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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053836/long-term-disability-progression-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-15-year-study
#1
Maria A Rocca, Maria Pia Sormani, Marco Rovaris, Domenico Caputo, Angelo Ghezzi, Enrico Montanari, Antonio Bertolotto, Alice Laroni, Roberto Bergamaschi, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
Prognostic markers of primary progressive multiple sclerosis evolution are needed. We investigated the added value of magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain and cervical cord damage in predicting long-term clinical worsening of primary progressive multiple sclerosis compared to simple clinical assessment. In 54 patients, conventional and diffusion tensor brain scans and cervical cord T1-weighted scans were acquired at baseline and after 15 months. Clinical evaluation was performed after 5 and 15 years in 49 patients...
September 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053798/in-vivo-characterization-of-cortical-and-white-matter-neuroaxonal-pathology-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Tobias Granberg, Qiuyun Fan, Constantina Andrada Treaba, Russell Ouellette, Elena Herranz, Gabriel Mangeat, Céline Louapre, Julien Cohen-Adad, Eric C Klawiter, Jacob A Sloane, Caterina Mainero
Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability...
October 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053775/neuroinflammation-and-its-relationship-to-changes-in-brain-volume-and-white-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Gourab Datta, Alessandro Colasanti, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Eline Van Vlierberghe, Wim Van Hecke, Graham Searle, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Paul M Matthews
Brain magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. However, magnetic resonance imaging alone provides limited information for predicting an individual patient's disability progression. In part, this is because magnetic resonance imaging lacks sensitivity and specificity for detecting chronic diffuse and multi-focal inflammation mediated by activated microglia/macrophages. The aim of this study was to test for an association between 18 kDa translocator protein brain positron emission tomography signal, which arises largely from microglial activation, and measures of subsequent disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients...
September 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050911/the-multi-faceted-relationship-between-white-matter-lesions-and-late-life-depression
#4
EDITORIAL
Minjie Wu, Howard J Aizenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050399/diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers
#5
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050387/temporal-lobe-networks-supporting-the-comprehension-of-spoken-words
#6
Leonardo Bonilha, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Dirk B den Ouden, Chris Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Auditory word comprehension is a cognitive process that involves the transformation of auditory signals into abstract concepts. Traditional lesion-based studies of stroke survivors with aphasia have suggested that neocortical regions adjacent to auditory cortex are primarily responsible for word comprehension. However, recent primary progressive aphasia and normal neurophysiological studies have challenged this concept, suggesting that the left temporal pole is crucial for word comprehension. Due to its vasculature, the temporal pole is not commonly completely lesioned in stroke survivors and this heterogeneity may have prevented its identification in lesion-based studies of auditory comprehension...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046903/fod-restoration-for-enhanced-mapping-of-white-matter-lesion-connectivity
#7
Wei Sun, Lilyana Amezcua, Yonggang Shi
To achieve improved understanding of white matter (WM) lesions and their effect on brain functions, it is important to obtain a comprehensive map of their connectivity. However, changes of the cellular environment in WM lesions attenuate diffusion MRI (dMRI) signals and make the robust estimation of fiber orientation distributions (FODs) difficult. In this work, we integrate techniques from image inpainting and compartment modeling to develop a novel method for enhancing FOD estimation in WM lesions from multi-shell dMRI, which is becoming increasingly popular with the success of the Human Connectome Project (HCP)...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046363/serum-neurofilament-light-is-sensitive-to-active-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#8
Thomas Gattringer, Daniela Pinter, Christian Enzinger, Thomas Seifert-Held, Markus Kneihsl, Simon Fandler, Alexander Pichler, Christian Barro, Svenya Gröbke, Margarete Voortman, Lukas Pirpamer, Edith Hofer, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Jens Kuhle, Franz Fazekas, Michael Khalil
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether serum neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) levels are increased in patients with MRI-confirmed recent small subcortical infarcts (RSSI) compared to healthy controls and to determine the subsequent course and determinants of NfL levels in a longitudinal manner. METHODS: In a prospectively collected group of symptomatic patients with an RSSI (n = 79, mean age 61 ± 11 years, 67% male), we analyzed brain MRI and serum NfL using a Single Molecule Array (Simoa) assay at baseline and at 3 and 15 months after stroke...
