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Local field potentials

Aldo Berti, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
A case of an extremely healthy, active, 96-year-old patient, nonsmoker, is reviewed. He was initially treated for left V1, V2, and V3 trigeminal neuralgia in 2001, at age 80, with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a dose of 80 Gy to the left retrogasserian trigeminal nerve. He remained asymptomatic for nine years until his trigeminal pain recurred in 2010. He was first treated medically but was intolerant to increasing doses of carbamazepine and gabapentin. He underwent a second SRS in 2012 with a dose of 65...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Justine Marchand, Parisa Heydarizadeh, Benoît Schoefs, Cornelia Spetea
Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites...
March 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Dror Cohen, Bruno van Swinderen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures...
January 2018: ENeuro
Nguyen Van Diep, Masuo Sueyoshi, Junzo Norimine, Takuya Hirai, Ohnmar Myint, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Uda Zahli Izzati, Naoyuki Fuke, Ryoji Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Since late 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has reemerged in Japan and caused severe economic losses to the swine industry. Although PEDV vaccines have been used widely, the disease has swept rapidly across the county, and is commonly observed in PED-vaccinated farms, and has recurred in domestic herds. To better understand PEDVs responsible for the reemerging outbreaks in Japan, full-length spike (S), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) genes of 45 PEDVs collected in Japan during 2013-2016, were sequenced and analyzed...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Vrishank Raghav, Sudeep Sastry, Neelakantan Saikrishnan
Experimental flow field characterization is a critical component of the assessment of the hemolytic and thrombogenic potential of heart valve substitutes, thus it is important to identify best practices for these experimental techniques. This paper presents a brief review of commonly used flow assessment techniques such as Particle image velocimetry (PIV), Laser doppler velocimetry, and Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and a comparison of these methodologies. In particular, recommendations for setting up planar PIV experiments such as recommended imaging instrumentation, acquisition and data processing are discussed in the context of heart valve flows...
March 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
John Quan Minh Nguyen, Melanie McWade, Giju Thomas, Bryce T Beddard, Jennifer L Herington, Bibhash C Paria, Herbert S Schwartz, Jennifer L Halpern, Ginger E Holt, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Fluorescence imaging is a well-established optical modality that has been used to localize and track fluorophores in vivo and has demonstrated great potential for surgical guidance. Despite the variety of fluorophores currently being researched, many existing intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are specifically designed for a limited number of applications. We present a modular wide-field fluorescence overlay tissue imaging system for intraoperative surgical guidance that is comprised of commercially available standardized components...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Saeed Rismani Yazi, Reza Nosrati, Corey A Stevens, David Vogel, Carlos Escobedo
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) migrate in complex porous sediments where fluid flow is ubiquitous. Here, we demonstrate that magnetotaxis enables MTB to migrate effectively through porous micromodels. Directed MTB can circumvent curved obstacles by traveling along the boundaries and pass flat obstacles by repeatedly switching between forward and backward runs. Magnetotaxis enables directed motion of MTB through heterogeneous porous media, overcoming tortuous flow fields with local velocities as high as 250  μ m s-1 ...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Gábor Csifcsák, Nya Mehnwolo Boayue, Oula Puonti, Axel Thielscher, Matthias Mittner
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) has been widely used to improve symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the effects of different stimulation protocols in the entire frontal lobe have not been investigated in a large sample including patient data. METHODS: We used 38 head models created from structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 19 healthy adults and 19 MDD patients and applied computational modeling to simulate the spatial distribution of tDCS-induced electric fields (EFs) in 20 frontal regions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Eline R Kupers, Helena X Wang, Kaoru Amano, Kendrick N Kay, David J Heeger, Jonathan Winawer
Currently, non-invasive methods for studying the human brain do not routinely and reliably measure spike-rate-dependent signals, independent of responses such as hemodynamic coupling (fMRI) and subthreshold neuronal synchrony (oscillations and event-related potentials). In contrast, invasive methods-microelectrode recordings and electrocorticography (ECoG)-have recently measured broadband power elevation in field potentials (~50-200 Hz) as a proxy for locally averaged spike rates. Here, we sought to detect and quantify stimulus-related broadband responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
2018: PloS One
Jinbo Chen, Uwe Scholz, Ruonan Zhou, Matthias Lange
In order to access and filter content of life-science databases, full text search is a widely applied query interface. But its high flexibility and intuitiveness is paid for with potentially imprecise and incomplete query results. To reduce this drawback, query assistance systems suggest those combinations of keywords with the highest potential to match most of the relevant data records. Widespread approaches are syntactic query corrections that avoid misspelling and support expansion of words by suffixes and prefixes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Oleksandr Zelyak, B Gino Fallone, Joel St-Aubin
Modern effort in radiotherapy to address the challenges of tumor localization and motion has led to the development of MRI guided radiotherapy technologies. Accurate dose calculations must properly account for the effects of the MRI magnetic fields. Previous work has investigated the accuracy of a deterministic linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) solver that includes magnetic field, but not the stability of the iterative solution method. In this work, we perform a stability analysis of this deterministic algorithm including an investigation of the convergence rate dependencies on the magnetic field, material density, energy, and anisotropy expansion...
