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SARS VIRUS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892522/sars-cov-fusion-peptides-induce-membrane-surface-ordering-and-curvature
#1
Luis G M Basso, Eduardo F Vicente, Edson Crusca, Eduardo M Cilli, Antonio J Costa-Filho
Viral membrane fusion is an orchestrated process triggered by membrane-anchored viral fusion glycoproteins. The S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) contains internal domains called fusion peptides (FP) that play essential roles in virus entry. Although membrane fusion has been broadly studied, there are still major gaps in the molecular details of lipid rearrangements in the bilayer during fusion peptide-membrane interactions. Here we employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) to gather information on the membrane fusion mechanism promoted by two putative SARS FPs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880744/notice-to-readers-final-2015-reports-of-nationally-notifiable-infectious-diseases-and-conditions
#2
(no author information available yet)
The table listed in this report on pages 1307-1321 presents finalized data, as of June 30, 2016, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2015. These data will be published in more detail in the Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases and Conditions - United States, 2015 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2015, the following diseases do not appear in this early release table: anthrax; dengue hemorrhagic fever; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis virus disease, nonneuroinvasive; poliomyelitis, paralytic; poliovirus infection, nonparalytic; severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV); smallpox; western equine encephalitis virus disease, neuroinvasive and nonneuroinvasive; yellow fever; and viral hemorrhagic fevers...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864902/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-and-molecular-docking-revealed-a-potency-of-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-drugs-against-human-corona-viruses
#3
Abdo A Elfiky, Samah M Mahdy, Wael M Elshemey
A number of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were reported in the last and present centuries. Some outbreaks of which (e.g. SARS and MERS CoVs) caused the mortality of hundreds of people worldwide. The problem of finding a potent drug against HCoV strains lies in the inability of finding a drug that stops the viral replication through inhibiting its important proteins. In spite of its limited efficacy and potential side effects, Ribavirin is extensively used as a first choice against HCoVs. Therefore, scientists reverted towards the investigation of different drugs that can more specifically target proteins...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847245/celastrol-inhibits-dengue-virus-replication-via-up-regulating-type-i-interferon-and-downstream-interferon-stimulated-responses
#4
Jung-Sheng Yu, Chin-Kai Tseng, Chun-Kuang Lin, Yao-Chin Hsu, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Jin-Ching Lee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Tripterygium wilfordii (lei gong teng; Thunder of God Vine), a member of the Celastraceae family, is a medicinal plant used to treat a range of illnesses. Celastrol is a quinone methide triterpene and the most abundant bioactive constituent isolated from the root extracts of T. wilfordii. Previous studies have shown that celastrol exhibits antiviral activity against HIV and SARS-CoV. To date, no investigations of the anti-DENV activity of celastrol have been reported...
November 12, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823624/antitumor-lignanamides-from-the-aerial-parts-of-corydalis-saxicola
#5
Bin Zhang, Rizhen Huang, Jing Hua, Hong Liang, Yingming Pan, Lumei Dai, Dong Liang, Hengshan Wang
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading cause of unnatural death globally. There is still a great need for effective anticancer agents from plant sources. Corydalis saxicola Bunting is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to treat various diseases in southwest China. Previous phytochemical investigations of C. saxicola have focused on isoquinoline alkaloids that have been isolated, which have activity against anti-hepatitis B virus and inhibit DNA topoisomerase I. However, the exploration of other classes of constituents and their bioactivities needs further study...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807240/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-3c-like-protease-mediated-nucleocapsid-processing-a-possible-link-to-viral-cell-culture-adaptability
#6
Peera Jaru-Ampornpan, Juggragarn Jengarn, Asawin Wanitchang, Anan Jongkaewwattana
: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets, leading to massive loss to the swine industry worldwide during recent epidemics. Intense research effort is now focusing on defining viral characteristics that confer growth advantage, pathogenicity or cell adaptability in order to better understand PEDV life cycle and identify suitable targets for antiviral or vaccine development. Here, we reported a unique phenomenon of PEDV nucleocapsid (N) cleavage by PEDV-encoded 3C-like protease (3Cpro) during infection...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797946/avoiding-regions-symptomatic-of-conformational-and-functional-flexibility-to-identify-antiviral-targets-in-current-and-future-coronaviruses
#7
Jordon Rahaman, Jessica Siltberg-Liberles
Within the last 15 years, two related coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) expanded their host range to include humans, with increased virulence in their new host. Coronaviruses were recently found to have little intrinsic disorder compared to many other virus families. Since intrinsically disordered regions have been proposed to be important for rewiring interactions between virus and host, we investigated the conservation of intrinsic disorder and secondary structure in coronaviruses in an evolutionary context...