October 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044417/pathologic-correlation-of-paramagnetic-white-matter-lesions-in-adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia
#9
Minkyeong Kim, Hansol Lee, Hyung Joon Cho, Se Young Chun, Jin-Hong Shin, Eun-Joo Kim, Jae Woo Ahn, Gi Young Huh, Sun-Yong Baek, Jae-Hyeok Lee
It has been proposed that susceptibility-weighted imaging is a sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for identifying white matter (WM) pathologic changes involving demyelination and iron accumulation. We identified the tree silhouette-like configuration with a paramagnetic phase shift in the frontal subcortical WM lesions of 4 patients with adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia who underwent 3T MRI. According to our postmortem 7T MRI and histologic correlation study to investigate the origin of the susceptibility-related phase contrast, changes in the subcortical WM architecture and central WM loss with the relative preservation of iron-rich U-fibers may contribute to the paramagnetic susceptibility...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042490/remote-ischemic-conditioning-may-improve-outcomes-of-patients-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#10
Yuan Wang, Ran Meng, Haiqing Song, Gang Liu, Yang Hua, Dehua Cui, Lemin Zheng, Wuwei Feng, David S Liebeskind, Marc Fisher, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in patients with cerebral small-vessel disease. METHODS: Thirty patients with cerebral small-vessel disease-related mild cognitive impairment were enrolled in this prospective, randomized controlled study for 1 year. Besides routine medical treatment, participants were randomized into the experimental group (n=14) undergoing 5 cycles consisting of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 5 minutes on both upper limbs twice daily for 1 year or the control group (n=16) who were treated with sham ischemia-reperfusion cycles...
October 17, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041864/targets-of-therapy-in-progressive-ms
#11
Hans Lassmann
Highly effective anti-inflammatory therapies have so far been developed for patients with relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, which also show some benefits in the early progressive stage of the disease. However, treatment options for patients, who have entered the progressive phase, are still limited. Disease starts as an inflammatory process, which induces focal demyelinating lesions in the gray and white matter. This stage of the disease dominates in the relapsing phase, extends into the early stages of progressive disease, and can be targeted by current anti-inflammatory treatments...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038505/punctate-white-matter-lesions-associated-with-altered-brain-development-and-adverse-motor-outcome-in-preterm-infants
#12
Nora Tusor, Manon J Benders, Serena J Counsell, Phumza Nongena, Moegamad A Ederies, Shona Falconer, Andrew Chew, Nuria Gonzalez-Cinca, Joseph V Hajnal, Sunay Gangadharan, Vasiliki Chatzi, Karina J Kersbergen, Nigel Kennea, Denis V Azzopardi, A David Edwards
Preterm infants who develop neurodevelopmental impairment do not always have recognized abnormalities on cerebral ultrasound, a modality routinely used to assess prognosis. In a high proportion of infants, MRI detects punctate white matter lesions that are not seen on ultrasonography. To determine the relation of punctate lesions to brain development and early neurodevelopmental outcome we used multimodal brain MRI to study a large cohort of preterm infants. Punctate lesions without other focal cerebral or cerebellar lesions were detected at term equivalent age in 123 (24...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036822/cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts-on-3-tesla-mri-in-patients-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Doeschka A Ferro, Susanne J van Veluw, Huiberdina L Koek, Lieza G Exalto, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are small ischemic lesions that are a common neuropathological finding in patients with stroke or dementia. CMIs in the cortex can now be detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of CMIs and associated clinical features in patients with possible vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). METHOD: 182 memory-clinic patients (mean age 71.4±10.6, 55% male) with vascular injury on brain MRI (i...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032126/weekly-follow-up-of-acute-lesions-in-three-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients-using-mr-spectroscopy-and-diffusion
#14
Gabriel Kocevar, Claudio Stamile, Salem Hannoun, Jean-Amédée Roch, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Sandra Vukusic, François Cotton, Dominique Sappey-Marinier
OBJECT: Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion formation, including inflammation, demyelination/remyelination and axonal damage, and their temporal evolution are still not clearly understood. To this end, three acute white matter lesions were monitored using a weekly multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three untreated patients with early relapsing-remitting MS and one healthy control subject were followed weekly for two months...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031739/neural-correlates-of-visuospatial-bias-in-patients-with-left-hemisphere-stroke-a-causal-functional-contribution-analysis-based-on-game-theory
#15
C Malherbe, R Umarova, M Zavaglia, C Kaller, L Beume, G Thomalla, C Weiller, C C Hilgetag
Stroke patients frequently display spatial neglect, an inability to report, or respond to, relevant stimuli in the contralesional space. Although this syndrome is widely considered to result from the dysfunction of a large-scale attention network, the individual contributions of damaged grey and white matter regions to neglect are still being disputed. Moreover, while the neuroanatomy of neglect in right hemispheric lesions is well studied, the contributions of left hemispheric brain regions to visuospatial processing are less well understood...
