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Emily Turner, Matthew Jones, Luis R Vaz, Tim Coleman
Introduction: Smoking in pregnancy is a substantial public health issue, but, apart from nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), pharmacological therapies are not generally used to promote cessation. Bupropion and varenicline are effective cessation methods in non-pregnant smokers and this systematic review investigates their safety in pregnancy. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases for studies of any design reporting pregnancy outcomes after bupropion or varenicline exposure...
March 22, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
G Gomez, F C Stanford
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is now the most prevalent chronic disease in the United States, which amounts to an estimated $147 billion in health care spending annually. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted in 2010 included provisions for private and public health insurance plans that expanded coverage for lifestyle/behavior modification and bariatric surgery for the treatment of obesity. Pharmacotherapy, however, has not been included despite their evidence-based efficacy. We set out to investigate the coverage of Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for obesity within Medicare, Medicaid and ACA-established marketplace health insurance plans...
March 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Manoj Sharma, Jagdish Khubchandani, Vinayak K Nahar
Background: Smoking continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Smoking and tobacco use are associated with cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Programs for quitting smoking have played a significant role in reduction of smoking in the United States. The smoking cessation interventions include counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion therapy, and varenicline therapy. The success rates with each of these approaches vary with clear need for improvement...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
Anick Bérard, Jin-Ping Zhao, Odile Sheehy
BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy is a modifiable risk factor associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, low birthweight, congenital malformations, and sudden infant death syndrome. Despite the fact that it is well known that smoking can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, 13-25% of pregnant women overall continue to smoke during this critical period. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of gestational use of bupropion and nicotine patch replacement therapy on the risk of the following: (1) smoking cessation, (2) prematurity, and (3) small for gestational age...
November 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joshua M Levy, Shelly Abramowicz
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable illness in the United States. Without assistance, only 3% to 6% of smokers successfully quit after 1 year. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), buproprion, and varenicline are first-line pharmacologic therapies. These medications function by reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and the desire to smoke. When first-line therapy does not lead to successful smoking cessation, combinations of varenicline with NRT, buproprion with NRT, and varenicline with buproprion may be efficacious...
April 2016: Dental Clinics of North America
Leo Bastiaens, James Galus, Cherise Mazur
The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of gabapentin misuse in a dually diagnosed correctional population, and to evaluate if this abuse is specific to the presence of an opioid use disorder (OUD). Two-hundred and fifty former inmates, living in a correctional community center, who were referred for a psychiatric evaluation, were asked, through a brief written questionnaire, whether or not they used the following drugs for non-medical use in the past: opiates, gabapentin, buproprion, quetiapine, and fluoxetine...
December 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
Joseph S Chen, Austin Huy Nguyen, Mark A Malesker, Lee E Morrow
BACKGROUND: Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. METHODS: Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation...
May 2016: Respiratory Care
Adam Mourad Chekroud, Ryan Joseph Zotti, Zarrar Shehzad, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Marcia K Johnson, Madhukar H Trivedi, Tyrone D Cannon, John Harrison Krystal, Philip Robert Corlett
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant treatment efficacy is low, but might be improved by matching patients to interventions. At present, clinicians have no empirically validated mechanisms to assess whether a patient with depression will respond to a specific antidepressant. We aimed to develop an algorithm to assess whether patients will achieve symptomatic remission from a 12-week course of citalopram. METHODS: We used patient-reported data from patients with depression (n=4041, with 1949 completers) from level 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D; ClinicalTrials...
March 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
L Ciesla, M Okine, A Rosenberg, K S S Dossou, L Toll, I W Wainer, R Moaddel
The α3β4α5 nAChR has been recently shown to be a useful target for smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Herein, we report on the development and characterization of the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor column by frontal displacement chromatography. The binding affinity of the nicotine and minor alkaloids found in tobacco smoke condensates were determined for both the α3β4 and α3β4α5 nicotinic receptors. It was demonstrated that while no subtype selectivity was observed for nicotine and nornicotine, anabasine was selective for the α3β4α5 nicotinic receptor...
January 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jessica L Muilenburg, Tanja C Laschober, Lillian T Eby
PURPOSE: Adolescence is a prime developmental stage for early tobacco cessation (TC) intervention. This study examined substance use disorder counselors' reports of the availability and implementation of TC services (behavioral treatments and pharmacotherapies) in their treatment programs and the relationship between their tobacco-related knowledge and implementation of TC services. METHODS: Survey data were collected in 2012 from 63 counselors working in 22 adolescent-only treatment programs...
