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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650692/microrna-mediated-therapy-modulating-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-improves-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#1
Kensuke Toyama, Joshua M Spin, Alicia C Deng, Ting-Ting Huang, Ke Wei, Markus U Wagenhäuser, Takuya Yoshino, Huy Nguyen, Joscha Mulorz, Soumajit Kundu, Uwe Raaz, Matti Adam, Isabel N Schellinger, Ann Jagger, Philip S Tsao
OBJECTIVE: There are currently no effective treatments for the prevention of dementia associated with vascular cognitive impairment. MicroRNAs regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play key roles in vascular disorders. TNFα (tumor necrosis factor-α) regulates blood-brain barrier breakdown through modification of cerebral tight junctions. Here, we sought key TNFα-responsive microRNAs that might influence blood-brain barrier breakdown via cerebral tight junction disruption in vascular cognitive impairment...
April 12, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650593/human-neural-stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-improve-recovery-in-a-porcine-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#2
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Brian J Jurgielewicz, Samantha Spellicy, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Raymond L Swetenburg, David C Hess, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO...
April 12, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648977/severe-tbi-patients-without-focal-lesion-but-with-behavioral-disorders-shrinkage-of-gray-matter-nuclei-and-thalamus-revealed-in-a-pilot-voxel-based-mri-study
#3
Alexis Ruet, Françoise Joyeux, Shailandra Segobin, Corinne Jokic, Béatrice Desgranges, Francis Eustache, Anne-Lise Pitel
After a traumatic brain injury (TBI), behavioral disorders can occur without major focal brain lesion and in this case, their pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine whether TBI patients with behavioral disorders but without any focal damage, as observed from an initial clinical CT scan, present subtle volumetric alterations that could be measured voxel-by-voxel in the whole brain with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight severe TBI male adults with behavioral sequela but without major focal cerebral lesion and 17 age-matched controls underwent a volumetric T1-weighted 1...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643587/relationship-of-white-matter-lesions-and-severity-of-pushing-behavior-after-stroke
#4
Yuji Fujino, Kazu Amimoto, Satoshi Sugimoto, Kazuhiro Fukata, Masahide Inoue, Akira Uchino, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Shigeru Makita
[Purpose] The relationship between white matter lesions (WMLs) and pushing behavior (PB) is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether damage from WMLs affects the functional outcome of PB after acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 37 patients were included. PB was assessed using the standardized Scale for Contraversive Pushing (SCP). Stroke types were classified as total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI), or lacunar syndrome using the Bamford classification...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629942/paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-other-acute-demyelinating-diseases
#5
Kevin Rostásy, Barbara Bajer-Kornek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimmunological diseases encompass a wide spectrum of diseases in children. Apart from the discovery of autoantibodies affecting primarily grey matter structures and the improved clinical characterization of rare entities such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptor-R- encephalitis, important strides have also been made in autoimmune-mediated white matter diseases, including paediatric multiple sclerosis (pedMS) and other acute demyelinating syndromes (ADS) often associated with antibodies (abs) against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG)...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628174/early-identification-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-cerebral-lesions-in-unconventional-locations-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Weihe Zhang, Lei Cui, Wei Wang, Yujuan Jiao, Yeqiong Zhang, Jinsong Jiao
To facilitate the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting with brain lesions in unconventional locations (BLUL) on MRI, we retrospectively analyzed forty-five Chinese patients. Eighteen (40.0%) of their MRI initially exhibited one or more BLUL. These locations predominantly included cerebral gray matter (cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus), as well as white matter and brainstem. Due to these BLUL, thirteen (72.2%) patients were originally misdiagnosed with other diseases and developed poor clinical and imaging outcomes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627833/small-hyperintensities-in-the-area-of-the-perforating-arteries-in-patients-with-seizure
#7
Nobuyuki Izutsu, Yasunori Fujimoto, Naoaki Yamada, Ryuichiro Kajikawa, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Munenori Nagashima, Akatsuki Wakayama, Toshiki Yoshimine
BACKGROUND/AIM: We previously observed spotty hyperintense lesions in the region of the perforating arteries on peri-ictal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI); however, no report has formally described these findings. The aim of this study was to investigate focal intensities on peri-ictal DWI, and to evaluate the clinical significance of these lesions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 677 consecutive patients with seizure who completed peri-ictal DWI within 24 h after seizure onset...
