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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350887/species-specific-clinical-characteristics-of-human-coronavirus-infection-among-otherwise-healthy-adolescents-and-adults
#1
Monique Bouvier, Wei-Ju Chen, John C Arnold, Mary P Fairchok, Patrick J Danaher, Tahaniyat Lalani, Leslie Malone, Deepika Mor, Michelande Ridoré, Timothy H Burgess, Eugene V Millar
Human coronavirus (HCoV) is a known cause of influenza-like illness (ILI). In a multi-site, observational, longitudinal study of ILI among otherwise healthy adolescents and adults, 12% of subjects were PCR-positive for HCoV. The distribution of species was as follows: HCoV-OC43 (34%), HCoV-229E (28%), HCoV-NL63 (22%), and HCoV-HKU1 (16%). We did not observe species-specific differences in the clinical characteristics of HCoV infection, with the exception of HCoV-HKU1, for which the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms trended higher on the fourth day of illness...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346682/receptor-usage-of-a-novel-bat-lineage-c-betacoronavirus-reveals-evolution-of-mers-related-coronavirus-spike-proteins-for-human-dpp4-binding
#2
Susanna K P Lau, Libiao Zhang, Hayes K H Luk, Lifeng Xiong, Xingwen Peng, Kenneth S M Li, Xiangyang He, Pyrear Su-Hui Zhao, Rachel Y Y Fan, Antonio C P Wong, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Jian-Piao Cai, Jasper F W Chan, Yinyan Sun, Dongyan Jin, Honglin Chen, Terrence C K Lau, Raven K H Kok, Wenhui Li, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Although bats are known to harbor MERS-CoV-related viruses, the role of bats in the evolutionary origin and pathway remains obscure. We identified a novel MERS-CoV-related betacoronavirus, Hp-BatCoV HKU25, from Chinese pipistrelle bats. While being closely related to MERS-CoV in most genome regions, its spike protein occupies a phylogenetic position between that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5. Since Ty-BatCoV HKU4 but not Pi-BatCoV HKU5 can utilize MERS-CoV receptor, hDPP4, for cell entry, we tested the ability of Hp-BatCoV HKU25 to bind and utilize hDPP4...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339515/mers-cov-and-h5n1-influenza-virus-antagonize-antigen-presentation-by-altering-the-epigenetic-landscape
#3
Vineet D Menachery, Alexandra Schäfer, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Hugh D Mitchell, Amie J Eisfeld, Kevin B Walters, Carrie D Nicora, Samuel O Purvine, Cameron P Casey, Matthew E Monroe, Karl K Weitz, Kelly G Stratton, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Lisa E Gralinski, Thomas O Metz, Richard D Smith, Katrina M Waters, Amy C Sims, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Ralph S Baric
Convergent evolution dictates that diverse groups of viruses will target both similar and distinct host pathways to manipulate the immune response and improve infection. In this study, we sought to leverage this uneven viral antagonism to identify critical host factors that govern disease outcome. Utilizing a systems-based approach, we examined differential regulation of IFN-γ-dependent genes following infection with robust respiratory viruses including influenza viruses [A/influenza/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1-VN1203) and A/influenza/California/04/2009 (H1N1-CA04)] and coronaviruses [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV)]...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337997/event-based-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-bangladesh-among-pilgrims-and-travelers-from-the-middle-east-an-update-for-the-period-2013-2016
#4
A K M Muraduzzaman, Manjur Hossain Khan, Rezina Parveen, Sharmin Sultana, Ahmed Nawsher Alam, Arifa Akram, Mahmudur Rahman, Tahmina Shirin
INTRODUCTION: Every year around 150,000 pilgrims from Bangladesh perform Umrah and Hajj. Emergence and continuous reporting of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia emphasize the need for surveillance of MERS-CoV in returning pilgrims or travelers from the Middle East and capacity building of health care providers for disease containment. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) under the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family welfare (MoHFW), is responsible for MERS-CoV screening of pilgrims/ travelers returning from the Middle East with respiratory illness as part of its outbreak investigation and surveillance activities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337529/glutathione-capped-ag2s-nanoclusters-inhibit-coronavirus-proliferation-through-blockage-of-viral-rna-synthesis-and-budding
#5
Ting Du, Jiangong Liang, Nan Dong, Jian Lu, Yiying Fu, Liurong Fang, Shaobo Xiao, Heyou Han
Development of novel antiviral reagents is of great importance for the control of virus spread. Here, Ag2S nanoclusters (NCs) were proved for the first time to possess highly efficient antiviral activity by using porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) as a model of coronavirus. Analyses of virus titers showed that Ag2S NCs significantly suppressed the infection of PEDV by about three orders of magnitude at the noncytotoxic concentration at 12 hour post infection, which was further confirmed by the expression of viral proteins...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337162/antiviral-activity-of-k22-against-members-of-the-order-nidovirales
#6
Julie Christiane Françoise Rappe, Adriaan de Wilde, Han Di, Christin Müller, Hanspeter Stalder, Philip V'kovski, Eric Snijder, Margo A Brinton, John Ziebuhr, Nicolas Ruggli, Volker Thiel
Recently, a novel antiviral compound (K22) that inhibits replication of a broad range of animal and human coronaviruses was reported to interfere with viral RNA synthesis by impairing double-membrane vesicle (DMV) formation (Lundin et al., 2014). Here we assessed potential antiviral activities of K22 against a range of viruses representing two (sub)families of the order Nidovirales, the Arteriviridae (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus [PRRSV], equine arteritis virus [EAV] and simian hemorrhagic fever virus [SHFV]), and the Torovirinae (equine torovirus [EToV] and White Bream virus [WBV])...
