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SARS VIRUS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930535/leader-sequences-of-coronavirus-are-altered-during-infection
#1
Li Liu, Wei Chen
The life cycle of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) involves a unique process called discontinuous transcription by which a set of 3' coterminal subgenomic mRNAs (sgmRNA) with identical 5' leader sequences can be generated. The current study demonstrates that the replication intermediates of minus strand of subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) can be readily recovered from SARS-CoV infected cells. A novel sgmRNA (M-1) was identified as a short version of membrane (M) gene. Transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRS) of SARS-CoV and Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) sgmRNAs contain a species specific core element (CE)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923387/characterization-and-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-iminodipyridinopyrimidines-as-novel-hepatitis-c-virus-inhibitor
#2
Dong-Sik Park, Eunji Jo, Jihyun Choi, MyungEun Lee, Soohyun Kim, Hee-Young Kim, Jiyon Nam, Sujin Ahn, Jong Yeon Hwang, Marc Peter Windisch
Upon high-throughput screening of synthetic small molecule libraries with the infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) cell culture system, we identified an iminodipyridinopyrimidine (IDPP) scaffold. IDPP did not inhibit HCV replication, but exhibited very potent inhibitory activity on early and late steps of HCV life cycle. Applying an intensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, a promising IDPP Lead compound (12c) with excellent potency (EC50 = 10 nM), high safety margin (SI > 2000), and an acceptable stability in human and rat liver microsomes (t1/2 >60 min) was identified...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923111/a-novel-coltivirus-related-virus-isolated-from-free-tailed-bats-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-is-able-to-infect-human-cells-in-vitro
#3
Sabrina Weiss, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Kurth, Siv Aina J Leendertz, Fabian H Leendertz
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. METHODS: As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885377/clinical-pearls-in-venovenous-extracorporeal-life-support-for-adult-respiratory-failure
#4
Chee Kiang Tay, Kiick Sung, Yang Hyun Cho
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been widely utilized to treat neonatal respiratory failure for two decades. However, its uptake in the case of adult respiratory failure has been slow because of a paucity of quality evidence and a sluggish tempo of ECLS-related technological advances. In recent years, interest in ECLS has been piqued after encouraging results were reported from its use during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In a world constantly under threat from another influenza epidemic or deadly novel respiratory infection, e...
September 6, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883814/virucidal-influence-of-ionic-liquids-on-phages-p100-and-ms2
#5
Susanne Fister, Patrick Mester, Julia Sommer, Anna K Witte, Roland Kalb, Martin Wagner, Peter Rossmanith
An increasing number of publications describe the potential of ionic liquids (ILs) as novel antimicrobials, antibacterial coatings and even as active pharmaceutical ingredients. Nevertheless, a major research area, notably their impact on viruses, has so far been neglected. Consequently the aim of this study was to examine the effects of ILs on the infectivity of viruses. A systematic analysis to investigate the effects of defined structural elements of ILs on virus activity was performed using 55 ILs. All structure activity relationships (SARs) were tested on the human norovirus surrogate phage MS2 and phage P100 representing non-enveloped DNA viruses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870104/type-ii-transmembrane-serine-proteases-as-potential-target-for-anti-influenza-drug-discovery
#6
Woo-Jin Shin, Baik Lin Seong
The outbreak of an influenza pandemic as well as the continued circulation of seasonal influenza highlights the need for effective antiviral therapies. The emergence of drug-resistant strains further necessitates the development of novel antivirals that target the host factors crucial for viral replication. Area covered: This review summarizes the current understanding of the structural and functional properties of type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) as a proteolytic activator of influenza virus infection and discusses their potential as antiviral targets...
September 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866271/novel-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsaturated-amide-derivatives-bearing-%C3%AE-amino-phosphonate-moiety-as-potential-antiviral-agents
#7
Xianmin Lan, Dandan Xie, Limin Yin, Zhenzhen Wang, Jin Chen, Awei Zhang, Baoan Song, Deyu Hu
Based on flexible construction and broad bioactivity of ferulic acid, a series of novel α,β-unsaturated amide derivatives bearing α-aminophosphonate moiety were designed, synthesized and systematically evaluated for their antiviral activity. Bioassay results indicated that some compounds exhibited good antiviral activities against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in vivo. Especially, compound g18 showed excellent curative and protective activities against CMV, with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 284...
September 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856597/chemical-genetics-based-development-of-small-molecules-targeting-hepatitis-c-virus
#8
REVIEW
Guanghai Jin, Jisu Lee, Kyeong Lee
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide problem that has emerged as one of the most significant diseases affecting humans. There are currently no vaccines or efficient therapies without side effects, despite today's advanced medical technology. Currently, the common therapy for most patients (i.e. genotype 1) is combination of HCV-specific direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Up to 2011, the standard of care (SOC) was a combination of peg-IFNα with ribavirin (RBV). After approval of NS3/4A protease inhibitor, SOC was peg-IFNα and RBV with either the first-generation DAAs boceprevir or telaprevir...
