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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#1
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339485/chronic-parp-1-inhibition-reduces-carotid-vessel-remodeling-and-oxidative-damage-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#2
Krisztian Eros, Klara Magyar, Laszlo Deres, Arpad Skazel, Adam Riba, Zoltan Vamos, Tamas Kalai, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi
Vascular remodeling during chronic hypertension may impair the supply of tissues with oxygen, glucose and other compounds, potentially unleashing deleterious effects. In this study, we used Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats with or without pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 by an experimental compound L-2286, to evaluate carotid artery remodeling and consequent damage of neuronal tissue during hypertension. We observed elevated oxidative stress and profound thickening of the vascular wall with fibrotic tissue accumulation induced by elevated blood pressure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#3
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334869/emerging-concepts-in-sporadic-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#4
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, M Edip Gurol, Cenk Ayata, Brian J Bacskai, Matthew P Frosch, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common, well-defined small vessel disease and a largely untreatable cause of intracerebral haemorrhage and contributor to age-related cognitive decline. The term 'cerebral amyloid angiopathy' now encompasses not only a specific cerebrovascular pathological finding, but also different clinical syndromes (both acute and progressive), brain parenchymal lesions seen on neuroimaging and a set of diagnostic criteria-the Boston criteria, which have resulted in increasingly detected disease during life...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332093/pathogenic-implications-of-distinct-patterns-of-iron-and-zinc-in-chronic-ms-lesions
#5
Bogdan F Popescu, Josa M Frischer, Samuel M Webb, Mylyne Tham, Reginald C Adiele, Christopher A Robinson, Patrick D Fitz-Gibbon, Stephen D Weigand, Imke Metz, Susan Nehzati, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, Wolfgang Brück, Simon Hametner, Hans Lassmann, Joseph E Parisi, Guo Yong, Claudia F Lucchinetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330962/distinct-white-matter-alterations-following-severe-stroke-longitudinal-dti-study-in-neglect
#6
Roza M Umarova, Lena Beume, Marco Reisert, Christoph P Kaller, Stefan Klöppel, Irina Mader, Volkmar Glauche, Valerij G Kiselev, Marco Catani, Cornelius Weiller
OBJECTIVE: To distinguish white matter remodeling directly induced by stroke lesion from that evoked by remote network dysfunction, using spatial neglect as a model. METHODS: We examined 24 visual neglect/extinction patients and 17 control patients combining comprehensive analyses of diffusion tensor metrics and global fiber tracking with neuropsychological testing in the acute (6.3 ± 0.5 days poststroke) and chronic (134 ± 7 days poststroke) stroke phases. RESULTS: Compared to stroke controls, patients with spatial neglect/extinction displayed longitudinal white matter alterations with 2 defining signatures: (1) perilesional degenerative changes characterized by congruently reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity, all suggestive of direct axonal damage by lesion and therefore nonspecific for impaired attention network and (2) transneuronal changes characterized by an increased RD in contralesional frontoparietal and bilateral occipital connections, suggestive of primary periaxonal involvement; these changes were distinctly related to the degree of unrecovered neglect symptoms in chronic stroke, hence emerging as network-specific alterations...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322870/painless-bilateral-visual-loss-in-a-33-year-old-woman-with-severe-arterial-hypotension
#7
Olaia Subirà, Silvia Muñoz, Juan José Sánchez, Paloma Puyalto, Andrew G Lee
A 32-year-old woman experienced dizziness and headache for 5 months. She also complained of painless, progressive bilateral visual loss for several weeks. Prior to developing the initial symptoms, she had an uncomplicated pregnancy except for dizziness and systemic hypotension during the first term. Fundus examination disclosed prominent retinal arteries, as well diffuse microaneurysms, widespread intraretinal hemorrhages, and hyperemic optic discs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple supratentorial white matter lesions suggestive of ischemic strokes...
