplasty and persistent thigh pain, it is of the utmost importance to understand the potential etiologies of this chronic pain for selecting the appropriate treatment strategy...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915559/zbtb1-controls-nkp46-ror-gamma-t-innate-lymphoid-cell-ilc3-development
#12
Ying Lu, Xianyu Zhang, Nicolas Bouladoux, Saransh Neel Kaul, Kangxin Jin, Derek Sant'Angelo, Yasmine Belkaid, Damian Kovalovsky
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role conferring protection at the mucosal frontier. In this study, we have identified a requirement of the transcription factor Zbtb1 for the development of RORγt(+) ILCs (ILC3s). Zbtb1-deficient mice lacked NKp46(+) ILC3 cells in the lamina propria of the small and large intestine. This requirement of Zbtb1 was cell intrinsic, as NKp46(+) ILC3s were not generated from Zbtb1-deficient progenitors in bone marrow chimeras and Zbtb1-deficient RORγt(+) CCR6(-)NKp46(-) ILC3s didn't generate NKp46(+) ILC3s in co-cultures with OP9-DL1 stroma...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914105/bone-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-total-knee-replacement-patients
#13
Mats Bue, Mikkel Tøttrup, Pelle Hanberg, Otto Langhoff, Hanne Birke-Sørensen, Theis M Thillemann, Torben L Andersson, Kjeld Søballe
Background and purpose - The incidence of orthopedic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is increasing. Vancomycin may therefore play an increasingly important role in orthopedic perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. Studies investigating perioperative bone and soft tissue concentrations of vancomycin are sparse and challenged by a lack of appropriate methods. We assessed single-dose plasma, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCT) and bone concentrations of vancomycin using microdialysis in male patients undergoing total knee replacement...
September 15, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912884/towards-translational-immunopet-mr-imaging-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-the-humanised-monoclonal-antibody-jf5-detects-aspergillus-lung-infections-in-vivo
#14
Genna Davies, Anna-Maria Rolle, Andreas Maurer, Philipp R Spycher, Claudia Schillinger, Djamschid Solouk-Saran, Mike Hasenberg, Juliane Weski, Jesper Fonslet, Adrien Dubois, Frederic Boschetti, Franck Denat, Matthias Gunzer, Martin Eichner, Lauren S Ryder, Mikael Jensen, Roger Schibli, Bernd J Pichler, Stefan Wiehr, Christopher R Thornton
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of hematological malignancy or bone marrow transplant patients caused by the ubiquitous environmental fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Current diagnostic tests for the disease lack sensitivity as well as specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy, considered the gold standard for IPA detection, is slow and often not possible in critically ill patients. In a previous study, we reported the development of a novel non-invasive procedure for IPA diagnosis based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (immunoPET/MRI) using a [(64)Cu]DOTA-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), mJF5, specific to Aspergillus...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912382/versican-is-produced-by-trif-and-type-i-interferon-dependent-signaling-in-macrophages-and-contributes-to-fine-control-of-innate-immunity-in-lungs
#15
Mary Y Chang, Inkyung Kang, Michael Gale, Anne M Manicone, Michael G Kinsella, Kathleen R Braun, Tara Wigmosta, William C Parks, William A Altemeier, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Growing evidence suggests that versican is important in the innate immune response to lung infection. Our goal was to understand the regulation of macrophage-derived versican and the role it plays in innate immunity. We first defined the signaling events that regulate versican expression using bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from mice lacking specific Toll-like receptors (TLR), TLR adaptor molecules or the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR1). We show that LPS and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] trigger a signaling cascade involving TLR3 or 4, the Trif adaptor, Type I interferons and IFNAR1, leading to increased expression of versican by macrophages and implicating versican as an interferon-stimulated gene...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911907/microrna-22-controls-interferon-alpha-production-and-erythroid-maturation-in-response-to-infectious-stress-in-mice
#16
Claudine S Kadmon, Cameron T Landers, Haiyan S Li, Stephanie S Watowich, Antony Rodriguez, Katherine Y King
MicroRNA-22 (miR-22) is a highly conserved microRNA that can regulate cell proliferation, oncogenesis, and cell maturation, especially during stress. In hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) miR-22 has been reported to be involved in the regulation of key self-renewal factors including Tet2. Recent work demonstrates that miR-22 also participates in regulation of the interferon response, and expression profiling studies suggest that it is variably expressed at different stages in erythroid differentiation. We thus hypothesized that miR-22 regulates maturation of erythroid progenitors during stress hematopoiesis through its interaction with interferon...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#17
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906504/association-between-clinical-and-microbiologic-cluster-profiles-and-peri-implantitis
#18
Luigi Canullo, Miguel Peñarrocha, Alberto Monje, Andres Catena, Hom-Lay Wang, David Peñarrocha
PURPOSE: The correlation between associated local factors and peri-implantitis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the clinical and microbiologic profiles and peri-implantitis to eventually categorize different groups of this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects with at least one implant presenting signs of peri-implantitis were selected. The clinical, radiographic, occlusal, and microbiologic profiles of these infected implants were collected...
September 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904437/cryptococcal-infection-in-transplant-kidney-manifesting-as-chronic-allograft-dysfunction
#19
C Agrawal, V Sood, A Kumar, V Raghavan
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a significant cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Common causes among them are Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus. Antifungal prophylaxis has led to decrease in overall incidence of IFI; however, there is very little decline in the incidence of Cryptococcal infections of SOT recipients because effective prophylaxis is not available against this infectious agent. Spectrum of manifestation of Cryptococcal infection varies in immunocompetent and immunocompromised host with subclinical and self-limiting with lungs being the primary site in immunocompetent and central nervous system as the most common site in an immunocompromised host...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904182/finegoldia-magna-isolated-from-orthopedic-joint-implant-associated-infections
#20
Bo Söderquist, Sanna Björklund, Bengt Hellmark, Anders Jensen, Holger Brüggemann
Background: The anaerobic Gram-positive coccus Finegoldia magna is a rare cause of infections of bone and joints. The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological and clinical characteristics of orthopedic implant-associated infections caused by F. magnaMethods: We retrospectively analyzed samples consisting of anaerobic Gram-positive cocci and samples already identified as F. magna from patients with orthopedic infections. The isolates found were determined to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by Etest...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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