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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816141/combined-radiation-therapy-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Zishuo I Hu, Alice Y Ho, Heather L McArthur
PURPOSE: Treatment with checkpoint inhibitors has shown durable responses in a number of solid tumors, including melanoma, lung, and renal cell carcinoma. However, most breast cancers are resistant to monotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors. Radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to have a number of immunostimulatory effects, including priming the immune system, recruiting immune cells to the tumor environment, and altering the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment. RT therefore represents a promising adjuvant therapy to checkpoint blockade in breast cancer...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815048/society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-consensus-statement-on-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-bladder-carcinoma
#2
Ashish M Kamat, Joaquim Bellmunt, Matthew D Galsky, Badrinath R Konety, Donald L Lamm, David Langham, Cheryl T Lee, Matthew I Milowsky, Michael A O'Donnell, Peter H O'Donnell, Daniel P Petrylak, Padmanee Sharma, Eila C Skinner, Guru Sonpavde, John A Taylor, Prasanth Abraham, Jonathan E Rosenberg
The standard of care for most patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is immunotherapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which activates the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells and has demonstrated durable clinical benefit. Urologic best-practice guidelines and consensus reports have been developed and strengthened based on data on the timing, dose, and duration of therapy from randomized clinical trials, as well as by critical evaluation of criteria for progression...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810512/co-digestion-of-rice-straw-and-cow-dung-to-supply-cooking-fuel-and-fertilizers-in-rural-india-impact-on-human-health-resource-flows-and-climate-change
#3
Sophie Sfez, Steven De Meester, Jo Dewulf
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809960/metrics-for-comparing-neuronal-tree-shapes-based-on-persistent-homology
#4
Yanjie Li, Dingkang Wang, Giorgio A Ascoli, Partha Mitra, Yusu Wang
As more and more neuroanatomical data are made available through efforts such as NeuroMorpho.Org and FlyCircuit.org, the need to develop computational tools to facilitate automatic knowledge discovery from such large datasets becomes more urgent. One fundamental question is how best to compare neuron structures, for instance to organize and classify large collection of neurons. We aim to develop a flexible yet powerful framework to support comparison and classification of large collection of neuron structures efficiently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809707/a-streaming-pca-vlsi-chip-for-neural-data-compression
#5
Tong Wu, Wenfeng Zhao, Hongsun Guo, Hubert H Lim, Zhi Yang
Neural recording system miniaturization and integration with low-power wireless technologies require compressing neural data before transmission. Feature extraction is a procedure to represent data in a low-dimensional space; its integration into a recording chip can be an efficient approach to compress neural data. In this paper, we propose a streaming principal component analysis algorithm and its microchip implementation to compress multichannel local field potential (LFP) and spike data. The circuits have been designed in a 65-nm CMOS technology and occupy a silicon area of 0...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809487/maximum-likelihood-calibration-of-the-unres-force-field-for-simulation-of-protein-structure-and-dynamics
#6
Pawel Krupa, Anna Halabis, Wioletta Zmudzinska, Stanislaw Oldziej, Harold Abraham Scheraga, Adam Liwo
By using the maximum likelihood method for force-field calibration recently developed in our laboratory, which is aimed at achieving the agreement between the simulated conformational ensembles of selected training proteins and the corresponding ensembles determined experimentally at various temperatures, the physics-based coarse-grained UNRES force field for simulations of protein structure and dynamics was optimized with seven small training proteins exhibiting a variety of secondary and tertiary structures...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808347/taini-maximizing-research-output-whilst-improving-animals-welfare-in-neurophysiology-experiments
#7
Zhou Jiang, John R Huxter, Stuart A Bowyer, Anthony J Blockeel, James Butler, Syed A Imtiaz, Keith A Wafford, Keith G Phillips, Mark D Tricklebank, Hugh M Marston, Esther Rodriguez-Villegas
Understanding brain function at the cell and circuit level requires representation of neuronal activity through multiple recording sites and at high sampling rates. Traditional tethered recording systems restrict movement and limit the environments suitable for testing, while existing wireless technology is still too heavy for extended recording in mice. Here we tested TaiNi, a novel ultra-lightweight (<2 g) low power wireless system allowing 72-hours of recording from 16 channels sampled at ~19.5 KHz (9...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807024/society-for-immunotherapy-of-cancer-consensus-statement-on-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-bladder-carcinoma
#8
