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Nasser K Yaghi, Jun Wei, Yuuri Hashimoto, Ling-Yuan Kong, Konrad Gabrusiewicz, Edjah K Nduom, Xiaoyang Ling, Neal Huang, Shouhao Zhou, Brittany C Parker Kerrigan, Jonathan M Levine, Virginia R Fajt, Gwendolyn Levine, Brian F Porter, Eric G Marcusson, Kiyoshi Tachikawa, Padmanabh Chivukula, David C Webb, Joseph E Payne, Amy B Heimberger
BACKGROUND: Previously we showed therapeutic efficacy of unprotected miR-124 in preclinical murine models of glioblastoma, including in heterogeneous genetically engineered murine models by exploiting the immune system and thereby negating the need for direct tumor delivery. Although these data were promising, to implement clinical trials, we required a scalable formulation that afforded protection against circulatory RNases. METHODS: We devised lipid nanoparticles that encapsulate and protect the miRs from degradation and provide enhanced delivery into the immune cell compartment and tested in vivo antitumor effects...
October 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
David A Kring, Georgiana Y Kramer, Gareth S Collins, Ross W K Potter, Mitali Chandnani
The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ∼320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth-Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Alberto Ugolini, Laura S Hoelters, Alice Ciofini, Vittorio Pasquali, David C Wilcockson
Animals that use astronomical cues to orientate must make continuous adjustment to account for temporal changes in azimuth caused by Earth's rotation. For example, the Monarch butterfly possesses a time-compensated sun compass dependent upon a circadian clock in the antennae. The amphipod Talitrus saltator possesses both a sun compass and a moon compass. We reasoned that the time-compensated compass mechanism that enables solar orientation of T. saltator is located in the antennae, as is the case for Monarch butterflies...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chao Wan, Zhixiu Hao, Xiqiao Feng
Locusts have excellent jumping and kicking abilities to survive in nature, which are achieved through the energy storage and release processes occurring in cuticles, especially in the semi-lunar processes (SLP) at the femorotibial joints. As yet, however, the strain energy-storage mechanisms of the SLP cuticles remain unclear. To decode this mystery, we investigated the microstructure, material composition, and mechanical properties of the SLP cuticle and its remarkable strain energy-storage mechanisms for jumping and kicking...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Emerson J Speyerer, Reinhold Z Povilaitis, Mark S Robinson, Peter C Thomas, Robert V Wagner
Random bombardment by comets, asteroids and associated fragments form and alter the lunar regolith and other rocky surfaces. The accumulation of impact craters over time is of fundamental use in evaluating the relative ages of geologic units. Crater counts and radiometric ages from returned samples provide constraints with which to derive absolute model ages for unsampled units on the Moon and other Solar System objects. However, although studies of existing craters and returned samples offer insight into the process of crater formation and the past cratering rate, questions still remain about the present rate of crater production, the effect of early-stage jetting during impacts and the influence that distal ejecta have on the regolith...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Sarah M Ramteke, Jonathan J Kaufman, Stephen M Arpadi, Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileka Mbete, Ashraf Coovadia, Michael T Yin
The purpose of this clinical note is to describe the performance of the Lunar Achilles Insight device in assessing bone quality at the calcaneus in 142 children between the ages of 5 and 11 y accessing healthcare in Johannesburg, South Africa. We observed an asymmetric bimodal distribution in speed of sound (SOS). The minor mode consisted of unusually high SOS values (≥1625 m/s), which were primarily observed among children with foot size <19 cm and height <119 cm. Cortical regions of the bone may have been inadvertently included in the region of interest for smaller feet, causing unusually high SOS values...
September 28, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Cristobal Manuel Rodríguez-Leal, Elena López-Lunar, Jose Manuel Carrascosa-Bernáldez, Rosa Maria Provencio-Arranz
OBJECTIVE: To describe a new initiative developed to optimise patient safety in a mental health setting in order to prevent serious cardiac events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study of all in-patients admitted at the hospital, comprised of 197 beds distributed among three units, was conducted for 12 months. All admitted patients at the hospital underwent electrocardiogram surveillance, as it was described in our new local guideline for sudden cardiac death prevention...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Yasuhisa Inada, Akira Hashiya, Mitsuru Nitta, Shogo Tomita, Akira Tsujimoto, Masa-Aki Suzuki, Takeyuki Yamaki, Taku Hirasawa
Controlling the characteristics of photon emission represents a significant challenge for both fundamental science and device technologies. Research on microcavities, photonic crystals, and plasmonic nanocavities has focused on controlling spontaneous emission by way of designing a resonant structure around the emitter to modify the local density of photonic states. In this work, we demonstrate resonantly enhanced emission using luminescent nanostructured waveguide resonance (LUNAR). Our concept is based on coupling between emitters in the luminescent waveguide and a resonant waveguide mode that interacts with a periodic nanostructure and hence outcouples via diffraction...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Francis A Cucinotta, Nobuyuki Hamada, Mark P Little
Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U...
