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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109912/ifn-lambda-preferably-inhibits-pedv-infection-of-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells-compared-with-ifn-alpha
#1
Lin Li, Fang Fu, Mei Xue, Weiye Chen, Jin Liu, Hongyan Shi, Jianfei Chen, Zhigao Bu, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
In contrast to type I interferons that target various types of cells and organs, interferon lambda (IFN-L) primarily acts on mucosal epithelial cells and exhibits robust antiviral activity within the mucosal surface. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which causes high morbidity and mortality in piglets, is an enteropathogenic coronavirus with economic importance. Here, we demonstrated that both recombinant porcine IFN-L1 (rpIFN-L1) and rpIFN-L3 have powerful antiviral activity against PEDV infection of both Vero E6 cells and the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2)...
January 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109842/reverse-transcriptase-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-the-detection-of-feline-coronavirus
#2
Angelica Stranieri, Stefania Lauzi, Alessia Giordano, Saverio Paltrinieri
The Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is the etiological agent of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a lethal disease of felids. The role of molecular methods is controversial for the diagnosis of FIP, while essential for the identification of the shedders. Thus, a fast and inexpensive method for the detection of FCoV could be beneficial, especially in multicat environments. A reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. RNA extraction and RT-nPCR for FCoV were performed on thirty-two samples (11 faeces, 9 blood, 8 effusions, and 4 lymph nodes) collected from 27 cats...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108025/viral-induced-suppression-of-self-reactive-t-cells-lessons-from-neurotropic-coronavirus-induced-demyelination
#3
REVIEW
Carine Savarin, Cornelia C Bergmann
Genetic and environmental factors, i.e. infections, have been proposed to contribute to disease induction and relapsing events in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While research has mainly focused on virus associated autoimmune activation, less is known about prevention of autoimmunity, especially following resolving infections associated with CNS tissue damage. This review discusses novel insights on control of self-reactive (SR) T cells activated during neurotropic coronavirus-induced demyelination...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104327/clinical-validation-of-3-commercial-real-time-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-assays-for-the-detection-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-from-upper-respiratory-tract-specimens
#4
Deqa H Mohamed, AbdulKarim F AlHetheel, Hanat S Mohamud, Kamel Aldosari, Fahad A Alzamil, Ali M Somily
Since discovery of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel betacoronavirus first isolated and characterized in 2012, MERS-CoV real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays represent one of the most rapidly expanding commercial tests. However, in the absence of extensive evaluations of these assays on positive clinical material of different sources, evaluating their diagnostic effectiveness remains challenging. We describe the diagnostic performance evaluation of 3 common commercial MERS-CoV rRT-PCR assays on a large panel (n = 234) of upper respiratory tract specimens collected during an outbreak episode in Saudi Arabia...
January 10, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103598/coronavirus-infections-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-tract-show-distinct-features-in-hospitalized-children
#5
Yuanyuan Li, Haipeng Li, Ruyan Fan, Bo Wen, Jian Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Chengwu Wang, Zhanyi Song, Shuochi Li, Xiaojie Li, Xinjun Lv, Xiaowang Qu, Renbin Huang, Wenpei Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients...
January 20, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088167/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-to-assess-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-a-novel-dual-action-oral-topical-formulation-against-upper-respiratory-infections
#6
Pranab K Mukherjee, Frank Esper, Ken Buchheit, Karen Arters, Ina Adkins, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Robert A Salata
BACKGROUND: Current prevention options for upper respiratory infections (URIs) are not optimal. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ARMS-I™ (currently marketed as Halo™) in the prevention of URIs. METHODS: ARMS-I is patented novel formulation for the prevention and treatment of influenza, comprising a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent (cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) and components (glycerin and xanthan gum) that form a barrier on the host mucosa, thus preventing viral contact and invasion...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081264/the-important-role-of-lipid-raft-mediated-attachment-in-the-infection-of-cultured-cells-by-coronavirus-infectious-bronchitis-virus-beaudette-strain
#7
Huichen Guo, Mei Huang, Quan Yuan, Yanquan Wei, Yuan Gao, Lejiao Mao, Lingjun Gu, Yong Wah Tan, Yanxin Zhong, Dingxiang Liu, Shiqi Sun
Lipid raft is an important element for the cellular entry of some viruses, including coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). However, the exact role of lipid rafts in the cellular membrane during the entry of IBV into host cells is still unknown. In this study, we biochemically fractionated IBV-infected cells via sucrose density gradient centrifugation after depleting plasma membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or Mevastatin. Our results demonstrated that unlike IBV non-structural proteins, IBV structural proteins co-localized with lipid raft marker caveolin-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081049/the-first-infant-death-associated-with-human-coronavirus-nl63-infection
#8
Capan Konca, Gulay Korukluoglu, Mehmet Tekin, Habip Almis, İbrahim Hakan Bucak, Hatice Uygun, Ayse Basak Altas, Fatma Bayrakdar
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) primarily infects the upper respiratory tract. However, it may cause severe lower respiratory tract infection, and the clinical course may be severe in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, child death due to HCoV-NL63 has not been reported. We present a fatal lower respiratory tract disease associated with HCoV-NL63 in a 7-month-old malnourished infant.
