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N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi, Manuel Rubio, Nadali Babaeian, Alfonso Albacete, Pedro Martínez-Gómez
Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus...
May 3, 2018: Viruses
Cheng Lu, Yan Yin, Fanli Meng, Yongbin Dun, Keke Pei, Chenlu Wang, Xu Xu, Fanhong Wu
Neuraminidase has been considered as an important target for designing agents against influenza viruses. In a discovery of anti-influenza agents with epigoitrin as the initial lead compound, a series of 1-amino-2-alkanols were synthesized and biologically evaluated. The in vitro evaluation indicated that (E)-1-amino-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-ol (C1) had better inhibitory activities than 2-amino-1-arylethan-1-ol derivatives. To our surprise, sulfonation of C1 with 4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride afforded more active inhibitor II with up to 6...
May 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yoshimoto Tanaka, Kan Fujino, Gerald Andrew Larkins, Atsushi Osawa, Yuji Hayashi, Satoshi Taharaguchi
Zoonosis becomes a popular word. Highly pathogenic influenza virus (HPI), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) recently occurred at around Africa, Meddle-East and South-East Asia area, whose virus is classified as airborne. Sterilization capability was investigated by using chemical reactor of PACT device. Test on airborne infection was carried out by Feline Calicivirus Vaccine (FCV) strain F9, which is also surrogated human norovirus. It was found that PACT device could sterilize instantly FCV when passing through the plasma space of PACT device...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Emily S Bailey, Jane K Fieldhouse, Jessica Y Choi, Gregory C Gray
During the last two decades, scientists have grown increasingly aware that viruses are emerging from the human-animal interface. In particular, respiratory infections are problematic; in early 2003, World Health Organization issued a worldwide alert for a previously unrecognized illness that was subsequently found to be caused by a novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus]. In addition to SARS, other respiratory pathogens have also emerged recently, contributing to the high burden of respiratory tract infection-related morbidity and mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Moyi Liu, Qiaoling Xu, Su Guo, Ruixi Zuo, Yue Hong, Yong Luo, Yingxiu Li, Ping Gong, Yajing Liu
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase is an attractive target for the development of novel and selective inhibitors of HCV replication. In this paper, the design, synthesis, and preliminary SAR studies of novel inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase based on the structure of tegobuvir have been described. The efforts to optimize the antiviral potency and reduce the treatment side effects with respect to genotype 1b resulted in the discovery of compound 3, which exhibited an EC50 of 1.163 nM and a CC50 >200 nM in a cell-based HCV replicon system assay...
April 16, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Wensheng Yu, Ling Tong, Oleg Selyutin, Lei Chen, Bin Hu, Bin Zhong, Jinglai Hao, Tao Ji, Shuai Zan, Jingjun Yin, Rebecca Tamra Ruck, Stephanie Curry, Patricia McMonagle, Sony Agrawal, Laura Rokosz, Donna Carr, Paul Ingravallo, Karin Bystol, Frederick Lahser, Rong Liu, Shiying Chen, Kung-I Feng, Mark Cartwright, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Joseph A Kozlowski
We describe the discovery of MK-6169, a potent and pan-genotype HCV NS5A inhibitor with optimized activity against common resistance-associated substitutions. SAR studies around the combination of changes to both the valine and aminal carbon region of elbasvir lead to the discovery of a series of compounds with substantially improved potency against common resistance-associated substitutions in the major genotypes, as well as good pharmacokinetics in both rat and dog. Through further optimization of key leads from this effort, MK-6169 (21) was discovered as a pre-clinical candidate for further development...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Muhammad Waseem Sarwar, Adeel Riaz, Syed Muhammad Raihan Dilshad, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Muhammad Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Muhammad Mubin
BACKGROUND: Due to dengue virus disease, half of the world population is at severe health risk. Viral encoded NS2B-NS3 protease complex causes cleavage in the nonstructural region of the viral polyprotein. The cleavage is essentially required for fully functional viral protein. It has already been reported that if function of NS2B-NS3 complex is disrupted, viral replication is inhibited. Therefore, the NS2B-NS3 is a well-characterized target for designing antiviral drug. RESULTS: In this study docking analysis was performed with active site of dengue NS2B-NS3 protein with selected plant flavonoids...
