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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634355/longitudinal-study-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-dromedary-camel-herds-in-saudi-arabia-2014-2015
#1
Maged Gomaa Hemida, Abdulmohsen Alnaeem, Daniel Kw Chu, Ranawaka Apm Perera, Samuel Ms Chan, Faisal Almathen, Emily Yau, Brian Cy Ng, Richard J Webby, Leo Lm Poon, Malik Peiris
Two herds of dromedary camels were longitudinally sampled with nasal and rectal swabs and serum, between September 2014 and May 2015, and the samples were tested for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus RNA and antibodies. Evidence of MERS-CoV infection was confirmed in one herd on the basis of detection of virus RNA in nasal swabs from three camels and significant increases in the antibody titers from three others. The three viruses were genetically identical, thus indicating introduction of a single virus into this herd...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634353/coronavirus-hku15-in-respiratory-tract-of-pigs-and-first-discovery-of-coronavirus-quasispecies-in-5-untranslated-region
#2
Patrick Cy Woo, Susanna Kp Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Candy Cy Lau, Po-Chun Wong, Franklin Wn Chow, Jordan Yh Fong, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Coronavirus HKU15 is a deltacoronavirus that was discovered in fecal samples of pigs in Hong Kong in 2012. Over the past three years, Coronavirus HKU15 has been widely detected in pigs in East/Southeast Asia and North America and has been associated with fatal outbreaks. In all such epidemiological studies, the virus was generally only detected in fecal/intestinal samples. In this molecular epidemiology study, we detected Coronavirus HKU15 in 9.6% of the nasopharyngeal samples obtained from 249 pigs in Hong Kong...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634031/does-atopy-affect-the-course-of-viral-pneumonia
#3
S B Erdem, D Can, S Girit, F Çatal, V Şen, S Pekcan, H Yüksel, A Bingöl, I Bostancı, D Erge, R Ersu
BACKGROUND: The presence of atopy is considered as a risk factor for severe respiratory symptoms in children. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of atopy on the course of disease in children hospitalised with viral pneumonia. METHODS: Children between the ages of 1 and 6 years hospitalised due to viral pneumonia between the years of 2013 and 2016 were included to this multicentre study. Patients were classified into two groups as mild-moderate and severe according to the course of pneumonia...
June 17, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630747/global-patterns-in-coronavirus-diversity
#4
Simon J Anthony, Christine K Johnson, Denise J Greig, Sarah Kramer, Xiaoyu Che, Heather Wells, Allison L Hicks, Damien O Joly, Nathan D Wolfe, Peter Daszak, William Karesh, W I Lipkin, Stephen S Morse, Jonna A K Mazet, Tracey Goldstein
Since the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrom Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) it has become increasingly clear that bats are important reservoirs of CoVs. Despite this, only 6% of all CoV sequences in GenBank are from bats. The remaining 94% largely consist of known pathogens of public health or agricultural significance, indicating that current research effort is heavily biased towards describing known diseases rather than the 'pre-emergent' diversity in bats...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630327/virus-induced-inflammasome-activation-is-suppressed-by-prostaglandin-d2-dp1-signaling
#5
Rahul Vijay, Anthony R Fehr, Ann M Janowski, Jeremiah Athmer, Dorthea L Wheeler, Matthew Grunewald, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Samarchith P Kurup, David K Meyerholz, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Shuh Narumiya, Stanley Perlman
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an eicosanoid with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, is the most abundantly expressed prostaglandin in the brain. Here we show that PGD2 signaling through the D-prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1) receptor is necessary for optimal microglia/macrophage activation and IFN expression after infection with a neurotropic coronavirus. Genome-wide expression analyses indicated that PGD2/DP1 signaling is required for up-regulation of a putative inflammasome inhibitor, PYDC3, in CD11b(+) cells in the CNS of infected mice...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625842/dynamics-of-scientific-publications-on-the-mers-cov-outbreaks-in-saudi-arabia
#6
REVIEW
Ali Rabaan, Shamsah H Al-Ahmed, Ali M Bazzi, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging disease with a relatively high case fatality rate. Most cases have been reported from Saudi Arabia, and the disease epidemic potential is considered to be limited. However, human-human transmission has occurred, usually in the context of healthcare facility-associated outbreaks. The scientific and medical community depends on timely publication of epidemiological information on emerging diseases during outbreaks to appropriately target public health responses...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624700/discovery-of-unsymmetrical-aromatic-disulfides-as-novel-inhibitors-of-sars-cov-main-protease-chemical-synthesis-biological-evaluation-molecular-docking-and-3d-qsar-study
#7
Li Wang, Bo-Bo Bao, Guo-Qing Song, Cheng Chen, Xu-Meng Zhang, Wei Lu, Zefang Wang, Yan Cai, Shuang Li, Sheng Fu, Fu-Hang Song, Haitao Yang, Jian-Guo Wang