October 19, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795409/structural-biology-of-the-arterivirus-nsp11-endoribonucleases
#8
Manfeng Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Zengqin Deng, Zhenhang Chen, Yang Liu, Yina Gao, Wei Wu, Zhongzhou Chen
: Endoribonuclease (NendoU) is unique and conserved as a major genetic marker in nidoviruses that infect vertebrate hosts. Arterivirus non-structural protein (nsp) 11 was shown to have NendoU activity and play essential roles in the viral life cycle. Here, we report three crystal structures of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) nsp11 mutants. The structures of arterivirus nsp11 contain two conserved compact domains: N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792320/discovery-of-chromane-containing-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-ns5a-inhibitors-with-improved-potency-against-resistance-associated-variants
#9
Wensheng Yu, Ling Tong, Bin Hu, Bin Zhong, Jinglai Hao, Tao Ji, Shuai Zan, Craig Alan Coburn, Oleg Selyutin, Lei Chen, Laura Rokosz, Sony Agrawal, Rong Liu, Stephanie Curry, Patricia Mcmonagle, Paul Ingravallo, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Shiying Chen, Joseph A Kozlowski
The discovery of potent and pan-genotypic HCV NS5A inhibitors faces many challenges including the significant diversity among genotypes, substantial potency shift conferred on some key resistance-associated variants, inconsistent SARs between different genotypes and mutants, and the lacking of models of inhibitor/protein complexes for rational inhibitor design. As part of ongoing efforts on HCV NS5A inhibition at Merck, we now describe the discovery of a novel series of chromane containing NS5A inhibitors. SAR studies around the "Z" group of the tetracyclic indole scaffold explored fused bicyclic rings as alternates to the phenyl group of elbasvir (1, MK-8742) and identified novel chromane and 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives as "Z" group replacements offered good potency across all genotypes...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785522/disinfection-of-aircraft-appropriate-disinfectants-and-standard-operating-procedures-for-highly-infectious-diseases
#10
Joachim Klaus, Peter Gnirs, Sabine Hölterhoff, Angela Wirtz, Matthias Jeglitza, Walter Gaber, Rene Gottschalk
For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases...
October 26, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774129/concise-sar-exploration-based-on-the-head-to-tail-approach-discovery-of-pi4kiii%C3%AE-inhibitors-bearing-diverse-scaffolds
#11
Satoru Noji, Noriyoshi Seki, Takaki Maeba, Takayuki Sakai, Eiichi Watanabe, Katsuya Maeda, Kyoko Fukushima, Toru Noguchi, Kazuya Ogawa, Yukiyo Toyonaga, Tamotsu Negoro, Hisashi Kawasaki, Makoto Shiozaki
In typical kinase inhibitor programs, a hinge binder showing best potency with preferential specificity is initially selected, followed by fine-tuning of the accompanying substituents on its core module. A shortcoming of this approach is that the exclusive focus on a single chemotype can endanger all the analogues in the series if a critical shortcoming is revealed. Thus, an early evaluation of structure-activity relationships (SARs) can mitigate unforeseen outcomes within a series of multiple compounds, although there have been very few examples to follow such a policy...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733646/clinical-isolates-of-human-coronavirus-229e-bypass-the-endosome-for-cell-entry
#12
Kazuya Shirato, Kazuhiko Kanou, Miyuki Kawase, Shutoku Matsuyama
: Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a causative agent of the common cold, enters host cells via two distinct pathways: one is mediated by cell surface proteases, particularly transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and the other by endosomal cathepsin L. Thus, specific inhibitors of these proteases block virus infection. However, it is unclear which of these pathways is actually utilized by HCoV-229E in the human respiratory tract. Here, we examined the mechanism of cell entry used by a pseudotyped virus bearing the HCoV-229E spike (S) protein in the presence/absence of protease inhibitors...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726088/from-sars-to-mers-evidence-and-speculation
#13
Hainv Gao, Hangping Yao, Shigui Yang, Lanjuan Li
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. In 2012, the infectious outbreak caused by MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia has spread to more than 1600 patients in 26 countries, resulting in over 600 deaths.Without a travel history, few clinical and radiological features can reliably differentiate MERS from SARS. But in real world, comparing with SARS, MERS presents more vaguely defined epidemiology, more severe symptoms, and higher case fatality rate. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field of MERS-CoV, especially its molecular virology, interspecies mechanisms, clinical features, antiviral therapies, and the further investigation into this disease...