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079137/x-ray-structure-and-enzymatic-activity-profile-of-a-core-papain-like-protease-of-mers-coronavirus-with-utility-for-structure-based-drug-design
#9
Jozlyn R Clasman, Yahira M Báez-Santos, Robert C Mettelman, Amornrat O'Brien, Susan C Baker, Andrew D Mesecar
Ubiquitin-like domain 2 (Ubl2) is immediately adjacent to the N-terminus of the papain-like protease (PLpro) domain in coronavirus polyproteins, and it may play a critical role in protease regulation and stability as well as in viral infection. However, our recent cellular studies reveal that removing the Ubl2 domain from MERS PLpro has no effect on its ability to process the viral polyprotein or act as an interferon antagonist, which involves deubiquitinating and deISGylating cellular proteins. Here, we test the hypothesis that the Ubl2 domain is not required for the catalytic function of MERS PLpro in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077633/surveillance-of-bat-coronaviruses-in-kenya-identifies-relatives-of-human-coronaviruses-nl63-and-229e-and-their-recombination-history
#10
Ying Tao, Mang Shi, Christina Chommanard, Krista Queen, Jing Zhang, Wanda Markotter, Ivan V Kuzmin, Edward C Holmes, Suxiang Tong
: Bats harbor a large diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), several of which are related to zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in humans. Our screening of bat samples collected in Kenya during 2007-2010 not only detected RNA from several novel CoVs but, more significantly, identified sequences that were closely related to human CoVs NL63 and 229E, suggesting that these two human viruses originate from bats. We also demonstrated that human CoV NL63 is a recombinant between NL63-like viruses circulating in Triaenops bats and 229E-like viruses circulating in Hipposideros bats, with the break-point located near 5' and 3' end of the spike (S) protein gene...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070089/development-of-a-one-run-real-time-pcr-detection-system-for-pathogens-associated-with-bovine-respiratory-disease-complex
#11
Mai Kishimoto, Shinobu Tsuchiaka, Sayed Samim Rahpaya, Ayako Hasebe, Keiko Otsu, Satoshi Sugimura, Suguru Kobayashi, Natsumi Komatsu, Makoto Nagai, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yuki Naoi, Kaori Sano, Sachiko Okazaki-Terashima, Mami Oba, Yukie Katayama, Reiichiro Sato, Tetsuo Asai, Tetsuya Mizutani
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067571/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-infection
#12
Reem S Almaghrabi, Ali S Omrani
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus was first described in 2012. More than 1800 cases have been reported so far, the majority from countries in the Middle East region. This article outlines current understanding of the epidemiological and clinical features of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.