January 11, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336306/mers-cov-spillover-at-the-camel-human-interface
#7
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Andrew Rambaut, Trevor Bedford
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus from camels causing significant mortality and morbidity in humans in the Arabian Peninsula. The epidemiology of the virus remains poorly understood, and while case-based and seroepidemiological studies have been employed extensively throughout the epidemic, viral sequence data have not been utilised to their full potential. Here we use existing MERS-CoV sequence data to explore its phylodynamics in two of its known major hosts, humans and camels...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334709/-molecular-epidemiological-study-of-human-coronavirus-oc43-in-shanghai-from-2009-2016
#8
Y J Yang, Y W Hu
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of Human coronavirus (HCoV), the patterns of emergence and circulation, and the genotype distribution of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) from November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai. Methods: A total of 6 059 respiratory specimens, including pharyngeal swab, sputum, nasopharyngeal aspirates and alveolar lavage fluid, as well as relative clinical data were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections from seven sentinel hospitals during November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331670/circulation-of-alphacoronavirus-betacoronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-hipposideros-bat-species-in-zimbabwe
#9
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330690/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-severe-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#10
Mohammed S Alshahrani, Anees Sindi, Fayez Alshamsi, Awad Al-Omari, Mohamed El Tahan, Bayan Alahmadi, Ahmed Zein, Naif Khatani, Fahad Al-Hameed, Sultan Alamri, Mohammed Abdelzaher, Amenah Alghamdi, Faisal Alfousan, Adel Tash, Wail Tashkandi, Rajaa Alraddadi, Kim Lewis, Mohammed Badawee, Yaseen M Arabi, Eddy Fan, Waleed Alhazzani
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and is characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure. The objective of this study is to compare the outcomes of MERS-CoV patients before and after the availability of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a rescue therapy in severely hypoxemic patients who failed conventional strategies. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively on MERS-CoV patients with refractory respiratory failure from April 2014 to December 2015 in 5 intensive care units (ICUs) in Saudi Arabia...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329957/safety-and-tolerability-of-a-novel-polyclonal-human-anti-mers-coronavirus-antibody-produced-from-transchromosomic-cattle-a-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-single-dose-escalation-study
#11
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329682/feline-coronavirus-insights-into-viral-pathogenesis-based-on-the-spike-protein-structure-and-function
#12
Javier A Jaimes, Gary R Whittaker
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an etiological agent that causes a benign enteric illness and the fatal systemic disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The FCoV spike (S) protein is considered the viral regulator for binding and entry to the cell. This protein is also involved in FCoV tropism and virulence, as well as in the switch from enteric disease to FIP. This regulation is carried out by spike's major functions: receptor binding and virus-cell membrane fusion. In this review, we address important aspects in FCoV genetics, replication and pathogenesis, focusing on the role of S...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327237/regional-age-and-respiratory-secretion-specific-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-exacerbation-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Xue-Yan Zheng, Yan-Jun Xu, Wei-Jie Guan, Li-Feng Lin
Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307596/an-old-protein-with-a-new-story-coronavirus-endoribonuclease-is-important-for-evading-host-antiviral-defenses
#14
Xufang Deng, Susan C Baker
Here we review the evolving story of the coronavirus endoribonuclease (EndoU). Coronavirus EndoU is encoded within the sequence of nonstructural protein (nsp) 15, which was initially identified as a component of the viral replication complex. Biochemical and structural studies revealed the enzymatic nature of nsp15/EndoU, which was postulated to be essential for the unique replication cycle of viruses in the order Nidovirales. However, the role of nsp15 in coronavirus replication was enigmatic as EndoU-deficient coronaviruses were viable and replicated to near wild-type virus levels in fibroblast cells...