August 30, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855003/a-review-of-candidate-therapies-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-from-a-molecular-perspective
#9
Ali A Rabaan, Shamsah H Alahmed, Ali M Bazzi, Hatem M Alhani
There have been 2040 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 27 countries, with a mortality rate of 34.9 %. There is no specific therapy. The current therapies have mainly been adapted from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) treatments, including broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, interferons, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir or mycophenolate mofetil, and have not been subject to well-organized clinical trials. The development of specific therapies and vaccines is therefore urgently required...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830941/mers-cov-accessory-orfs-play-key-role-for-infection-and-pathogenesis
#10
Vineet D Menachery, Hugh D Mitchell, Adam S Cockrell, Lisa E Gralinski, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Eileen T McAnarney, Madeline G Douglas, Trevor Scobey, Anne Beall, Kenneth Dinnon, Jacob F Kocher, Andrew E Hale, Kelly G Stratton, Katrina M Waters, Ralph S Baric
While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818753/benzoylsalicylic-acid-derivatives-as-defense-activators-in-tobacco-and-arabidopsis
#11
Samuel Kamatham, Reddanna Pallu, Anil Kumar Pasupulati, Surya Satyanarayana Singh, Padmaja Gudipalli
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a long lasting inducible whole plant immunity often induced by either pathogens or chemical elicitors. Salicylic acid (SA) is a known SAR signal against a broad spectrum of pathogens in plants. In a recent study, we have reported that benzoylsalicylic acid (BzSA) is a SAR inducer in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants. Here, we have synthesized BzSA derivatives using SA and benzoyl chlorides of various moieties as substrates. The chemical structures of BzSA derivatives were elucidated using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) and High-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) analysis...
August 14, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815758/detection-of-cyprinid-herpesvirus-1-dna-in-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-koi-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#12
Rubina Sirri, Sara Ciulli, Tim Barbé, Enrico Volpe, Maurizio Lazzari, Valeria Franceschini, Francesca Errani, Giuseppe Sarli, Luciana Mandrioli
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is an uncommon disease affecting koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Cutaneous papilloma (carp pox) is a benign epidermal proliferation reported in koi and has been shown to be caused by Cyprinid Herpesvirus 1 (CyHV1). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Histological, ultrastructural and molecular investigations were carried out aiming to investigate the aetiology of cSCC within archived tissue samples. ANIMALS: Surgical samples of masses located on the integument, fins and lips of 13 koi carp belonging to different private owners were included in this retrospective study...
August 16, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772262/evolution-and-emergence-of-pathogenic-viruses-past-present-and-future
#13
Mohammad K Parvez, Shama Parveen
Incidences of emerging/re-emerging deadly viral infections have significantly affected human health despite extraordinary progress in the area of biomedical knowledge. The best examples are the recurring outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions, the recent epidemic of Zika in the Americas and the Caribbean, and the SARS, MERS, and influenza A outbreaks across the globe. The established natural reservoirs of human viruses are mainly farm animals, and, to a lesser extent, wild animals and arthropods...
August 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756560/in-silico-analysis-of-the-cyanobacterial-lectin-scytovirin-new-insights-into-binding-properties
#14
Andrei Santos Siqueira, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo Lima, Rafael Conceição de Souza, Alberdan Silva Santos, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves Vianez Júnior, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves
Scytovirin is a lectin isolated from the cyanobacterium Scytonema varium that has shown activity against HIV, SARS coronavirus and Zaire Ebola virus. Its 95 amino acids are divided into two structural domains (SD), the first spanning amino acids 1-48 (SD1) and the second 49-95 (SD2). Interestingly, the domains are nearly identical but differ in their affinities for carbohydrates. With the aim of enhancing understanding of the binding properties of scytovirin, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of scytovirin complexed with Man4...
July 29, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724770/rgs-cam-detects-and-counteracts-viral-rna-silencing-suppressors-in-plant-immune-priming
#15
Eun Jin Jeon, Kazuki Tadamura, Taiki Murakami, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Bo Min Kim, Masako Sato, Go Atsumi, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Chikara Masuta, Kenji S Nakahara
Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant-priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#16
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720894/coronavirus-nucleocapsid-proteins-assemble-constitutively-in-high-molecular-oligomers
#17
Yingying Cong, Franziska Kriegenburg, Cornelis A M de Haan, Fulvio Reggiori
Coronaviruses (CoV) are enveloped viruses and rely on their nucleocapsid N protein to incorporate the positive-stranded genomic RNA into the virions. CoV N proteins form oligomers but the mechanism and relevance underlying their multimerization remain to be fully understood. Using in vitro pull-down experiments and density glycerol gradients, we found that at least 3 regions distributed over its entire length mediate the self-interaction of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) N protein...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712204/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-corona-virus-alert-verification-in-mirpur-azad-kashmir
#18
Mumtaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Ishaq, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Asim Altaf, Mirza Aamir Baig, Safdar Rana, Jaleel Kamran, Muazam Abbas Ranjha, Jawad Asgher Rana
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory-Corona virus (MERS-CoV), SARS like virus, identified in September 2012 in Middle-East. February 2013, an elderly man, who visited Pakistan and KSA, was confirmed as MRS-CoV in UK. A team visited Mirpur to assess current and past SARI trends in major indoor facilities, to explore possible contact of the patient with known or suspected SARI case during his stay in Pakistan and enlist close contacts. METHODS: Review of indoor records in hospitals, interviews with relatives & physicians and active contact tracing using operational case definition...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-cocirculate-with-type-1-and-severe-acute-respiratory-system-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-of-luxembourg
#19
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus were evaluated. Feces collection (n = 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, feces (n = 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706276/kanyawara-virus-a-novel-rhabdovirus-infecting-newly-discovered-nycteribiid-bat-flies-infesting-previously-unknown-pteropodid-bats-in-uganda
#20
Tony L Goldberg, Andrew J Bennett, Robert Kityo, Jens H Kuhn, Colin A Chapman
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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