Read by QxMD icon Read

Virchow Robin space

J Bryan Iorgulescu, Sean Ferris, Ashima Agarwal, Sandro Casavilca Zambrano, D Ashley Hill, Robert Schmidt, Arie Perry
Meningioangiomatosis (MA) is a rare entity characterized by the perivascular spread of meningothelial and fibroblastic cells along the Virchow-Robin spaces of small leptomeningeal and intracortical blood vessels [1,2]. Sporadic cases of MA are thought to represent benign hamartomatous proliferations that are associated with refractory seizures and plaque-like cerebral hemispheric masses, primarily involving the temporal and/or frontal lobes. A distinct subset of MA presents in association with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), where the MA is often multifocal, non-epileptogenic, and accompanied by perilesional glial microhamartomas [3,4]...
March 1, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Vincent J Huber, Hironaka Igarashi, Satoshi Ueki, Ingrid L Kwee, Tsutomu Nakada
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow-Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to pericapillary Virchow-Robin space to ensure proper glymphatic flow draining into the cerebrospinal fluid...
February 23, 2018: Neuroreport
Hissah Al Abdulsalam, Abdullah A Alatar, Sherif Elwatidy
BACKGROUND: Perivascular spaces (PVS) or Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS) are pial-lined, interstitial fluid-filled structures in the brain that accompany cerebral vessels as they penetrate the cerebral substance. In healthy individuals, a PVS diameter of less than 2 mm is considered normal and can typically be seen within the white matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). When PVS dilate, they are considered benign lesions and are found to be associated with aging and other risk factors...
January 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
W Reith, A Haußmann
Virchow-Robin spaces are perivascular fluid-filled cavities that surround perforating arteries and veins in the brain parenchyma. As a rule in healthy people they are approximately 5 mm in diameter. Typical localizations are brainstem ganglia, mesencephalon and the white matter of the brain. Morphological imaging characteristics of Virchow-Robin spaces are round or tubular, smoothly bordered areas which are hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. Virchow-Robin spaces represent a physiological structure in normal brain parenchyma...
January 26, 2018: Der Radiologe
Jeffrey D Rudie, Andreas M Rauschecker, Seyed A Nabavizadeh, Suyash Mohan
Perivascular spaces (PVSs), also known as Virchow-Robin spaces, are pial-lined, fluid-filled structures found in characteristic locations throughout the brain. They can become abnormally enlarged or dilated and in rare cases can cause hydrocephalus. Dilated PVSs can pose a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because of their varied appearance, sometimes mimicking more serious entities such as cystic neoplasms, including dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor, or cystic infections including toxoplasmosis and neurocysticercosis...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Patrick Chan, Denis J Meerdink, James A Uchizono
Meningitis is an infectious disease commonly arising from a bacterial etiology. The rapid progression of morbidity and mortality due to bacterial meningitis requires critical and imminent time-dependent clinical intervention. Although it is unambiguously clear that bacteria must infiltrate the cerebrospinal fluid, the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis has not been fully elucidated. Most reviews of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis do not specify the anatomical location of bacteria following BBB traversal...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Chuanjun Xu, Zhiliang Hu, Hongxia Wei, Yongfeng Yang, Chao Du, Jianping Gu
To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Cryptococcus infection in central nervous system patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
 Methods: The retrospective study on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical data of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) was carried out between July 2011 and March 2017. These patients had not received anti-retroviral treatment. Patients with other specific or suspicious diseases in the central nervous system were not included in the analysis...
October 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Alberto Cacciola, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonio Costa, Antonino Naro, Demetrio Milardi, Daniele Bruschetta
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Virchow-Robin spaces are mainly located along the path of the lenticulo-striate arteries in the basal ganglia through the anterior perforate substance, and can be found both in normal subjects, as a rare phenomenon, and in patients with different diseases. We report a case of a healthy young man with unilateral enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces in the left capsule-lenticulostriate area. Aim of this case report is to show the potential of probabilistic Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD) tractography in showing abnormal diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the anterior thalamic tracts caused by mass effect from adjacent enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Eva Volek, Jeannette Toth, Zoltan Zsolt Nagy, Miklos Schneider
BACKGROUND: Conjunctival lymphangiectasia is a rare condition presumably caused by the obstruction of lymphatic channels or by an abnormal connection between conjunctival lymphatic and blood vessels. Diagnosis is based on clinical appearance and histology. We report a case of conjunctival lymphangiectasia in which anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to assist the diagnosis and the planning of the biopsy location. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old woman was referred with repeated episodes of conjunctival "hemorrhages" and chemosis with extended recovery periods over the last months...
October 23, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Alice Favaretto, Andrea Lazzarotto, Alice Riccardi, Stefano Pravato, Monica Margoni, Francesco Causin, Maria Giulia Anglani, Dario Seppi, Davide Poggiali, Paolo Gallo
The clinical significance of Virchow Robin spaces (VRS) in inflammatory brain disorders, especially in multiple sclerosis (MS), is still undefined. We analysed enlarged VRS (eVRS) by means of phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) MRI sequence and investigated their association with inflammation or brain atrophy, and to clinical or physical disability. Forty-three MS patients (21 clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS [CIS], 15 RRMS, 7 progressive [PMS]) and 10 healthy controls (HC) were studied. 3DT1, 3DFLAIR and 2DPSIR images were obtained with a 3T MRI scanner...