August 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
H J Hoeijmakers, M L J Arts, F Snik, C U Keller, J M Kuiper
We provide a proof of the technical feasibility of LOUPE, the first integral-field snapshot spectropolarimeter, designed to monitor the reflected flux and polarization spectrum of Earth. These are to be used as benchmark data for the retrieval of biomarkers and atmospheric and surface characteristics from future direct observations of exoplanets. We perform a design trade-off for an implementation in which LOUPE performs snapshot integral-field spectropolarimetry at visible wavelengths. We used off-the-shelf optics to construct a polarization modulator, in which polarization information is encoded into the spectrum as a wavelength-dependent modulation, while spatial resolution is maintained using a micro-lens array...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Zhengqiang Li, Kaitao Li, Donghui Li, Jiuchun Yang, Hua Xu, Philippe Goloub, Stephane Victori
The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V<sub>0,Sun</sub>, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, C<sub>Moon</sub>...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Eric Ku, Valentina Pedoia, Matthew Tanaka, Ursula Heilmeier, John Imboden, Jonathan Graf, Thomas Link, Xiaojuan Li
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of MR T1ρ in assessing radiocarpal cartilage matrix changes following rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy controls and nine RA patients were studied: three RA patients with low disease activity that were treated with methotrexate (MTX) alone and six with active disease despite MTX treatment who were additionally treated with certolizumab pegol, an anti-tumor necrosis factor biologic. Wrist 3 Tesla MRI were acquired at baseline and 3-month follow-up...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Ramona Ritzmann, Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer
On our astronomical neighbours Mars and the Moon, bouncing movements are the preferred locomotor techniques. During bouncing, the stretch-shortening cycle describes the muscular activation pattern. This study aimed to identify gravity-dependent changes in kinematic and neuromuscular characteristics in the stretch-shortening cycle. Hence, neuromuscular control of limb muscles as well as correlations between the muscles' pre-activation, reflex components, and the force output were assessed in lunar, Martian, and Earth gravity...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Andrew A Gonzales, Carol R Stoker
Mars Sample Return is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the 2011 Decadal Survey of Planetary Science [1]. This article presents the results of a feasibility study for a Mars Sample Return mission that efficiently uses emerging commercial capabilities expected to be available in the near future. The motivation of our study was the recognition that emerging commercial capabilities might be used to perform Mars Sample Return with an Earth-direct architecture, and that this may offer a desirable simpler and lower cost approach...
June 2016: Acta Astronautica
Caroline A Gjorup, Bo Zerahn, Sarah Juul, Helle W Hendel, Karl Bang Christensen, Lisbet R Hölmich
Lower limb lymphedema is a dynamic condition in which tissue composition and volume measurements are affected. Various definitions of lower limb lymphedema exist but volume differences between the limbs are widely used. It is therefore necessary to have a readily available noninvasive measurement technique allowing multiple measurements of the lower limbs. This study investigated the repeatability of duplicate volume and regional body composition measurements of the lower limb using the GE Lunar Prodigy dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner Prodigy (GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Patrick Boehnke, T Mark Harrison
The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kun Wang, Stein B Jacobsen
The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found...
September 12, 2016: Nature
Kitae Sohn
South Korea has consistently exhibited high rates of motor vehicle-related deaths (MVDs) since the late 1980s. This study investigated the number of MVDs around two major public holidays in South Korea-Lunar New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day. MVDs from records of all individual deaths in 1997-2014 were extracted; then, MVDs per day from 14 days before and after each holiday (ie, 29 days in total) were summed across the years. Eventually, the 3-day mean values of MVDs before and after the holiday were compared, when holiday-related traffic peaks...
September 9, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
D Manousaki, F Rauch, G Chabot, J Dubois, M Fiscaletti, N Alos
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years...
2016: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Pachka Hammami, Renaud Lancelot, Matthieu Lesnoff
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute infectious viral disease affecting domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats) and some wild ruminant species in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. A global PPR control strategy based on mass vaccination-in regions where PPR is endemic-was recently designed and launched by international organizations. Sahelian Africa is one of the most challenging endemic regions for PPR control. Indeed, strong seasonal and annual variations in mating, mortality and offtake rates result in a complex population dynamics which might in turn alter the population post-vaccination immunity rate (PIR), and thus be important to consider for the implementation of vaccination campaigns...
2016: PloS One
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