March 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319253/heat-shock-protein-expression-in-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-reveals-astrocyte-stress-prior-to-myelin-loss
#8
Anna Lena Görtz, Laura A N Peferoen, Wouter H Gerritsen, Johannes M van Noort, Marianna Bugiani, Sandra Amor
AIMS: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic white matter disorder in which demyelination occurs due to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Inflammation in the brain white matter is a hallmark of the pathology of cerebral X-ALD, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still largely unknown. In other inflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in combination with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been suggested to play a prominent role in the initiation of demyelination and inflammation...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318355/dementia-incidence-and-predictors-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-patients-without-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Michael J Jessel, Marco Pasi, Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Emily Merrill, Kristin Schwab, Deborah Blacker, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of cognitive impairment in older individuals. This study aimed to investigate predictors of dementia in CAA patients without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 158 non-demented patients from the Stroke Service or the Memory Clinic who met the modified Boston Criteria for probable CAA were included. At baseline, neuroimaging markers, including lobar microbleeds (cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible centrum semiovale perivascular spaces (CSO-PVS), lacunes, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA) were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316994/multiple-factors-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-white-matter-lesions
#10
REVIEW
Jing Lin, Dilong Wang, Linfang Lan, Yuhua Fan
White matter lesions (WMLs), also known as leukoaraiosis (LA) or white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), are characterized mainly by hyperintensities on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. With the aging of the population and the development of imaging technology, the morbidity and diagnostic rates of WMLs are increasing annually. WMLs are not a benign process. They clinically manifest as cognitive decline and the subsequent development of dementia. Although WMLs are important, their pathogenesis is still unclear...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304255/neurocysticercosis-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#11
Jessica M Johnston, Cecilia D Dyer, Susan Madison-Antenucci, Kimberly Am Mergen, Christin L Veeder, Angela K Brice
An 8-y-old, intact, male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was sedated to undergo MRI in preparation for the implantation of cranial hardware. During imaging, 9 focal lesions were noted in the brain and musculature of the head. The lesions were hyperechoic with hypoechoic rims. The animal was deemed inappropriate for neuroscience research, and euthanasia was elected. Gross examination revealed multiple round, thick-walled, fluid-filled cysts (diameter, approximately 0.5 cm) in multiple tissues: one each in the left caudal lung lobe, left masseter muscle, and the dura overlying the brain and 8 throughout the gray and white matter of the brain parenchyma...
December 1, 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304232/a-systematic-evaluation-of-intraoperative-white-matter-tract-shift-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-using-high-field-mri-and-probabilistic-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#12
Joseph Yuan-Mou Yang, Richard Beare, Marc L Seal, A Simon Harvey, Vicki A Anderson, Wirginia J Maixner
OBJECTIVE Characterization of intraoperative white matter tract (WMT) shift has the potential to compensate for neuronavigation inaccuracies using preoperative brain imaging. This study aimed to quantify and characterize intraoperative WMT shift from the global hemispheric to the regional tract-based scale and to investigate the impact of intraoperative factors (IOFs). METHODS High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) diffusion-weighted data were acquired over 5 consecutive perioperative time points (MR1 to MR5) in 16 epilepsy patients (8 male; mean age 9...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303115/evolution-of-cerebral-ischemia-assessed-by-amide-proton-transfer-weighted-mri
#13
Guodong Song, Chunmei Li, Xiaojie Luo, Xuna Zhao, Shuai Zhang, Yi Zhang, Shanshan Jiang, Xianlong Wang, Yuhui Chen, Haibo Chen, Tao Gong, Jinyuan Zhou, Min Chen
Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently become a potentially important tool for evaluating acidosis in ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dynamic pH-related changes in the lesions in patients with ischemia. Thirty-nine patients with ischemic stroke (symptom onset to imaging time ranging 2 h-7 days) were examined with a 3.0-T MRI system. Patients were divided into four groups: at the hyperacute stage (onset time ≤ 6 h), at the acute stage (6 h < onset time ≤ 48 h), at the early subacute stage (48 h < onset time ≤ 96 h), and at the late subacute stage (96 h < onset time ≤ 168 h)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302760/-11-c-pbr28-or-18-f-pbr111-detect-white-matter-inflammatory-heterogeneity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Gourab Datta, Alessandro Colasanti, Nicola Kalk, David R Owen, Gregory Scott, Eugenii Ilan A Rabiner, Roger Gunn, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Lei Nie, Marco Battaglini, Nicola De Stefano, Paul Matthews