January 4, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300926/asymptomatic-summertime-shedding-of-respiratory-viruses
#15
Jeffrey Shaman, Haruka Morita, Ruthie Birger, Mary Boyle, Devon Comito, Benjamin Lane, Chanel Ligon, Hannah Smith, Rob Desalle, Paul Planet
To determine rates of both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection among ambulatory adults, we collected nasopharyngeal swabs, demographics, and survey information from 1477 adult visitors to a New York City tourist attraction during April-July 2016. Multiplex PCR was used to identify specimens positive for common respiratory viruses. 7.2% of samples tested positive; 71.0% of positive samples detected rhinovirus and 21.5% detected coronavirus. Influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza were also detected...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299855/the-persistent-prevalence-and-evolution-of-cross-family-recombinant-coronavirus-gccdc1-among-a-bat-population-a-two-year-follow-up
#16
Joseph O Obameso, Hong Li, Hao Jia, Min Han, Shiyan Zhu, Canping Huang, Yuhui Zhao, Min Zhao, Yu Bai, Fei Yuan, Honglan Zhao, Xia Peng, Wen Xu, Wenjie Tan, Yingze Zhao, Kwok-Yung Yuen, William J Liu, Lin Lu, George F Gao
Bats are connected with the increasing numbers of emerging and re-emerging viruses that may break the species barrier and spread into the human population. Coronaviruses are one of the most common viruses discovered in bats, which were considered as the natural source of recent human-susceptible coronaviruses, i.e. SARS-COV and MERS-CoV. Our previous study reported the discovery of a bat-derived putative cross-family recombinant coronavirus with a reovirus gene p10, named as Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1. In this report, through a two-year follow-up of a special bat population in one specific cave of south China, we illustrate that Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 persistently circulates among bats...
December 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299531/improving-virus-taxonomy-by-recontextualizing-sequence-based-classification-with-biologically-relevant-data-the-case-of-the-alphacoronavirus-1-species
#17
Gary R Whittaker, Nicole M André, Jean Kaoru Millet
The difficulties related to virus taxonomy have been amplified by recent advances in next-generation sequencing and metagenomics, prompting the field to revisit the question of what constitutes a useful viral classification. Here, taking a challenging classification found in coronaviruses, we argue that consideration of biological properties in addition to sequence-based demarcations is critical for generating useful taxonomy that recapitulates complex evolutionary histories. Within the Alphacoronavirus genus, the Alphacoronavirus 1 species encompasses several biologically distinct viruses...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299151/analysis-of-the-codon-usage-pattern-in-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#18
Ye Chen, Quanming Xu, Xiaomin Yuan, Xinxin Li, Ting Zhu, Yanmei Ma, Ji-Long Chen
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which first broken out in Jeddah in 2012, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate. To better understand the molecular characteristics of isolated MERS-CoV genomes, we first analysed the codon usage pattern of the zoonotic MERS-CoV strains comprehensively to gain an insight into the mechanism of cross-species transmission. We found that MERS human/camel isolates showed a low codon usage bias. Both mutation and nature selection pressure have contributed to this low codon usage bias, with the former being the main determining factor...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289665/disulfiram-can-inhibit-mers-and-sars-coronavirus-papain-like-proteases-via-different-modes
#19
Min-Han Lin, David C Moses, Chih-Hua Hsieh, Shu-Chun Cheng, Yau-Hung Chen, Chiao-Yin Sun, Chi-Yuan Chou
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in southern China in late 2002 and caused a global outbreak with a fatality rate around 10% in 2003. Ten years later, a second highly pathogenic human CoV, MERS-CoV, emerged in the Middle East and has spread to other countries in Europe, North Africa, North America and Asia. As of November 2017, MERS-CoV had infected at least 2102 people with a fatality rate of about 35% globally, and hence there is an urgent need to identify antiviral drugs that are active against MERS-CoV...
December 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288049/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-combined-with-lateral-flow-dipstick-assay-for-detection-of-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus
#20
Peili Hou, Guimin Zhao, Hongmei Wang, Chengqiang He, Yanjun Huan, Hongbin He
Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), identified as the causative pathogen of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), is responsible for increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks and has a significant harmful effect on the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid detection assay is imperative for BEFV diagnosis. In this study, we described the development of lateral-flow dipstick isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) assays for detection of BEFV. RPA primers and LF probes were designed by targeting the specific G gene, and the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow dipstick with the naked eyes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
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