March 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Sun Qifeng, Zhao Dechun, Cheng Shanshan, Hou Xiaorong, Zhao Xing, Tian Yin
Local field potential of a patient with Parkinson's disease often shows abnormal oscillation phenomenon. Extracting and studying this phenomenon and designing adaptive deep brain stimulation control library have great significance in treatment of patients. This paper has designed a feature extraction method based on modified empirical mode decomposition which extracts the abnormal oscillation signal in the time domain to increase the overall performance. The IMF component which contains abnormal oscillation is extracted by using empirical mode decomposition before an intrinsic characteristic of the oscillation signal is obtained...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Michelle L Ratay, Stephen C Balmert, Ethan J Bassin, Steven R Little
Dry eye disease (DED), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is an ocular surface disease characterized by T-cell-mediated inflammation. Current therapeutics, such as immunosuppressive agents, act to suppress the clinical signs and inflammation. However, long-term usage of these treatments can cause severe side effects. In this study, we present an alternative therapeutic approach that utilizes a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) to regulate transcription of a variety of immunomodulatory genes. Specifically, HDACi have emerged as a potential anti-inflammatory agent, which can modulate the functions of a subset of suppressive T lymphocytes known as regulatory T cells (Tregs), enhancing FoxP3 acetylation and subsequently guarding the transcription factor from proteasomal degradation...
March 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Baltzar Stevensson, Yang Yu, Mattias Edén
We present a comprehensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of composition-structure trends in a set of 25 glasses of widely spanning compositions from the following four systems of increasing complexity: Na2 O-B2 O3 , Na2 O-B2 O3 -SiO2 , Na2 O-CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 , and Na2 O-CaO-B2 O3 -SiO2 -P2 O5 . The simulations involved new B-O and P-O potential parameters developed within the polarizable shell-model framework, thereby combining the beneficial features of an overall high accuracy and excellent transferability among different glass systems and compositions: this was confirmed by the good accordance with experimental data on the relative BO3 /BO4 populations in borate and boro(phospho)silicate networks, as well as with the orthophosphate fractions in bioactive (boro)phosphosilicate glasses, which is believed to strongly influence their bone-bonding properties...
March 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Miriam E Szurman-Zubrzycka, Justyna Zbieszczyk, Marek Marzec, Janusz Jelonek, Beata Chmielewska, Marzena M Kurowska, Milena Krok, Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Justyna Guzy-Wrobelska, Damian Gruszka, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Magdalena Stolarek, Piotr Tylec, Paweł Sega, Sabina Lip, Monika Kudełko, Magdalena Lorek, Małgorzata Gorniak-Walas, Anna Malolepszy, Nina Podsiadlo, Katarzyna P Szyrajew, Anete Keisa, Zodwa Mbambo, Elena Todorowska, Marek Gaj, Zygmunt Nita, Wanda Orlowska-Job, Miroslaw Maluszynski, Iwona Szarejko
TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the Hor TILLUS ( Hor deum - TILL ING- U niversity of S ilesia) population created for spring barley cultivar "Sebastian" after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 ) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dénes Budai, Attila D Vizvári, Zsolt K Bali, Balázs Márki, Lili V Nagy, Zoltán Kónya, Dániel Madarász, Nóra Henn-Mike, Csaba Varga, István Hernádi
Optical microelectrodes (optrodes) are used in neuroscience to transmit light into the brain of a genetically modified animal to evoke and record electrical activity from light-sensitive neurons. Our novel micro-optrode solution integrates a light-transmitting 125 micrometer optical fiber and a 9 micrometer carbon monofilament to form an electrical lead element, which is contained in a borosilicate glass sheathing coaxial arrangement ending with a micrometer-sized carbon tip. This novel unit design is stiff and slender enough to be used for targeting deep brain areas, and may cause less tissue damage compared with previous models...
2018: PloS One
Zhenling Cui, Hongyan Zhang, Xinping Chen, Chaochun Zhang, Wenqi Ma, Chengdong Huang, Weifeng Zhang, Guohua Mi, Yuxin Miao, Xiaolin Li, Qiang Gao, Jianchang Yang, Zhaohui Wang, Youliang Ye, Shiwei Guo, Jianwei Lu, Jianliang Huang, Shihua Lv, Yixiang Sun, Yuanying Liu, Xianlong Peng, Jun Ren, Shiqing Li, Xiping Deng, Xiaojun Shi, Qiang Zhang, Zhiping Yang, Li Tang, Changzhou Wei, Liangliang Jia, Jiwang Zhang, Mingrong He, Yanan Tong, Qiyuan Tang, Xuhua Zhong, Zhaohui Liu, Ning Cao, Changlin Kou, Hao Ying, Yulong Yin, Xiaoqiang Jiao, Qingsong Zhang, Mingsheng Fan, Rongfeng Jiang, Fusuo Zhang, Zhengxia Dou
Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance...
March 7, 2018: Nature
Rajeev Ramanan, David Danovich, Debasish Mandal, Sason Shaik
Oriented external-electric-fields (OEEFs) are potent effectors of chemical change and control. We show that the Menshutkin reaction, between substituted pyridines and methyl iodide, can be catalyzed/inhibited at will, by just flipping the orientation of the EEF (FZ) along the "reaction axis" (Z), N---C---I. A theoretical analysis shows that catalysis/inhibition obey the Bell-Evans-Polanyi Principle. Significant catalysis is predicted also for EEFs oriented off the reaction axis. Hence, the observation of catalysis can be up-scaled and may not require orienting the reactants vis-à-vis the field...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Liang Shan, Tiane Liu, Zhijian Zhang, Qing Liu, Mengjiao Zhang, Xudong Zhao, Yan Zhang, Fuqiang Xu, Yuanye Ma
Deficits in olfactory abilities are frequently observed in schizophrenia patients. However, whether olfactory dysfunction is found in animal models is not known. Here, we examined whether two well-established schizophrenia rat models exhibit olfactory-relevant dysfunction that is similar to schizophrenia patients. Olfactory sensitivity was tested in rats that were acutely (3.3mg/kg) or postnatally (10mg/kg, at postnatal day 7, 9 and 11) treated with phencyclidine (PCP) as schizophrenia models. Electrophysiological recordings were conducted to measure the olfactory-relevant local field potential after acute PCP treatment...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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