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Local field potentials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732063/dopamine-acting-at-d1-like-d2-like-and-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-differentially-modulates-theta-and-gamma-oscillatory-activity-in-primary-motor-cortex
#1
Mazhar Özkan, Nicholas W Johnson, Umit S Sehirli, Gavin L Woodhall, Ian M Stanford
The loss of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's is accompanied by the emergence of exaggerated theta and beta frequency neuronal oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) and basal ganglia. DA replacement therapy or deep brain stimulation reduces the power of these oscillations and this is coincident with an improvement in motor performance implying a causal relationship. Here we provide in vitro evidence for the differential modulation of theta and gamma activity in M1 by DA acting at receptors exhibiting conventional and non-conventional DA pharmacology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731393/the-impact-of-decompression-with-instrumentation-on-local-failure-following-spine-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#2
Jacob A Miller, Ehsan H Balagamwala, Camille A Berriochoa, Lilyana Angelov, John H Suh, Edward C Benzel, Alireza M Mohammadi, Todd Emch, Anthony Magnelli, Andrew Godley, Peng Qi, Samuel T Chao
OBJECTIVE Spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a safe and effective treatment for spinal metastases. However, it is unknown whether this highly conformal radiation technique is suitable at instrumented sites given the potential for microscopic disease seeding. The authors hypothesized that spinal decompression with instrumentation is not associated with increased local failure (LF) following SRS. METHODS A 2:1 propensity-matched retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing SRS for spinal metastasis was conducted...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730744/improving-hospital-discharge-arrangements-for-people-who-are-homeless-a-realist-synthesis-of-the-intermediate-care-literature
#3
REVIEW
Michelle Cornes, Martin Whiteford, Jill Manthorpe, Joanne Neale, Richard Byng, Nigel Hewett, Michael Clark, Alan Kilmister, James Fuller, Robert Aldridge, Michela Tinelli
This review presents a realist synthesis of "what works and why" in intermediate care for people who are homeless. The overall aim was to update an earlier synthesis of intermediate care by capturing new evidence from a recent UK government funding initiative (the "Homeless Hospital Discharge Fund"). The initiative made resources available to the charitable sector to enable partnership working with the National Health Service (NHS) in order to improve hospital discharge arrangements for people who are homeless...
July 20, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#4
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#5
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729442/adaptive-encoding-of-outcome-prediction-by-prefrontal-cortex-ensembles-supports-behavioral-flexibility
#6
Alberto Del Arco, Junchol Park, Jesse Wood, Yunbok Kim, Bita Moghaddam
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role in behavioral flexibility by monitoring action-outcome contingencies. How PFC ensembles represent shifts in behavior in response to changes in these contingencies remains unclear. We recorded single-unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs) in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) of male rats during a set-shifting task that required them to update their behavior, among competing options, in response to changes in action-outcome contingencies. As behavior was updated, a subset of PFC ensembles encoded current trial outcome before the outcome was presented...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729438/electrophysiological-evidence-that-the-retrosplenial-cortex-displays-a-strong-and-specific-activation-phased-with-hippocampal-theta-during-paradoxical-rem-sleep
#7
Koike Bruna Del Vechio, Farias Kelly Soares, Billwiller Francesca, Almeida-Filho Daniel, Libourel Paul-Antoine, Tiran-Cappello Alix, Parmentier Régis, Blanco Wilfredo, Ribeiro Sidarta, Luppi Pierre-Herve, Queiroz Claudio Marcos
It is widely accepted that cortical neurons are similarly more activated during waking and paradoxical sleep (PS, aka REM) than during slow wave sleep (SWS). However, we recently reported using Fos labeling that only a few limbic cortical structures including the retrosplenial (RSC) and anterior cingulate (ACA) cortices contain a large number of neurons activated during PS hypersomnia. Our aim in the present study was to record local field potentials (LFPs) and unit activity from these two structures across all vigilance states in freely moving male rats to determine whether the RSC and the ACA are electrophysiologically specifically active during basal PS episodes...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727850/hybrid-cubature-kalman-filtering-for-identifying-nonlinear-models-from-sampled-recording-estimation-of-neuronal-dynamics