Ashish M Kamat, Joaquim Bellmunt, Matthew D Galsky, Badrinath R Konety, Donald L Lamm, David Langham, Cheryl T Lee, Matthew I Milowsky, Michael A O'Donnell, Peter H O'Donnell, Daniel P Petrylak, Padmanee Sharma, Eila C Skinner, Guru Sonpavde, John A Taylor, Prasanth Abraham, Jonathan E Rosenberg
The standard of care for most patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is immunotherapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which activates the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells and has demonstrated durable clinical benefit. Urologic best-practice guidelines and consensus reports have been developed and strengthened based on data on the timing, dose, and duration of therapy from randomized clinical trials, as well as by critical evaluation of criteria for progression...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806740/community-and-government-managed-marine-protected-areas-increase-fish-size-biomass-and-potential-value
#9
Angelica A D Chirico, Timothy R McClanahan, Johan S Eklöf
Government-managed marine protected areas (MPAs) can restore small fish stocks, but have been heavily criticized for excluding resource users and creating conflicts. A promising but less studied alternative are community-managed MPAs, where resource users are more involved in MPA design, implementation and enforcement. Here we evaluated effects of government- and community-managed MPAs on the density, size and biomass of seagrass- and coral reef-associated fish, using field surveys in Kenyan coastal lagoons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805675/changing-stem-cell-dynamics-during-papillomavirus-infection-potential-roles-for-cellular-plasticity-in-the-viral-lifecycle-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Katerina Strati
Stem cells and cellular plasticity are likely important components of tissue response to infection. There is emerging evidence that stem cells harbor receptors for common pathogen motifs and that they are receptive to local inflammatory signals in ways suggesting that they are critical responders that determine the balance between health and disease. In the field of papillomaviruses stem cells have been speculated to play roles during the viral life cycle, particularly during maintenance, and virus-promoted carcinogenesis but little has been conclusively determined...
August 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800233/machine-learning-force-field-parameters-from-ab-initio-data
#11
Ying Li, Hui Li, Frank C Pickard, Badri Narayanan, Fatih Sen, Maria K Y Chan, Subramanian Sankaranarayanan, Bernard R Brooks, Benoît Roux
Machine learning (ML) techniques with the genetic algorithm (GA) have been applied to explore a polarizable force field parameters using only ab initio data from quantum mechanics (QM) calculations of molecular clusters at the MP2/6-31G(d,p), DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVDZ, and DFMP2(fc)/jul-cc-pVTZ levels to predict experimental condensed phase properties (i.e., density and heat of vaporization). The performance of this ML/GA approach is demonstrated on 4,943 dimers electrostatic potentials and 1,250 clusters interaction energies for methanol...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800205/wide-field-color-imaging-of-scatter-based-tissue-contrast-using-both-high-spatial-frequency-illumination-and-cross-polarization-gating
#12
Mackenzie L Carlson, David M McClatchy, Jason R Gunn, Jonathan T Elliott, Keith D Paulsen, Stephen C Kanick, Brian W Pogue
This study characterizes the scatter-specific tissue contrast that can be obtained by high spatial frequency (HSF) domain imaging and cross-polarization (CP) imaging, using a standard color imaging system, and how combining them may be beneficial. Both HSF and CP approaches are known to modulate the sensitivity of epi-illumination reflectance images between diffuse multiply-scattered and superficially backscattered photons, providing enhanced contrast from microstructure and composition than what is achieved by standard wide-field imaging...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798967/effects-of-stretching-on-the-frictional-stress-of-rubber
#13
A Chateauminois, D T Nguyen, C Frétigny
In this paper, we report on new experimental results on the effects of in-plane surface stretching on the friction of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) rubber with smooth rigid probes. Friction-induced displacement fields are measured at the surface of the PDMS substrate under steady-state sliding. Then, the corresponding contact pressure and frictional stress distributions are determined from an inversion procedure. Using this approach, we show that the local frictional stress τ is proportional to the local stretch ratio λ at the rubber surface...
August 11, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798837/automated-modification-and-fusion-of-voxel-models-to-construct-body-phantoms-with-heterogeneous-breast-tissue-application-to-mri-simulations
#14
Joseph V Rispoli, Steven M Wright, Craig R Malloy, Mary P McDougall
BACKGROUND: Human voxel models incorporating detailed anatomical features are vital tools for the computational evaluation of electromagnetic (EM) fields within the body. Besides whole-body human voxel models, phantoms representing smaller heterogeneous anatomical features are often employed; for example, localized breast voxel models incorporating fatty and fibroglandular tissues have been developed for a variety of EM applications including mammography simulation and dosimetry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultra-wideband microwave imaging...
