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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923942/identification-of-sialic-acid-binding-function-for-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-spike-glycoprotein
#1
Wentao Li, Ruben J G Hulswit, Ivy Widjaja, V Stalin Raj, Ryan McBride, Wenjie Peng, W Widagdo, M Alejandra Tortorici, Brenda van Dieren, Yifei Lang, Jan W M van Lent, James C Paulson, Cornelis A M de Haan, Raoul J de Groot, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Bart L Haagmans, Berend-Jan Bosch
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) targets the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract both in humans and in its natural host, the dromedary camel. Virion attachment to host cells is mediated by 20-nm-long homotrimers of spike envelope protein S. The N-terminal subunit of each S protomer, called S1, folds into four distinct domains designated S1(A) through S1(D) Binding of MERS-CoV to the cell surface entry receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) occurs via S1(B) We now demonstrate that in addition to DPP4, MERS-CoV binds to sialic acid (Sia)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913936/detection-of-bovine-coronavirus-in-healthy-and-diarrheic-dairy-calves
#2
D E Gomez, L G Arroyo, Z Poljak, L Viel, J S Weese
BACKGROUND: BCoV is identified in both healthy and diarrheic calves, complicating its assessment as a primary pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the detection rates of bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in feces of healthy and diarrheic calves and to describe the usefulness of a pancoronavirus reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR (PanCoV-RT-PCR) assay to identify BCoV in samples of diarrheic calves. ANIMALS: Two hundred and eighty-six calves <21 days...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910865/a-novel-chemical-compound-for-inhibition-of-sars-coronavirus-helicase
#3
Jin-Moo Lee, Jin-Beom Cho, Hee-Chul Ahn, Woong Jung, Yong-Joo Jeong
We have discovered a novel chemical compound, (E)-3-(furan-2-yl)-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)acrylamide, that suppresses the enzymatic activities of SARS coronavirus helicase. To determine the inhibitory effect, ATP hydrolysis and double-stranded DNA unwinding assays were performed in the presence of various concentrations of the compound. Through these assays, we have obtained IC50 values of 2.09 ± 0.30 µM (ATP hydrolysis) and 13.2 ± 0.9 µM (DNA unwinding), respectively. Moreover, we have found that the compound did not have any significant cytotoxicity when 40 µM of the compound was used...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906430/identification-of-a-novel-inhibitor-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#4
Yaping Sun, Huaidong Zhang, Jian Shi, Zhe Zhang, Rui Gong
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first isolated in 2012, and circulated worldwide with high mortality. The continual outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight the importance of developing antiviral therapeutics. Here, we rationally designed a novel fusion inhibitor named MERS-five-helix bundle (MERS-5HB) derived from the six-helix bundle (MERS-6HB) which was formed by the process of membrane fusion. MERS-5HB consists of three copies of heptad repeat 1 (HR1) and two copies of heptad repeat 2 (HR2) while MERS-6HB includes three copies each of HR1 and HR2...
September 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906003/inclusion-of-mers-spike-protein-elisa-in-algorithm-to-determine-serologic-evidence-of-mers-cov-infection
#5
Suvang Trivedi, Congrong Miao, Mohammad Mousa Al-Abdallat, Aktham Haddadin, Sultan Alqasrawi, Ibrahim Iblan, Mohannad Al Nsour, Tarek Alsanouri, Sami Sheikh Ali, Brian Rha, Susan I Gerber, Daniel C Payne, Azaibi Tamin, Natalie J Thornburg
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) algorithm for detecting presence of serum antibodies against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in subjects with potential infections with the virus has included screening by indirect ELISA against recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein and confirmation by immunofluorescent staining of infected monolayers and/or microneutralization titration. Other international groups include indirect ELISA assays using the spike (S) protein, as part of their serological determinations...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905531/elucidation-of-bacterial-pneumonia-causing-pathogens-in-patients-with-respiratory-viral-infection
#6
Hwa Sik Jung, Byung Ju Kang, Seung Won Ra, Kwang Won Seo, Yangjin Jegal, Jae Bum Jun, Jiwon Jung, Joseph Jeong, Hee Jeong Jeon, Jae Sung Ahn, Taehoon Lee, Jong Joon Ahn
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia occurring after respiratory viral infection is common. However, the predominant bacterial species causing pneumonia secondary to respiratory viral infections other than influenza remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to know whether the pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of respiratory virus. METHODS: Study subjects were 5,298 patients, who underwent multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses, among who visited the emergency department or outpatient clinic with respiratory symptoms at Ulsan University Hospital between April 2013 and March 2016...