September 2015: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Jessica Early, Jean Suzin Whitten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2015: American Family Physician
Rojiemiahd K Edjoc, Robert D Reid, Mukul Sharma, Louise Balfour, Michael Procino
OBJECTIVE: To identify multilevel correlates of former smoking in patients with cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey. METHODS: We used data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Smoking status (former smoking vs smoker) was described by multilevel correlates of former smoking. A multilevel approach for variable selection for this study was used to understand how multiple levels in society can have an impact on former smoking...
2015: BMJ Open
Kirandeep Kaur, Sandeep Kaushal, Sarvesh C Chopra
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the leading preventable risk to human health. Various agents have been used to promote smoking cessation, but none has had long-term efficacy. Varenicline, a new nicotinic ligand based on the structure of cytosine, was approved by the US Food amd Drug Administration for use as a smoking cessation aid. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to provide an overview on the mechanism of action and preclinical and clinical data of the new drug, varenicline, and to discuss the current and future impact of varenicline as a treatment for smoking cessation...
February 2009: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Jeffrey H Writer, Ronald C Antweiler, Imma Ferrer, Joseph N Ryan, E Michael Thurman
In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not...
September 3, 2013: Environmental Science & Technology
Smriti Nayan, Michael K Gupta, Julie E Strychowsky, Doron D Sommer
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tobacco smoking cessation interventions and cessation rates in the oncology population through a systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: The literature was searched using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (inception to October 2012) by 3 independent review authors. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort (PCs) studies evaluating tobacco smoking cessation interventions with patients assigned to a usual care or an intervention group...
August 2013: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Nicole M Lodise
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) affects nearly 1 in 10 women. Thus, it is essential for pharmacists and other health care providers to be comfortable when discussing a patient's sexual health to ensure appropriate triage so that the specific causes of HSDD can be identified and potential recommendations provided. HSDD is defined as the absence or deficiency of sexual interest and/or desire, leading to significant distress and interpersonal difficulties. As health care providers, pharmacists have a critical role in assessing the presence of HSDD and providing education on available treatment options...
April 2013: Pharmacotherapy
Danielle Baribeau, Keyghobad Farid Araki
Bupropion is an antidepressant commonly prescribed as a smoking cessation aid. It has effects on dopamine and norepinephrine, and can lower seizure threshold, particularly in overdose. Several cases of recreational use of bupropion via nasal insufflation have been reported in the literature. Here we describe a first case of intravenous bupropion dependence, with no evidence of resulting seizure activity. This addiction was sustained in part under the the premise of seeking smoking cessation aid. Pharmacokinetic interactions are explored, and the literature with respect to buproprion abuse is reviewed...
May 2013: Journal of Addiction Medicine
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report was to provide the Ministry of Health Promotion (MHP) with a summary of existing evidence-based reviews of the clinical and economic outcomes of population-based smoking cessation strategies. BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in Ontario, linked to approximately 13,000 avoidable premature deaths annually - the vast majority of these are attributable to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease...
2010: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Jyoti Pathria Mundi, Jaime Betancourt, Omar Ezziddin, Brandie Tremayne, Tamara Majic, Zab Mosenifar
Burst-suppression pattern on electroencephalography (EEG) occurs upon dissociation of the cortex from underlying brain structures. Unless the pattern is a physiologic consequence of administered sedatives, this electroencephalographic pattern is indicative of a poor neurologic outcome and high mortality. We report a case of a 29-year-old female thought to be brain dead based on initial physical examination and EEG findings of burst-suppression, who was later found to have supratherapeutic serum levels of bupropion...
November 2012: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
R D Marshall, C M Johannet, P Y Collins, H Smith, D A Kahn, C J Douglas
A sizeable minority of depressed patients, estimated at 15-20%, suffer chronic symptoms which often persist despite appropriate treatment. The search for new, more efficacious pharmacotherapies has included testing existing medications for additional therapeutic effects, such as in combination treatment. Four treatment- refractory patients who presented to the authors for clinical care are described, in which the combination of bupropion and sertraline was effective for a major depressive episode. None of the patients experienced adverse effects...
January 1995: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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