2017: Journal of Biomedical Graphics and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798344/2d-surface-optical-lattice-formed-by-plasmon-polaritons-with-application-to-nanometer-scale-molecular-deposition
#15
Yanning Yin, Supeng Xu, Tao Li, Yaling Yin, Yong Xia, Jianping Yin
Surface plasmon polaritons, due to their tight spatial confinement and high local intensity, hold great promises in nanofabrication which is beyond the diffraction limit of conventional lithography. Here, we demonstrate theoretically the 2D surface optical lattices based on the surface plasmon polariton interference field, and the potential application to nanometer-scale molecular deposition. We present the different topologies of lattices generated by simple configurations on the substrate. By explicit theoretical derivations, we explain their formation and characteristics including field distribution, periodicity and phase dependence...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797948/a-scanning-probe-mounted-on-a-field-effect-transistor-characterization-of-ion-damage-in-si
#16
Kumjae Shin, Hoontaek Lee, Min Sung, Sang Hoon Lee, Hyunjung Shin, Wonkyu Moon
We have examined the capabilities of a Tip-On-Gate of Field-Effect Transistor (ToGoFET) probe for characterization of FIB-induced damage in Si surface. A ToGoFET probe is the SPM probe which the Field Effect Transistor(FET) is embedded at the end of a cantilever and a Pt tip was mounted at the gate of FET. The ToGoFET probe can detect the surface electrical properties by measuring source-drain current directly modulated by the charge on the tip. In this study, a Si specimen whose surface was processed with Ga+ ion beam was prepared...
July 24, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796935/focal-irreversible-electroporation-as-primary-treatment-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#17
Willemien van den Bos, Matthijs J Scheltema, Amila R Siriwardana, Anton M F Kalsbeek, James E Thompson, Francis Ting, Maret Böhm, Anne-Maree Haynes, Ron Shnier, Warick Delprado, Phillip D Stricker
OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety, quality of life (QoL) and short-term oncological outcomes of primary focal IRE for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. To identify potential risk factors for oncological failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients that met both the consensus guidelines on patient criteria and selection methods for primary focal therapy were eligible for analysis. Focal IRE was performed for organ-confined clinically significant PCa, being high-volume Gleason sum score 6 (ISUP grade 1) or any Gleason sum score 7 (ISUP grade 2-3)...
August 10, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794978/localization-of-beta-and-high-frequency-oscillations-within-the-subthalamic-nucleus-region
#18
B C M van Wijk, A Pogosyan, M I Hariz, H Akram, T Foltynie, P Limousin, A Horn, S Ewert, P Brown, V Litvak
Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-frequency oscillations (HFO) within the 150-400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794407/focal-cortical-seizures-start-as-standing-waves-and-propagate-respecting-homotopic-connectivity
#19
L Federico Rossi, Robert C Wykes, Dimitri M Kullmann, Matteo Carandini
Focal epilepsy involves excessive cortical activity that propagates both locally and distally. Does this propagation follow the same routes as normal cortical activity? We pharmacologically induced focal seizures in primary visual cortex (V1) of awake mice, and compared their propagation to the retinotopic organization of V1 and higher visual areas. We used simultaneous local field potential recordings and widefield imaging of a genetically encoded calcium indicator to measure prolonged seizures (ictal events) and brief interictal events...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794194/induced-oscillations-in-turtle-cortex-are-coherent-at-the-mesoscale-of-population-activity-but-not-at-the-microscale-of-the-membrane-potential-of-neurons
#20
Mahmood Sayed Hoseini, Jeff Pobst, Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Wesley Clawson, Woodrow Shew, Ralf Wessel
Bursts of oscillatory neural activity have been hypothesized to be a core mechanism by which remote brain regions can communicate. Such hypothesis raises the question to what extent oscillations are coherent across spatially distant neural populations. To address this question, we obtained local field potential (LFP) and membrane potential recordings from the visual cortex of turtle in response to visual stimulation of the retina. The time-frequency analysis of these recordings revealed pronounced bursts of oscillatory neural activity and a large trial-to-trial variability in the spectral and temporal properties of the observed oscillations...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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