#8
Mahmoud K Madi, Fadi N Karameh
Kalman filtering methods have long been regarded as efficient adaptive Bayesian techniques for estimating hidden states in models of linear dynamical systems under Gaussian uncertainty. Recent advents of the Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) have extended this efficient estimation property to nonlinear systems, and also to hybrid nonlinear problems where by the processes are continuous and the observations are discrete (continuous-discrete CD-CKF). Employing CKF techniques, therefore, carries high promise for modeling many biological phenomena where the underlying processes exhibit inherently nonlinear, continuous, and noisy dynamics and the associated measurements are uncertain and time-sampled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725869/automated-approach-to-detecting-behavioral-states-using-eeg-dabs
#9
Zachary B Loris, Mathew Danzi, Justin Sick, W Dalton Dietrich, Helen M Bramlett, Thomas Sick
Electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals represent cortical electrical dipoles generated by synchronous local field potentials that result from simultaneous firing of neurons at distinct frequencies (brain waves). Since different brain waves correlate to different behavioral states, ECoG signals presents a novel strategy to detect complex behaviors. We developed a program, EEG Detection Analysis for Behavioral States (EEG-DABS) that advances Fast Fourier Transforms through ECoG signals time series, separating it into (user defined) frequency bands and normalizes them to reduce variability...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725381/extending-bioacoustic-monitoring-of-birds-aloft-through-flight-call-localization-with-a-three-dimensional-microphone-array
#10
Phillip M Stepanian, Kyle G Horton, David C Hille, Charlotte E Wainwright, Phillip B Chilson, Jeffrey F Kelly
Bioacoustic localization of bird vocalizations provides unattended observations of the location of calling individuals in many field applications. While this technique has been successful in monitoring terrestrial distributions of calling birds, no published study has applied these methods to migrating birds in flight. The value of nocturnal flight call recordings can increase with the addition of three-dimensional position retrievals, which can be achieved with adjustments to existing localization techniques...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725371/the-role-of-novel-forest-ecosystems-in-the-conservation-of-wood-inhabiting-fungi-in-boreal-broadleaved-forests
#11
Katja Juutilainen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Heikki Kotiranta, Panu Halme
The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood-associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood-inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In the boreal zone, natural broad-leaved-dominated, herb-rich forests are threatened habitats which have high wood-inhabiting fungal species richness...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725184/sevoflurane-induces-coherent-slow-delta-oscillations-in-rats
#12
Jennifer A Guidera, Norman E Taylor, Justin T Lee, Ksenia Y Vlasov, JunZhu Pei, Emily P Stephen, J Patrick Mayo, Emery N Brown, Ken Solt
Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex (PC), and central thalamus (CT) in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12-40 Hz) power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC-CT and PFC-PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724024/stigma-related-to-bipolar-disorder-in-the-perception-of-psychiatrists-from-belo-horizonte-minas-gerais-state-brazil
#13
Adauto Silva Clemente, Wagner Jorge Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nicolato, Josélia Oliveira Araújo Firmo
This research sought to understand meanings and implications of the stigma related to bipolar disorder in relation to social processes and local cultural value systems. Seven semidirected individual interviews were performed with psychiatrists (from Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and analyzed with referential from the Medical Anthropology. Some potential stigmatizing views about bipolar disorder patients were endorsed by respondents related to biomedical model of bipolar disorder. They claimed about the extreme trivialization of this diagnosis nowadays and observed that, in spite of the mitigation of stigma related to bipolar disorder over time, it remains an important issue, especially at labor fields and as a cause of refusal of treatment...