2017: PloS One
Amol Raheja, Christian A Bowers, William T Couldwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Tsutomu Nakada, Ingrid L Kwee, Hironaka Igarashi, Yuji Suzuki
The unique properties of brain capillary endothelium, critical in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and restricting water permeability across the BBB, have important consequences on fluid hydrodynamics inside the BBB hereto inadequately recognized. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms underlying brain water dynamics are distinct from systemic tissue water dynamics. Hydrostatic pressure created by the systolic force of the heart, essential for interstitial circulation and lymphatic flow in systemic circulation, is effectively impeded from propagating into the interstitial fluid inside the BBB by the tightly sealed endothelium of brain capillaries...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuefeng Li, Jinchuan Yan, Xiaolan Zhu, Yan Zhu, Shun Yao, Yuhao Xu, Shenghong Ju
The occurrences of dilated Virchow-Robin spaces (dVRSs) and inflammatory factors were closely related with development of depression and antidepressants. The present study indicated accumulation of inflammatory factors in dVRSs played a practical role in behaviors and the treatment-resistant in rats with depression. Eighty-one male Wistar rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) until the model was successfully established. According to the detection of dVRSs on 7 T structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), rats were divided into two groups (45 CUMS(non-dVRSs) rats and 36 CUMS(dVRSs) rats)...
September 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Thomas J Buell, Arjun Ramesh, Dale Ding, Daniel M S Raper, Ching-Jen Chen, Robert M Starke, Sugoto Mukherjee, R Webster Crowley
Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS) are ubiquitous and commonly observed as the resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) continues to improve. The function of VRS and the etiology of their dilation is still a subject of research. Diagnosing dilated VRS (dVRS) can be challenging because they may appear similar to other pathologies such as cystic neoplasms, infectious cysts, and even arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) on certain MRI pulse sequences. We reported a unique case of brainstem dVRS mimicking an AVM. Furthermore, the extensive pontine involvement of our patient's lesion is rarely described in neurosurgical literature...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
S González-García, A González-Quevedo, Z Hernandez-Diaz, L Alvarez Camino, M Peña-Sanchez, A Cordero-Eiriz, M Brown, J A Gaya, M Betancourt-Losa, I Fernandez-Almirall, M C Menendez-Sainz, R Fernandez-Carriera
Arterial hypertension (HT) and other vascular pre-existing conditions (PEC) generate asymptomatic brain damage which increases the occurrence of stroke and cognitive decline. The aim of this work was to explore if serum antibodies against the NR2 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR2Ab) could predict subclinical brain damage (SBD) in hypertensive patients with PEC. Forty seven neurologically asymptomatic hypertensive subjects were classified according to the number of PEC (retinopathy, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Christopher Donaldson, Gurkirat Chatha, Ronil V Chandra, Tony Goldschlager
BACKGROUND: Obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to enlarged Virchow-Robin Spaces (VRS) is a rare entity, with only a few cases reported in the literature. Presenting symptoms vary widely from headaches to dizziness. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a 31-year-old man who presented with pulsatile tinnitus and magnetic resonance imaging showing obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to tumefactive VRS. After a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure in the form of an endoscopic third ventriculostomy, he had almost complete resolution of his symptoms...
May 2017: World Neurosurgery
Y Zhong, Z Zhou, X Fang, F Peng, W Zhang
Magnetic resonance (MR) scanning has become an important diagnostic and management tool in cryptococcal meningitis (CM). However, there are only isolated case reports documenting neuroradiological findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with CM and none has clearly addressed the relationship between cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognosis. The MR brain images available from 114 HIV-negative patients with CM were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into Group I with one or more CM-related lesions and Group II without CM-related lesions...
August 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
A S Gauthier, R Billon-Grand, A Rivet, M Chatain, M Saleh, B Delbosc
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Alysse Rivet, Anne-Sophie Gauthier, Marion Chatain, Romain Billon-Grand, Laurent Thines, Bernard Delbosc
A 53-year-old woman was found to have a left inferior homonymous quadrantanopia. Brain MRI disclosed a giant Virchow-Robin space compressing the right optic tract. After fenestration of this cystic lesion, most of the visual field loss resolved. Giant Virchow-Robin spaces may cause homonymous field defects which, with appropriate management, may improve.
March 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
T C Cardoso, H L Ferreira, L H Okamura, T P Giroto, B R S M Oliveira, C U F Fabri, R Gameiro, E F Flores
The present study reports an investigation on the phenotype of inflammatory and immune cells, cytokine and viral gene expression in the brains of cattle naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV5). Brain sections of 38 affected animals were analysed for the nature and extent of perivascular cuffs in the Virchow-Robin space and parenchyma. Histopathological changes were severe in the olfactory bulbs (Obs), hippocampus, piriform, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices/lobes and were characterized by inflammatory infiltrates in Virchow-Robin spaces...
December 2016: Veterinary Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"