Objective: To assess microglial activation in lesions and in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: 34 MS patients (7 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), 27 with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS)) and 30 healthy volunteers, genetically stratified for translocator protein (TSPO), binding status underwent PET scanning with TSPO radioligands ((11)C-PBR28 or (18)F-PBR111). Regional TSPO availability was measured as a distribution volume ratio (DVR) relative to the caudate (a pseudo-reference region)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302146/relationship-of-acute-axonal-damage-wallerian-degeneration-and-clinical-disability-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Shailender Singh, Tobias Dallenga, Anne Winkler, Shanu Roemer, Brigitte Maruschak, Heike Siebert, Wolfgang Brück, Christine Stadelmann
BACKGROUND: Axonal damage and loss substantially contribute to the incremental accumulation of clinical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis. Here, we assessed the amount of Wallerian degeneration in brain tissue of multiple sclerosis patients in relation to demyelinating lesion activity and asked whether a transient blockade of Wallerian degeneration decreases axonal loss and clinical disability in a mouse model of inflammatory demyelination. METHODS: Wallerian degeneration and acute axonal damage were determined immunohistochemically in the periplaque white matter of multiple sclerosis patients with early actively demyelinating lesions, chronic active lesions, and inactive lesions...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302008/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidants-as-a-prospective-therapeutic-strategy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Elena K Fetisova, Boris V Chernyak, Galina A Korshunova, Maria S Muntyan, Vladimir P Skulachev
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most widespread chronic neurological diseases that manifests itself by progressive demyelination in the central nervous system. The study of MS pathogenesis begins with the onset of the relapsing-remitting phase of the disease, which becomes apparent due to microglia activation, neuroinflammation and demyelination/remyelination in the white matter. The following progressive phase is accompanied by severe neurological symptoms when demyelination and neurodegeneration are spread to both gray and white matter...
March 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300134/white-matter-repair-after-extracellular-vesicles-administration-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-subcortical-stroke
#17
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, María Del Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Jorge Pascual-Guerra, Blanca Fuentes, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Mesenchymal stem cells have previously been shown to mediate brain repair after stroke; they secrete 50-100 nm complexes called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which could be responsible for provoking neurovascular repair and functional recovery. EVs have been observed by electron microscopy and NanoSight, and they contain associated proteins such as CD81 and Alix. This purified, homogeneous population of EVs was administered intravenously after subcortical stroke in rats. To evaluate the EVs effects, we studied the biodistribution, proteomics analysis, functional evaluation, lesion size, fiber tract integrity, axonal sprouting and white matter repair markers...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298732/imaging-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-pictorial-review
#18
Felipe Mussi von Ranke, Igor Murad Faria, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Arthur Soares Souza, Edson Marchiori
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetically determined hamartomatous neurocutaneous disease with high phenotypic variability. TSC is characterized by widespread hamartomas and benign, or rarely malignant, neoplasms distributed in several organs throughout the body, especially in the brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart, and lung. Common manifestations include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, white matter abnormalities, retinal abnormalities, cardiac rhabdomyoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, renal angiomyolipoma, and skin lesions...
January 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298028/intracranial-intraaxial-cerebral-tufted-angioma-case-report
#19
Randy S D'Amico, George Zanazzi, Gunnar Hargus, Timothy Dyster, Shirley Chan, Angela Lignelli-Dipple, Tony J C Wang, Phyllis L Faust, Guy M McKhann
Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare, slow-growing, vascular lesion that commonly presents as a solitary macule, papule, or nodule arising in the soft tissues of the torso, extremities, and head and neck in children and young adults. Adult-onset cases have been infrequently reported. While typically benign, TAs may be locally aggressive. Complete physical examination and hematological workup are recommended in patients with TA to exclude the presence of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP). The authors describe the case of a 69-year-old man with a contrast-enhancing frontal lobe lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema, which was treated by gross-total resection...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295155/antecedents-and-neuroimaging-patterns-in-cerebral-palsy-with-epilepsy-and-cognitive-impairment-a-population-based-study-in-children-born-at-term
#20
Kristina Ahlin, Bo Jacobsson, Staffan Nilsson, Kate Himmelmann
INTRODUCTION: Antecedents of accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy (CP) and their relation to neuroimaging patterns need to be explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study of 309 children with CP born at term in 1983-1994. Pre-, intra- and postpartum variables previously studied as antecedents of CP type and motor severity were analysed in children with CP and cognitive impairment and/or epilepsy, and in children with CP without these accompanying impairments...
March 12, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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