July 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722555/understanding-the-state-of-health-policy-and-systems-research-in-west-africa-and-capacity-strengthening-needs-scoping-of-peer-reviewed-publications-trends-and-patterns-1990-2015
#14
Selina Defor, Aku Kwamie, Irene Akua Agyepong
BACKGROUND: The need for locally-driven, locally-generated evidence to guide health policy and systems decision-making and implementation in West Africa remains urgent. Thus, health policy and systems research (HPSR) is a field with great potential for addressing many of the sub-region's intransigent health challenges. This paper presents an analysis of trends and patterns of peer-reviewed HPSR publications across the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), to help understand trends and patterns of HPSR publication and the degree of involvement of West African researchers in HPSR evidence generation in the sub-region...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722181/historical-biome-distribution-and-recent-human-disturbance-shape-the-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#15
Meelis Pärtel, Maarja Öpik, Mari Moora, Leho Tedersoo, Robert Szava-Kovats, Søren Rosendahl, Matthias C Rillig, Ylva Lekberg, Holger Kreft, Thorunn Helgason, Ove Eriksson, John Davison, Francesco de Bello, Tancredi Caruso, Martin Zobel
The availability of global microbial diversity data, collected using standardized metabarcoding techniques, makes microorganisms promising models for investigating the role of regional and local factors in driving biodiversity. Here we modelled the global diversity of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi using currently available data on AM fungal molecular diversity (small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences) in field samples. To differentiate between regional and local effects, we estimated species pools (sets of potentially suitable taxa) for each site, which are expected to reflect regional processes...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#16
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720892/dual-band-wide-angle-metamaterial-perfect-absorber-based-on-the-combination-of-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-and-helmholtz-resonance
#17
Changlei Zhang, Cheng Huang, Mingbo Pu, Jiakun Song, Zeyu Zhao, Xiaoyu Wu, Xiangang Luo
In this article, a dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber is proposed to achieve absorption at the wavelength where laser radar operates. It is composed of gold ring array and a Helmholtz resonance cavity spaced by a Si dielectric layer. Numerical simulation results reveal that the designed absorber displays two absorption peaks at the target wavelength of 10.6 μm and 1.064 μm with the large frequency ratio and near-unity absorptivity under the normal incidence. The wide-angle absorbing property and the polarization-insensitive feature are also demonstrated...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717801/mimicking-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-3d-printed-microfluidic-in-vitro-vascular-model-based-on-computed-tomography-angiography-data
#18
Pedro F Costa, Hugo J Albers, John E A Linssen, Heleen H T Middelkamp, Linda van der Hout, Robert Passier, Albert van den Berg, Jos Malda, Andries D van der Meer
Arterial thrombosis is the main instigating factor of heart attacks and strokes, which result in over 14 million deaths worldwide every year. The mechanism of thrombosis involves factors from the blood and the vessel wall, and it also relies strongly on 3D vessel geometry and local blood flow patterns. Microfluidic chip-based vascular models allow controlled in vitro studies of the interaction between vessel wall and blood in thrombosis, but until now, they could not fully recapitulate the 3D geometry and blood flow patterns of real-life healthy or diseased arteries...
July 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716962/gamma-oscillations-in-the-rat-ventral-striatum-originate-in-the-piriform-cortex
#19
James E Carmichael, Jimmie M Gmaz, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the human and rodent ventral striatum (vStr) exhibit prominent, behaviorally relevant gamma-band oscillations. These oscillations are related to local spiking activity and transiently synchronize with anatomically related areas, suggesting a possible role in organizing vStr activity. However, the origin of vStr gamma is unknown. We recorded vStr gamma oscillations across a 1.4mm(2) grid spanned by 64 recording electrodes as male rats rested and foraged for rewards, revealing a highly consistent power gradient originating in the adjacent piriform cortex...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715701/synthetic-biological-approaches-to-optogenetically-control-cell-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Katja Kolar, Wilfried Weber
Precise spatial and temporal control of cellular processes is in life sciences a highly sought-after capability. In the recent years, this goal has become progressively achievable through the field of optogenetics, which utilizes light as a non-invasive means to control genetically encoded light-responsive proteins. The latest optogenetic systems, such as those for control of subcellular localization or cellular decision-making and tissue morphogenesis provide us with insights to gain a deeper understanding of the cellular inner workings...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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