January 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067078/antiviral-therapy-for-respiratory-viral-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#13
Lokesh Shahani, Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly
Respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus) represent the most common causes of respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Also, these infections may be more severe in immunocompromised patients than in the general population. Early diagnosis and treatment of viral infections continue to be of paramount importance in immunocompromised patients; because once viral replication and invasive infections are evident, prognosis can be grave...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065579/roles-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-il-10-in-virus-induced-demyelination
#14
REVIEW
Stanley Perlman, Jingxian Zhao
Neurotropic viruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality in human populations. Some of these viruses preferentially infect oligodendrocytes in the white matter, causing either direct lysis of infected cells, or more commonly myelin damage as a consequence of the host immune response to the virus. Virus-induced demyelination has similarities to the human disease multiple sclerosis. To study this disease process in experimental animals, mice are infected, most commonly, with neurotropic strains of mouse hepatitis virus, a coronavirus or Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis, a picornavirus...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062013/origin-and-evolution-of-lx4-genotype-infectious-bronchitis-coronavirus-in-china
#15
Wenjun Zhao, Mengying Gao, Qianqian Xu, Yang Xu, Yan Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Tingting Zhang, Qiuling Wang, Zongxi Han, Huixin Li, Lingfeng Chen, Shuling Liang, Yuhao Shao, Shengwang Liu
We investigated the genomic characteristics of 110 LX4 genotype strains of infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) isolated between 1995 and 2005 in China. The genome of these IBVs varies in size from 27596bp to 27790bp. Most IBV strains have the typical genomic organization of other gamacoronaviruses, however, two strains lacked 3a and 5b genes as a result of a nucleotide change within the start codon in the 3a or 5b genes. Analysis of our 110 viruses revealed that recombination events may be responsible for the emergence of the LX4 genotype with different topologies...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062000/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-serotype-infectious-bronchitis-virus-gi-28-in-china
#16
Yuqiu Chen, Lei Jiang, Wenjun Zhao, Liangliang Liu, Yan Zhao, Yuhao Shao, Huixin Li, Zongxi Han, Shengwang Liu
Avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) is a major poultry pathogen. A characteristic feature of IBV is the occurrence of many different strains belonging to different serotypes, which renders complete control of the disease by vaccination a challenging task due to the poor cross-protection between different serotypes. In this study, based on the results of S1 sequence analysis and virus cross-neutralization tests, IBV strain ck/CH/LGX/111119 was found to be genetically and antigenically different from other known IBV types, representing not only a novel genotype, but also a novel serotype (designated as GI-28)...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057317/factors-influencing-emergency-nurses-burnout-during-an-outbreak-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-korea
#17
Ji Soo Kim, Jeong Sil Choi
PURPOSE: Emergency department (ED) nurses suffer from persistent stress after experiencing the traumatic event of exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which can subsequently lead to burnout. This study aimed to assess ED nurses' burnout level during an outbreak of MERS-CoV and to identify influencing factors in order to provide basic information for lowering and preventing the level of burnout. METHODS: Study participants were ED nurses working in eight hospitals designated for treating MERS-CoV-infected patients in Korea...
December 2016: Asian Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056850/outbreak-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-saudi-arabia-a-retrospective-study
#18
Fadilah Sfouq Aleanizy, Nahla Mohmed, Fulwah Y Alqahtani, Rania Ali El Hadi Mohamed
BACKGROUND: The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is proposed to be a zoonotic disease. Dromedary camels have been implicated due to reports that some confirmed cases were exposed to camels. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in humans are incompletely understood. This study aimed to describe the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, clinical manifestations and comorbidities with confirmed cases of MERS-CoV. METHODS: Retrospective chart review were performed to identify all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia who reported to the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Saudi Arabia and WHO between April 23, 2014 and August 31, 2015...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050021/systematic-active-surveillance-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-camels-in-egypt
#19
Mohamed A Ali, Mahmoud M Shehata, Mokhtar R Gomaa, Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed S Kayed, Ahmed N El-Taweel, Mohamed Atea, Nagla Hassan, Ola Bagato, Yassmin Moatasim, Sara H Mahmoud, Omnia Kutkat, Asmaa M Maatouq, Ahmed Osman, Pamela P McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%...
January 4, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050020/identification-and-evolutionary-dynamics-of-two-novel-human-coronavirus-oc43-genotypes-associated-with-acute-respiratory-infections-phylogenetic-spatiotemporal-and-transmission-network-analyses
#20
Xiang Yong Oong, Kim Tien Ng, Yutaka Takebe, Liang Jie Ng, Kok Gan Chan, Jack Bee Chook, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Kok Keng Tee
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is commonly associated with respiratory tract infections in humans, with five genetically distinct genotypes (A to E) described so far. In this study, we obtained the full-length genomes of HCoV-OC43 strains from two previously unrecognized lineages identified among patients presenting with severe upper respiratory tract symptoms in a cross-sectional molecular surveillance study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. Phylogenetic, recombination and comparative genomic analyses revealed two distinct clusters diverging from a genotype D-like common ancestor through recombination with a putative genotype A-like lineage in the non-structural protein (nsp) 10 gene...
January 4, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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