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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738245/two-amino-acids-change-in-the-nsp4-of-sars-coronavirus-abolishes-viral-replication
#1
Yusuke Sakai, Kengo Kawachi, Yutaka Terada, Hiroko Omori, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Wataru Kamitani
Infection with coronavirus rearranges the host cell membrane to assemble a replication/transcription complex in which replication of the viral genome and transcription of viral mRNA occur. Although coexistence of nsp3 and nsp4 is known to cause membrane rearrangement, the mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two proteins remain unclear. We demonstrated that binding of nsp4 with nsp3 is essential for membrane rearrangement and identified amino acid residues in nsp4 responsible for the interaction with nsp3...
July 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734432/outbreak-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-causes-high-fatality-after-cardiac-operations
#2
Rakan I Nazer
Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) resembles a severe form of community-acquired pneumonia initially reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The MERS-CoV epidemic poses a big challenge because of its high mortality. In January 2015, a patient who was potentially incubating MERS-CoV arrived from the emergency department of another hospital and was admitted with acute coronary syndrome. This resulted in an outbreak in the cardiac surgery ward that caused the deaths of 5 of 6 patients who had undergone cardiac operations...
August 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730523/antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-serotype-ii-feline-enteric-coronavirus-infection-in-primary-feline-monocytes
#3
Tomomi Takano, Mamiko Nakaguchi, Tomoyoshi Doki, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) has been classified into two biotypes: avirulent feline coronavirus (feline enteric coronavirus: FECV) and virulent feline coronavirus (feline infectious peritonitis virus: FIPV). In FIPV infection, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been reported and was shown to be associated with severe clinical disease. On the other hand, the potential role of ADE in FECV infection has not been examined. In this study, using laboratory strains of serotype II FIPV WSU 79-1146 (FIPV 79-1146) and serotype II FECV WSU 79-1683 (FECV 79-1683), we investigated the relationship between ADE and induction of inflammatory cytokines, which are pathogenesis-related factors, for each strain...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728926/diagnostic-delays-in-537-symptomatic-cases-of-mers-cov-infection-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Anwar E Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Although the literature indicates the potential outcomes of a patient's delay in seeking medical support is associated with poor clinical outcomes, delays in the diagnosis itself remain poorly understood in patients with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This study aims to estimate the median time interval of confirmed diagnosis after symptom onset and identify its potential predictors in Saudi Arabian MERS patients. METHODS: A retrospective study involved patients confirmed with MERS who were publicly reported by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727803/role-of-fomites-in-sars-transmission-during-the-largest-hospital-outbreak-in-hong-kong
#5
Shenglan Xiao, Yuguo Li, Tze-Wai Wong, David S C Hui
The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) had a significant effect on global society in the early 2000s and the potential of its resurgence exists. Studies on the modes of transmission of SARS are limited though a number of outbreak studies have revealed the possible airborne route. To develop more specific and effective control strategies, we conducted a detailed mechanism-based investigation that explored the role of fomite transmission in the well-known Ward 8A outbreak. We considered three hypothetical transmission routes, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725945/genetic-characteristics-of-coronaviruses-from-korean-bats-in-2016
#6
Saemi Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Injung An, Jipseol Jeong, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Weonhwa Jheong, Jae-Ku Oem
Bats have increasingly been recognized as the natural reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), coronavirus, and other coronaviruses found in mammals. However, little research has been conducted on bat coronaviruses in South Korea. In this study, bat samples (332 oral swabs, 245 fecal samples, 38 urine samples, and 57 bat carcasses) were collected at 33 natural bat habitat sites in South Korea. RT-PCR and sequencing were performed for specific coronavirus genes to identify the bat coronaviruses in different bat samples...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722623/the-use-of-xenosurveillance-to-detect-human-bacteria-parasites-and-viruses-in-mosquito-bloodmeals
#7
Joseph R Fauver, Alex Gendernalik, James Weger-Lucarelli, Nathan D Grubaugh, Doug E Brackney, Brian D Foy, Gregory D Ebel