September 1, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902913/identification-of-diverse-viruses-in-upper-respiratory-samples-in-dromedary-camels-from-united-arab-emirates
#7
Yan Li, Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla, Clinton R Paden, Mohammed F Yusof, Yassir M Eltahir, Zulaikha M Al Hammadi, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Farida Al Hosani, Susan I Gerber, Aron J Hall, Salama Al Muhairi, Suxiang Tong
Camels are known carriers for many viral pathogens, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). It is likely that there are additional, as yet unidentified viruses in camels with the potential to cause disease in humans. In this study, we performed metagenomic sequencing analysis on nasopharyngeal swab samples from 108 MERS-CoV-positive dromedary camels from a live animal market in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. We obtained a total of 846.72 million high-quality reads from these nasopharyngeal swab samples, of which 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900197/structural-insights-into-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-4a-protein-and-its-dsrna-binding-mechanism
#8
Maria Batool, Masaud Shah, Mahesh Chandra Patra, Dhanusha Yesudhas, Sangdun Choi
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has evolved to navigate through the sophisticated network of a host's immune system. The immune evasion mechanism including type 1 interferon and protein kinase R-mediated antiviral stress responses has been recently attributed to the involvement of MERS-CoV protein 4a (p4a) that masks the viral dsRNA. However, the structural mechanism of how p4a recognizes and establishes contacts with dsRNA is not well explained. In this study, we report a dynamic mechanism deployed by p4a to engage the viral dsRNA and make it unavailable to the host immune system...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900101/impact-of-comorbidity-on-fatality-rate-of-patients-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#9
Ya-Min Yang, Chen-Yang Hsu, Chao-Chih Lai, Ming-Fang Yen, Paul S Wikramaratna, Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Tsung-Hsi Wang
To date, 1841 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection have been reported worldwide, with 652 deaths. We used a publically available case line list to explore the effect of relevant factors, notably underlying comorbidities, on fatal outcome of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases up to the end of October 2016. A Bayesian Weibull proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the effect of comorbidity, age, epidemic period and sex on the fatality rate of MERS cases and its variation across countries...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899630/protection-against-infectious-bronchitis-virus-by-spike-ectodomain-subunit-vaccine
#10
Fatma Eldemery, Kellye S Joiner, Haroldo Toro, Vicky L van Santen
The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 subunit of the spike (S) glycoprotein mediates viral attachment to host cells and the S2 subunit is responsible for membrane fusion. Using IBV Arkansas-type (Ark) S protein histochemistry, we show that extension of S1 with the S2 ectodomain improves binding to chicken tissues. Although the S1 subunit is the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies, vaccination with S1 protein has been shown to confer inadequate protection against challenge. The demonstrated contribution of S2 ectodomain to binding to chicken tissues suggests that vaccination with the ectodomain might improve protection compared to vaccination with S1 alone...
September 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895072/role-of-the-inflammasome-related-cytokines-il-1-and-il-18-during-infection-with-murine-coronavirus
#11
Zachary B Zalinger, Ruth Elliott, Susan R Weiss
The inflammasome, a cytosolic protein complex that mediates the processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is one of the first responders during viral infection. The cytokines secreted following inflammasome activation, which include IL-1 and IL-18, regulate cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, guiding the subsequent immune responses. In this study, we used murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), infection of the central nervous system and liver to assess of the role of the inflammasome and its related cytokines on pathogenesis and host defense during viral infection...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894474/a-novel-dynamic-model-describing-the-spread-of-the-mers-cov-and-the-expression-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4
#12
Siming Tang, Wanbiao Ma, Peifan Bai
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, a newly identified pathogen, causes severe pneumonia in humans. MERS is caused by a coronavirus known as MERS-CoV, which attacks the respiratory system. The recently defined receptor for MERS-CoV, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), is generally expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells and has been shown to be present on cultured human nonciliated bronchiolar epithelium cells. In this paper, a class of novel four-dimensional dynamic model describing the infection of MERS-CoV is given, and then global stability of the equilibria of the model is discussed...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893529/passive-immunity-to-control-bovine-coronavirus-diarrhea-in-a-dairy-herd-in-argentina
#13
Marina Bok, Martín Alassia, Flavia Frank, Celina G Vega, Andrés Wigdorovitz, Viviana Parreño
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a viral enteric pathogen associated with calf diarrhea worldwide being, in Argentina, mostly detected in dairy husbandry systems. The aim of the present work was to study if maternal IgG1 antibodies (Abs) to BCoV acquired by colostrum intake modulate the development of BCoV infection in calves reared in a dairy farm in Argentina. Thirty Holstein calves were monitored during their first 60 days of age. Animals were classified into two groups depending on their initial BCoV IgG1 Ab titers...