October 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030748/neuroimaging-of-cavernous-malformations
#16
REVIEW
Maxim Mokin, Siviero Agazzi, Lowell Dawson, Christopher T Primiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular abnormalities often discovered on imaging as an incidental finding. The most common clinical presentations of CCMs include seizure, headache, focal neurological deficits, and intracranial hemorrhage. This article discusses the most recent guidelines including imaging diagnostic criteria and radiographic standards of CCMs and reviews the utility of currently available imaging techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Gradient echo T2*-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging are the recommended imaging protocols for evaluation of suspected CCMs...
October 13, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027843/the-impact-of-vascular-risk-factors-on-brain-volume-and-lesion-load-in-patients-with-early-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Alexander Pichler, Michael Khalil, Christian Langkammer, Daniela Pinter, Stefan Ropele, Siegrid Fuchs, Gerhard Bachmaier, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas
BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors (VRF) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been associated with lower brain volumes. It is currently unknown if this association already exists in early MS and how it develops over time. METHODS: We identified 82 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) ( n = 61) or with early relapsing-remitting MS ( n = 21) and assessed their VRF including arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking. We analysed T2-lesion load, normalized brain volume (NBV), cortical grey (cGMV) and white matter volumes (WMV), thalamic and basal ganglia volumes at baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assessed the percentage of brain volume change (PBVC) using SIENA...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027841/diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-correlation-with-cognitive-function
#18
Maria M D'Souza, S P Gorthi, Kunal Vadwala, Richa Trivedi, C Vijayakumar, Prabhjot Kaur, Subash Khushu
Background Patients with cerebral small vessel disease may suffer from varying levels of cognitive deficit and may progress on to vascular dementia. The extent of involvement, as seen on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) measures, correlates poorly with the level of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a marker for white matter damage in small vessel disease and to assess its correlation with cognitive function. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with cerebral small vessel disease underwent conventional MR imaging, DTI, and neuropsychological assessment...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026663/ependymal-enhancement-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-identification-of-high-grade-gliomas
#19
Muhammad Waqas, Muzna Iftikhar, Usman T Siddiqui, Syed Ather Enam
BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas have high infiltrative potential and spread along white matter and blood vessels. Enhancement of ependymal lining on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered as a marker of parenchymal spread of disease. In this study, we aimed to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ependymal enhancement (EE) for identification of high-grade glial tumors. METHODS: We reviewed preoperative MRI scans of 94 consecutive patients surgically treated for space occupying lesions of the brain for EE...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026001/understanding-a-role-for-hypoxia-in-lesion-formation-and-location-in-the-deep-and-periventricular-white-matter-in-small-vessel-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Martinez Sosa, Kenneth J Smith
The deep and periventricular white matter is preferentially affected in several neurological disorders, including cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in this injury. Here we consider the potential pathogenic role of tissue hypoxia in lesion development, arising partly from the vascular anatomy of the affected white matter. Specifically, these regions are supplied by a sparse vasculature fed by long, narrow end arteries/arterioles that are vulnerable to oxygen desaturation if perfusion is reduced (as in SVD, MS and diabetes) or if the surrounding tissue is hypoxic (as in MS, at least)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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