Infectious disease surveillance is hindered by several factors, including limited infrastructure and geographic isolation of many resource-poor regions. In addition, the complexities of sample acquisition, processing, and analysis, even in developed regions, can be rate limiting. Therefore, new strategies to survey human populations for emerging pathogens are necessary. Xenosurveillance is a method that utilizes mosquitoes as sampling devices to search for genetic signatures of pathogens in vertebrates. Previously we demonstrated that xenosurveillance can detect viral RNA in both laboratory and field settings...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721511/molecular-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-bovine-coronavirus-virus-isolated-from-dairy-cattle-in-central-region-thailand
#8
Kanokwan Singasa, Taweesak Songserm, Preeda Lertwatcharasarakul, Pipat Arunvipas
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is involved mainly in enteric infections in cattle. This study reports the first molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in dairy cows in the Central Region, Thailand. BCoV was molecularly detected from bloody diarrheic cattle feces by using nested PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis of three diarrheic fecal samples yielded from the 25 samples desired amplicons that were 488 base pairs and sequencing substantiated that have BCoV. The sequence alignment indicated that nucleotide and amino acid sequences, the three TWD isolated in Thailand, were more quite homologous to each other (amino acid at position 39 of TWD1, TWD3 was proline, but TWD2 was serine) and closely related to OK-0514-3strain (virulent respiratory strain; RBCoV)...
July 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720894/coronavirus-nucleocapsid-proteins-assemble-constitutively-in-high-molecular-oligomers
#9
Yingying Cong, Franziska Kriegenburg, Cornelis A M de Haan, Fulvio Reggiori
Coronaviruses (CoV) are enveloped viruses and rely on their nucleocapsid N protein to incorporate the positive-stranded genomic RNA into the virions. CoV N proteins form oligomers but the mechanism and relevance underlying their multimerization remain to be fully understood. Using in vitro pull-down experiments and density glycerol gradients, we found that at least 3 regions distributed over its entire length mediate the self-interaction of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) N protein...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719257/no-serologic-evidence-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-among-camel-farmers-exposed-to-highly-seropositive-camel-herds-a-household-linked-study-kenya-2013
#10
Peninah Munyua, Victor Max Corman, Austine Bitek, Eric Osoro, Benjamin Meyer, Marcel A Müller, Erik Lattwein, S M Thumbi, Rees Murithi, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Christian Drosten, M Kariuki Njenga
AbstractHigh seroprevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among camels has been reported in Kenya and other countries in Africa. To date, the only report of MERS-CoV seropositivity among humans in Kenya is of two livestock keepers with no known contact with camels. We assessed whether persons exposed to seropositive camels at household level had serological evidence of infection. In 2013, 760 human and 879 camel sera were collected from 275 and 85 households respectively in Marsabit County...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715293/surveillance-for-antibodies-against-six-canine-viruses-in-wild-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-japan
#11
Emiko Aoki, Takehisa Soma, Mayumi Yokoyama, Makoto Matsubayashi, Kazumi Sasai
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type (CPV), 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-co-circulate-with-type-1-and-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-in-luxembourg
#12
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709419/the-clinical-and-virological-features-of-the-first-imported-case-causing-mers-cov-outbreak-in-south-korea-2015
#13
Ji Yeon Lee, You-Jin Kim, Eun Hee Chung, Dae-Won Kim, Ina Jeong, Yeonjae Kim, Mi-Ran Yun, Sung Soon Kim, Gayeon Kim, Joon-Sung Joh
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea. We summarized the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings of the first Korean case of MERS-CoV and analyzed whole-genome sequences of MERS-CoV derived from the patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old man developed fever and myalgia 7 days after returning to Korea, following a 10-day trip to the Middle East...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706276/kanyawara-virus-a-novel-rhabdovirus-infecting-newly-discovered-nycteribiid-bat-flies-infesting-previously-unknown-pteropodid-bats-in-uganda
#14
Tony L Goldberg, Andrew J Bennett, Robert Kityo, Jens H Kuhn, Colin A Chapman
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695355/suggested-new-breakpoints-of-anti-mers-cov-antibody-elisa-titers-performance-analysis-of-serologic-tests
#15
J-H Ko, M A Müller, H Seok, G E Park, J Y Lee, S Y Cho, Y E Ha, J Y Baek, S H Kim, J-M Kang, Y-J Kim, I J Jo, C R Chung, M-J Hahn, C Drosten, C-I Kang, D R Chung, J-H Song, E-S Kang, K R Peck
To provide optimal cut-off values of anti-Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) serologic tests, we evaluated performance of ELISA IgG, ELISA IgA, IFA IgM, and IFA IgG using 138 serum samples of 49 MERS-CoV-infected patients and 219 serum samples of 219 rRT-PCR-negative MERS-CoV-exposed healthcare personnel and patients. The performance analysis was conducted for two different purposes: (1) prediction of neutralization activity in MERS-CoV-infected patients, and (2) epidemiologic surveillance of MERS-CoV infections among MERS-CoV-exposed individuals...