September 8, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893443/isolation-and-identification-of-human-coronavirus-229e-from-frequently-touched-environmental-surfaces-of-a-university-classroom-that-is-cleaned-daily
#14
Tania S Bonny, Saber Yezli, John A Lednicky
Frequently touched surfaces of a university classroom that is cleaned daily contained viable human coronavirus 229E (CoV-229E). Tests of a CoV-229E laboratory strain under conditions that simulated the ambient light, temperature, and relative humidity conditions of the classroom revealed that some of the virus remained viable on various surfaces for 7 days, suggesting CoV-229E is relatively stable in the environment. Our findings reinforce the notion that contact transmission may be possible for this virus.
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893197/the-predictors-of-3-and-30-day-mortality-in-660-mers-cov-patients
#15
Anwar E Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The mortality rate of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients is a major challenge in all healthcare systems worldwide. Because the MERS-CoV risk-standardized mortality rates are currently unavailable in the literature, the author concentrated on developing a method to estimate the risk-standardized mortality rates using MERS-CoV 3- and 30-day mortality measures. METHODS: MERS-CoV data in Saudi Arabia is publicly reported and made available through the Saudi Ministry of Health (SMOH) website...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890472/ocular-abnormalities-associated-with-hypovitaminosis-a-in-hanwoo-calves-a-report-of-two-cases
#16
Seonmi Kang, Chanho Park, Kangmoon Seo
This study reports on two Hanwoo (a native Korean breed of cattle) calves, a 3- and 6-month-old presenting with diarrhea, anorexia, and blindness. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral papilledema in both calves. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus, rotavirus, and coronavirus were all negative. The levels of serum vitamin A in the two affected calves were 0.317 µg/dl and 0.481 µg/dl, respectively. These values are much lower than the normal vitamin A levels; therefore, the calves were diagnosed with hypovitaminosis A...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885377/clinical-pearls-in-venovenous-extracorporeal-life-support-for-adult-respiratory-failure
#17
Chee Kiang Tay, Kiick Sung, Yang Hyun Cho
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been widely utilized to treat neonatal respiratory failure for two decades. However, its uptake in the case of adult respiratory failure has been slow because of a paucity of quality evidence and a sluggish tempo of ECLS-related technological advances. In recent years, interest in ECLS has been piqued after encouraging results were reported from its use during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In a world constantly under threat from another influenza epidemic or deadly novel respiratory infection, e...
September 6, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883450/virome-analysis-for-identification-of-novel-mammalian-viruses-in-bats-from-southeast-china
#18
Dan Hu, Changqiang Zhu, Yi Wang, Lele Ai, Lu Yang, Fuqiang Ye, Chenxi Ding, Jiafeng Chen, Biao He, Jin Zhu, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu, Youjun Feng, Weilong Tan, Changjun Wang
Bats have been shown as important mammal resevoirs to carry a variety of zoonotic pathogens. To analyze pathogenic species in bats from southeast coastal regions of China, we performed metagenomic sequencing technology for high throughput sequencing of six sentinels from southeast coastal area of China. We obtained 5,990,261 high quality reads from intestine and lung tissue of 235 bats, including 2,975,371 assembled sequences. 631,490 reads predicted overlapping sequences for the open reading frame (ORF), which accounts for 2...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875620/mers-cov-infection-in-a-pregnant-woman-in-korea
#19
Soo Young Jeong, Se In Sung, Ji Hee Sung, So Yoon Ahn, Eun Suk Kang, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park, Jong Hwa Kim
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a lethal respiratory disease - caused by MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. Especially, pregnant women can be expected as highly vulnerable candidates for this viral infection. In May 2015, this virus was spread in Korea and a pregnant woman was confirmed with positive result of MERS-CoV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Her condition was improved only with conservative treatment. After a full recovery of MERS, the patient manifested abrupt vaginal bleeding with rupture of membrane...
October 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873020/assessing-the-detection-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-igg-in-suspected-and-proven-cases-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection
#20
Abdulkarim Alhetheel, Haifa Altalhi, Ahmed Albarrag, Zahid Shakoor, Deqa Mohamed, Malak El-Hazmi, Ali Somily, Mazin Barry, Muhammed Bakhrebah, Majed Nassar
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease with significant mortality. Two testing methods are currently used for MERS-CoV diagnostics: nucleic acid detection (the gold standard) and serological analysis. In this study, we evaluated the detection of MERS-CoV-IgG in suspected and proven cases of MERS-CoV infection. We enrolled 174 patients: 113 had respiratory symptoms/suspected MERS-CoV infection, 31 had confirmed influenza A or B infection, 23 had a recent confirmed MERS-CoV infection, and 7 had confirmed MERS-CoV infection 1 year before...
September 5, 2017: Viral Immunology
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