October 1, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723044/epidemiology-of-a-bluetongue-outbreak-in-a-sheep-flock-in-brazil
#14
Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Mario Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Erica Azevedo Costa, Ju Lio Ce Sar Ca Mara Rosa, Aristo Teles Gomes Costa, Felipe Zandonadi Branda O, Ze Lia Ine S Portela Lobato
In January 2013, an outbreak of Bluetongue (BT) a ecting a Lacaune sheep ock occurred in Vassouras, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. From March to August 2013, blood samples collection and clinical examination were performed monthly, in order to monitor the epidemiological pro le of Bluetongue virus (BTV) circulation and clinical disease in the ock. Agar gel immunodi usion (AGID) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting BTV segment 10 were used as diagnostic assays. Additionally, insect trapping was conducted in the farm from May to July 2013...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721158/identification-of-fused-bicyclic-derivatives-of-pyrrolidine-and-imidazolidinone-as-dengue-virus-2-ns2b-ns3-protease-inhibitors
#15
Zhibing Weng, Xiaoxia Shao, Dominik Graf, Chunguang Wang, Christian D Klein, Jing Wang, Guo-Chun Zhou
A series of fused ring derivatives of pyrrolidine and imidazolidinone were designed, synthesized, characterized and assayed against the DENV-2 NS2B-NS3 protease and wild-type DENV-2 virus. The linear dipeptide compound 1 and the non-peptidic fused ring compound 2 show comparable activities against DENV-2 NS2B-NS3 protease and wild-type DENV-2 virus in a viral replication assay. The preliminary SAR reveals that a substituent and its stereochemistry at C-3 position, substitution (X) at N-2 arene and a linker (Y) between C-3 position and its attached arene are important for the fused-ring scaffold of pyrrolidino [1,2-c]imidazolidinone to block the active site of NS2B-NS3 protease...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716790/cathepsin-l-helps-to-defend-mice-from-infection-with-influenza-a
#16
Xiang Xu, John R Greenland, Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay, George H Caughey
Host-derived proteases can augment or help to clear infections. This dichotomy is exemplified by cathepsin L (CTSL), which helps Hendra virus and SARS coronavirus to invade cells, but is essential for survival in mice with mycoplasma pneumonia. The present study tested the hypothesis that CTSL protects mice from serious consequences of infection by the orthomyxovirus influenza A, which is thought to be activated by host-supplied proteases other than CTSL. Ctsl-/- mice infected with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) had larger lung viral loads and higher mortality than infected Ctsl+/+ mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712628/the-nonstructural-proteins-directing-coronavirus-rna-synthesis-and-processing
#17
E J Snijder, E Decroly, J Ziebuhr
Coronaviruses are animal and human pathogens that can cause lethal zoonotic infections like SARS and MERS. They have polycistronic plus-stranded RNA genomes and belong to the order Nidovirales, a diverse group of viruses for which common ancestry was inferred from the common principles underlying their genome organization and expression, and from the conservation of an array of core replicase domains, including key RNA-synthesizing enzymes. Coronavirus genomes (~26-32 kilobases) are the largest RNA genomes known to date and their expansion was likely enabled by acquiring enzyme functions that counter the commonly high error frequency of viral RNA polymerases...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712627/coronavirus-spike-protein-and-tropism-changes
#18
R J G Hulswit, C A M de Haan, B-J Bosch
Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens-sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks-revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712626/molecular-basis-of-coronavirus-virulence-and-vaccine-development
#19
L Enjuanes, S Zuñiga, C Castaño-Rodriguez, J Gutierrez-Alvarez, J Canton, I Sola
Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708147/evolution-of-bacterial-recombinase-a-reca-in-eukaryotes-explained-by-addition-of-genomic-data-of-key-microbial-lineages
#20
Paulo G Hofstatter, Alexander K Tice, Seungho Kang, Matthew W Brown, Daniel J G Lahr
Recombinase enzymes promote DNA repair by homologous recombination. The genes that encode them are ancestral to life, occurring in all known dominions: viruses, Eubacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota. Bacterial recombinases are also present in viruses and eukaryotic groups (supergroups), presumably via ancestral events of lateral gene transfer. The eukaryotic recA genes have two distinct origins (mitochondrial and plastidial), whose acquisition by eukaryotes was possible via primary (bacteria-eukaryote) and/or secondary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiotic gene transfers (EGTs)...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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