July 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690868/mirna-200c-3p-is-crucial-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
Qiang Liu, Jianchao Du, Xuezhong Yu, Jun Xu, Fengming Huang, Xiaoyun Li, Cong Zhang, Xiao Li, Jiahui Chang, Daozhen Shang, Yan Zhao, Mingyao Tian, Huijun Lu, Jiantao Xu, Chang Li, Huadong Zhu, Ningyi Jin, Chengyu Jiang
Influenza infection and pneumonia are known to cause much of their mortality by inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a negative regulator of angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system, has been reported to have a crucial role in ALI. Downregulation of ACE2 is always associated with the ALI or ARDS induced by avian influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus and sepsis...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686880/chicken-mannose-binding-lectin-has-antiviral-activity-towards-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#17
Weidong Zhang, Kim M Bouwman, Steven J van Beurden, Soledad R Ordonez, Martin van Eijk, Henk P Haagsman, M Hélène Verheije, Edwin J A Veldhuizen
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a collagenous C-type lectin, which plays an important role in innate immunity. It can bind to carbohydrates on the surface of a wide range of pathogens, including viruses. Here we studied the antiviral effect of recombinant chicken (rc)MBL against Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), a highly contagious coronavirus of chicken. rcMBL inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the infection of BHK-21 cells by IBV-Beaudette, as detected by immunofluorescence staining of viral proteins and qPCR...
September 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683463/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-coinfection-implications-for-infection-control
#18
Sarah H Alfaraj, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Talal A Altuwaijri, Ziad A Memish
Coinfection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with tuberculosis (TB) has not been previously reported. Here, we present 2 cases with both MERS-CoV and pulmonary TB. The first case was a 13-year-old patient who was admitted with a 2-month history of fever, weight loss, night sweats, and cough. The second patient was a 30-year-old female who had a 4-week history of cough associated with shortness of breath and weight loss of 2 kg. The 2 patients were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and had positive MERS-CoV...
July 6, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677421/molecular-detection-of-viral-agents-in-free-ranging-and-captive-neotropical-felids-in-brazil
#19
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Iracema Nunes de Barros, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Sandra Cavalcanti, Laury Cullen, Claudia Filoni, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge, Nairléia Dos Santos Silva, Leandro Silveira, José Soares Ferreira Neto
We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676301/toward-the-identification-of-viral-cap-methyltransferase-inhibitors-by-fluorescence-screening-assay
#20
Wahiba Aouadi, Cécilia Eydoux, Bruno Coutard, Baptiste Martin, Françoise Debart, Jean Jacques Vasseur, Jean Marie Contreras, Christophe Morice, Gilles Quérat, Marie-Louise Jung, Bruno Canard, Jean-Claude Guillemot, Etienne Decroly
Two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with severe respiratory syndromes emerged since the beginning of the century. The severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-coronavirus (CoV) spread first in southern China in 2003 with about 8000 infected cases in few months. Then in 2012, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) emerged from the Arabian Peninsula giving a still on-going epidemic associated to a high fatality rate. CoVs are thus considered a major health threat. This is especially true as no vaccine nor specific therapeutic are available against either SARS- or MERS-CoV...
July 1, 2017: Antiviral Research
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