The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 had caused a high rate of mortality. Main protease (M(pro)) of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is an important target to discover pharmaceutical compounds for the therapy of this life-threatening disease. During the course of screening new anti-SARS agents, we have identified that a series of unsymmetrical aromatic disulfides inhibited SARS-CoV M(pro) significantly for the first time. Herein, 40 novel unsymmetrical aromatic disulfides were synthesized chemically and their biological activities were evaluated in vitro against SARS-CoV M(pro)...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623921/genome-wide-analysis-of-codon-usage-bias-in-bovine-coronavirus
#8
Matías Castells, Matías Victoria, Rodney Colina, Héctor Musto, Juan Cristina
BACKGROUND: Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) belong to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. BCoV are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle, leading to important economic losses to the beef and dairy industry worldwide. To study the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is essential to understand host-pathogen interaction, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage and composition of BCoV...
June 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622871/a-spike-specific-whole-porcine-antibody-isolated-from-a-porcine-b-cell-that-neutralizes-both-genogroup-1-and-2-pedv-strains
#9
Fang Fu, Lin Li, Lingling Shan, Beibei Yang, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Hongfeng Wang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), caused by an alpha coronavirus, is a highly contagious disease and causes high morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. Isolating PEDV neutralizing antibodies from porcine B cells is critical to elucidate the development of PEDV neutralizing antibodies and the protective mechanism of PEDV infection. Here, we described the isolation of a PEDV-neutralizing antibody from the B cell of a vaccinated pig. The antibody, named PC10, was demonstrated to target the conformational epitope of PEDV spike protein, specifically bind to the infected cells of PEDV genogroup 1 and 2 strains, and potently neutralize PEDV infection...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622850/infection-of-porcine-precision-cut-intestinal-slices-by-transmissible-gastroenteritis-coronavirus-demonstrates-the-importance-of-the-spike-protein-for-enterotropism-of-different-virus-strains
#10
Tanja Krimmling, Andreas Beineke, Christel Schwegmann-Weßels
TGEV is a coronavirus that is still widely spread in pig farming. On molecular level this virus has been studied in detail. However, studying TGEV infection within the complexity of the porcine intestinal epithelium reveals difficulties due to limiting infection models. Here we established a new ex vivo model to analyze the enterotropism of TGEV in porcine intestinal tissue. Precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were produced and ATP level was measured to proof vitality of the slices. ATP measurements and HE staining revealed living tissue in culture for up to 24h...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619139/analysis-of-antigenicity-and-pathogenicity-reveals-major-differences-among-qx-like-infectious-bronchitis-viruses-and-other-serotypes
#11
Shihong Yan, Xiaoyu Liu, Jing Zhao, Gang Xu, Ye Zhao, Guozhong Zhang
Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes considerable damage to the poultry industry worldwide and the proportion of QX-like genotype isolates have increased over time. Here, to better understand the antigenicity and pathogenicity of this genotype, we conducted sequence analyses, cross neutralization tests, and also examined the pathogenicity of two strains, SD and SZ. Sequence analyses revealed that SD and SZ isolates belong to the QX-like IBV genotype and share high homology in their full-length genomes...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619134/genetic-antigenic-and-pathogenic-characteristics-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-viruses-genotypically-related-to-793-b-in-china
#12
Zongxi Han, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Qianqian Xu, Junfeng Sun, Tingting Zhang, Yan Zhao, Shuling Liang, Mengying Gao, Qiuling Wang, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
In this study, 20 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, which were genotypically related to 793/B, as assessed by an S1 gene comparison and a complete genomic sequence analysis, were isolated and identified from 2009 to 2014 in China. Phylogenetic analysis, network tree, similarity plot analysis, Recombination Detection Program 4(RDP4) and sequence comparison revealed that 12 of the 20 isolates were likely the reisolated vaccine virus. One isolate, ck/CH/LSD/110857, was shown to have originated from recombination events between H120- and 4/91-like vaccine strains that did not result in changes of antigenicity and pathogenicity...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617480/bats-are-global-reservoir-for-deadly-coronaviruses
#13
Amy Maxmen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616502/dromedary-camels-in-northern-mali-have-high-seropositivity-to-mers-cov
#14
Darryl Falzarano, Badian Kamissoko, Emmie de Wit, Ousmane Maïga, Jacqueline Cronin, Kassim Samaké, Abdalah Traoré, Shauna Milne-Price, Vincent J Munster, Nafomon Sogoba, Mamadou Niang, David Safronetz, Heinz Feldmann
A high percentage (up to 90%) of dromedary camels in the Middle East as well as eastern and central Africa have antibodies to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here we report comparably high positivity of MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels from northern Mali. This extends the range of MERS-CoV further west in Africa than reported to date and cautions that MERS-CoV should be considered in cases of severe respiratory disease in the region.