April 19, 2018: BMC Structural Biology
Stacy R Webb, Stacy E Smith, Michael G Fried, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
Enveloped viruses require viral fusion proteins to promote fusion of the viral envelope with a target cell membrane. To drive fusion, these proteins undergo large conformational changes that must occur at the right place and at the right time. Understanding the elements which control the stability of the prefusion state and the initiation of conformational changes is key to understanding the function of these important proteins. The construction of mutations in the fusion protein transmembrane domains (TMDs) or the replacement of these domains with lipid anchors has implicated the TMD in the fusion process...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
Attila L Ádám, Zoltán Á Nagy, György Kátay, Emese Mergenthaler, Orsolya Viczián
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a defence mechanism that induces protection against a wide range of pathogens in distant, pathogen-free parts of plants after a primary inoculation. Multiple mobile compounds were identified as putative SAR signals or important factors for influencing movement of SAR signalling elements in Arabidopsis and tobacco. These include compounds with very different chemical structures like lipid transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE1), methyl salicylate (MeSA), dehydroabietinal (DA), azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate dependent factor (G3P) and the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip)...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ying Yan, Lei Tang, Jiaqi Hu, Jianta Wang, Tiwalade Adegoke Adelakun, Dongqiong Yang, Yingtong Di, Yu Zhang, Xiaojiang Hao
A series of limonoids (1-8) were isolated from the whole plant of Munronia henryi and antiviral activities of the compounds were evaluated. The bioassay results demonstrated that Munronin O (1) showed remarkable protective activity and compounds 7 and 8 showed significant inactivating, protective, and curative activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). With a 50% effective concentration (EC50 ) value of 91.5 μg/mL, compound 1 exhibited the best protective activity compared with ningnanmycin (192.3 μg/mL)...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Aaron J Prussin, David Otto Schwake, Kaisen Lin, Daniel L Gallagher, Lauren Buttling, Linsey C Marr
Infectious diseases caused by enveloped viruses, such as influenza, SARS, and MERS, cause thousands of deaths and billions of dollars of economic losses per year. Studies have found a relationship among temperature, humidity, and influenza virus incidence, transmission, or survival; however, there are contradictory claims about whether absolute humidity (AH) or relative humidity (RH) is most important in mediating virus infectivity. Using the enveloped bacteriophage Phi6, which has been suggested as a surrogate for influenza virus and coronaviruses, we designed a study to discern whether AH, RH, or T is a better predictor of virus survival in droplets...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Meshal Beidas, Wassim Chehadeh
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a respiratory virus that usually causes a common cold. However, it has the potential to cause severe infection in young children and immunocompromised adults. Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were shown to express proteins with the potential to evade early innate immune responses. However, the ability of HCoV-OC43 to antagonise the intracellular antiviral defences has not yet been investigated. The potential role of the HCoV-OC43 structural (M and N) and accessory proteins (ns2a and ns5a) in the alteration of antiviral gene expression was investigated in this study...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
Peng Zhou, Hang Fan, Tian Lan, Xing-Lou Yang, Wei-Feng Shi, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhu, Ya-Wei Zhang, Qing-Mei Xie, Shailendra Mani, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Bei Li, Jin-Man Li, Hua Guo, Guang-Qian Pei, Xiao-Ping An, Jun-Wei Chen, Ling Zhou, Kai-Jie Mai, Zi-Xian Wu, Di Li, Danielle E Anderson, Li-Biao Zhang, Shi-Yue Li, Zhi-Qiang Mi, Tong-Tong He, Feng Cong, Peng-Ju Guo, Ren Huang, Yun Luo, Xiang-Ling Liu, Jing Chen, Yong Huang, Qiang Sun, Xiang-Li-Lan Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Shao-Zhen Xing, Yan-Shan Chen, Yuan Sun, Juan Li, Peter Daszak, Lin-Fa Wang, Zheng-Li Shi, Yi-Gang Tong, Jing-Yun Ma
Cross-species transmission of viruses from wildlife animal reservoirs poses a marked threat to human and animal health1 . Bats have been recognized as one of the most important reservoirs for emerging viruses and the transmission of a coronavirus that originated in bats to humans via intermediate hosts was responsible for the high-impact emerging zoonosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)2-10 . Here we provide virological, epidemiological, evolutionary and experimental evidence that a novel HKU2-related bat coronavirus, swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), is the aetiological agent that was responsible for a large-scale outbreak of fatal disease in pigs in China that has caused the death of 24,693 piglets across four farms...