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616501/searching-for-animal-models-and-potential-target-species-for-emerging-pathogens-experience-gained-from-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-coronavirus
#15
REVIEW
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Enric Vidal, Albert Bensaid, Joaquim Segalés
Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV), associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616497/mers-coronavirus-from-discovery-to-intervention
#16
REVIEW
W Widagdo, Nisreen M A Okba, V Stalin Raj, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) still causes outbreaks despite public awareness and implementation of health care measures, such as rapid viral diagnosis and patient quarantine. Here we describe the current epidemiological picture of MERS-CoV, focusing on humans and animals affected by this virus and propose specific intervention strategies that would be appropriate to control MERS-CoV. One-third of MERS-CoV patients develop severe lower respiratory tract infection and succumb to a fatal outcome; these patients would require effective therapeutic antiviral therapy...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616442/human-coronavirus-hku1-infection-among-adults-in-cleveland-ohio
#17
Anubhav Kanwar, Suresh Selvaraju, Frank Esper
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (CoV) have been long recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract disease including severe respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus-HKU1 has been described predominantly among children less than 5 years of age in the United States with few studies characterizing the disease spectrum among adults. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens of patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed for CoV-HKU1 by NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel multiplex assay from February 7, 2016 to April 30, 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613145/two-novel-dromedary-camel-bocaparvoviruses-from-dromedaries-in-the-middle-east-with-unique-genomic-features
#18
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Hoi-Wah Tsoi, Nissy Georgy Patteril, Hazel C Yeung, Sunitha Joseph, Emily Y M Wong, Rubeena Muhammed, Franklin W N Chow, Ulrich Wernery, Kwok-Yung Yuen
The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus and its discovery from dromedary camels has boosted interest in the search for novel viruses in dromedaries. While bocaparvoviruses are known to infect various animals, it was not known that they exist in dromedaries. In this study, we describe the discovery of two novel dromedary camel bocaparvoviruses (DBoVs), DBoV1 and DBoV2, from dromedary faecal samples in Dubai. Among 667 adult dromedaries and 72 dromedary calves, 13.9 % of adult dromedaries and 33...
June 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610609/estimation-of-basic-reproduction-number-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-during-the-outbreak-in-south-korea-2015
#19
Hyuk-Jun Chang
BACKGROUND: In South Korea, an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) occurred in 2015. It was the second largest MERS outbreak. As a result of the outbreak in South Korea, 186 infections were reported, and 36 patients died. At least 16,693 people were isolated with suspicious symptoms. This paper estimates the basic reproduction number of the MERS coronavirus (CoV), using data on the spread of MERS in South Korea. METHODS: The basic reproduction number of an epidemic is defined as the average number of secondary cases that an infected subject produces over its infectious period in a susceptible and uninfected population...
June 13, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608547/computational-modeling-of-the-bat-hku4-coronavirus-3cl-pro-inhibitors-as-a-tool-for-the-development-of-antivirals-against-the-emerging-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-coronavirus
#20
Areej Abuhammad, Rua'a A Al-Aqtash, Brandon J Anson, Andrew D Mesecar, Mutasem O Taha
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that poses a major challenge to clinical management. The 3C-like protease (3CL(pro) ) is essential for viral replication and thus represents a potential target for antiviral drug development. Presently, very few data are available on MERS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibition by small molecules. We conducted extensive exploration of the pharmacophoric space of a recently identified set of peptidomimetic inhibitors of the bat HKU4-CoV 3CL(pro) ...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
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