April 4, 2018: Nature
Yingbo Liang, Shichun Cui, Xiaoli Tang, Yi Zhang, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng, Lihua Guo, Jingjing Yuan, Xiufen Yang
PevD1 is a fungal protein secreted by Verticillium dahliae . Our previous researches showed that this protein could induce hypersensitive responses-like necrosis and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in cotton and tobacco. To understand immune activation mechanisms whereby PevD1 elicits defense response, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay was performed to explore interacting protein of PevD1 in Arabidopsis thaliana , and a partner AtNRP (At5g42050) was identified. Here, AtNRP homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana was identified and designated as Nbnrp1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jeanne M Sisk, Matthew B Frieman, Carolyn E Machamer
Enveloped viruses gain entry into host cells by fusing with cellular membranes, a step that is required for virus replication. Coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), fuse at the plasma membrane or use receptor-mediated endocytosis and fuse with endosomes, depending on the cell or tissue type. The virus spike (S) protein mediates fusion with the host cell membrane. We have shown previously that an Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitor, imatinib, significantly reduces SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viral titres and prevents endosomal entry by HIV SARS S and MERS S pseudotyped virions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Julia Sommer, Susanne Fister, Tobias Gundolf, Birgit Bromberger, Patrick-Julian Mester, Anna Kristina Witte, Roland Kalb, Peter Rossmanith
For three decades now, ionic liquids (ILs), organic salts comprising only ions, have emerged as a new class of pharmaceuticals. Although recognition of the antimicrobial effects of ILs is growing rapidly, there is almost nothing known about their possible virucidal activities. This probably reflects the paucity of understanding virus inactivation. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis to determine the effect of specific structural motifs of ILs on three different biological test systems (viruses, bacteria and enzymes)...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Claudete Farina Seadi, Ivone Menegolla, Letícia Garay Martins, Nilo Ikuta, Jonas Michel Wolf, Vagner Ricardo Lunge
INTRODUCTION: Infections caused by respiratory viruses are important problems worldwide, especially in children. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory pathogen and causes severe infections with nonspecific symptoms. This study reports the hMPV occurrence and dissemination in southern Brazil and compares the frequency of occurrence of this virus and the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) in the epidemiological weeks in a three-year period (2009-2011). METHODS: In total, 545 nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens from individuals with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) who were negative for other seven respiratory viruses were analyzed for the presence of hMPV...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Yixin Chen, Emily Y M Wong, Kwok-Hung Chan, Honglin Chen, Libiao Zhang, Ningshao Xia, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Recently, we developed a monoclonal antibody-based rapid nucleocapsid protein detection assay for diagnosis of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans and dromedary camels. In this study, we examined the usefulness of this assay to detect other lineage C betacoronaviruses closely related to MERS-CoV in bats. The rapid MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein detection assay was tested positive in 24 (88.9%) of 27 Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV-HKU4) RNA-positive alimentary samples of Tylonycteris pachypus and 4 (19...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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