April 6, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626359/simultaneous-ph-sensitive-and-oxygen-sensitive-mri-of-human-gliomas-at-3-t-using-multi-echo-amine-proton-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-spin-and-gradient-echo-echo-planar-imaging-cest-sage-epi
#8
Robert J Harris, Jingwen Yao, Ararat Chakhoyan, Catalina Raymond, Kevin Leu, Linda M Liau, Phioanh L Nghiemphu, Albert Lai, Noriko Salamon, Whitney B Pope, Timothy F Cloughesy, Benjamin M Ellingson
PURPOSE: To introduce a new pH-sensitive and oxygen-sensitive MRI technique using amine proton CEST echo spin-and-gradient echo (SAGE) EPI (CEST-SAGE-EPI). METHODS: pH-weighting was obtained using CEST estimations of magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) at 3 ppm, and oxygen-weighting was obtained using R2' measurements. Glutamine concentration, pH, and relaxation rates were varied in phantoms to validate simulations and estimate relaxation rates. The values of MTRasym and R2' in normal-appearing white matter, T2 hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, and macroscopic necrosis were measured in 47 gliomas...
April 6, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624578/semantic-representation-in-the-white-matter-pathway
#9
Yuxing Fang, Xiaosha Wang, Suyu Zhong, Luping Song, Zaizhu Han, Gaolang Gong, Yanchao Bi
Object conceptual processing has been localized to distributed cortical regions that represent specific attributes. A challenging question is how object semantic space is formed. We tested a novel framework of representing semantic space in the pattern of white matter (WM) connections by extending the representational similarity analysis (RSA) to structural lesion pattern and behavioral data in 80 brain-damaged patients. For each WM connection, a neural representational dissimilarity matrix (RDM) was computed by first building machine-learning models with the voxel-wise WM lesion patterns as features to predict naming performance of a particular item and then computing the correlation between the predicted naming score and the actual naming score of another item in the testing patients...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622558/characteristic-mr-imaging-findings-of-the-neonatal-brain-in-rasopathies
#10
M N Cizmeci, M Lequin, K D Lichtenbelt, D Chitayat, P Kannu, A G James, F Groenendaal, E Chakkarapani, S Blaser, L S de Vries
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroimaging features in neonates with RASopathies are rarely reported, and to date, there are no neuroimaging studies conducted in this population. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of supratentorial and posterior fossa abnormalities on brain MRIs of neonates with a RASopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational case-control study of neonates with a confirmed RASopathy was conducted. The presence of an intraventricular and/or parenchymal hemorrhage and punctate white matter lesions and assessments of the splenium of the corpus callosum, gyrification of the cortical gray matter, and enlargement of the extracerebral space were noted...
April 5, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621274/phenotype-and-biochemical-heterogeneity-in-late-onset-fabry-disease-defined-by-n215s-mutation
#11
L Lavalle, A S Thomas, B Beaton, H Ebrahim, M Reed, U Ramaswami, P Elliott, A B Mehta, D A Hughes
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) results from X-linked inheritance of a mutation in the GLA gene, encoding for alpha galactosidase A, and is characterized by heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Two phenotypes have been described "Classic" and "late onset" which cannot be predicted exclusively by genotype. The latter has been considered an attenuated form of the disease often affecting a single organ system commonly the heart. Recent studies have demonstrated that cardiac outcomes are similar in patients with classic and late onset mutations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620009/the-link-between-structural-connectivity-and-neurocognition-illustrated-by-focal-epilepsy
#12
Elise Roger, Laurent Petit, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Anne-Sophie Job, Lorella Minotti, Philippe Kahane, Monica Baciu
Increasing attention is being paid to the assessment of white matter properties and its structural connectivity, both in healthy subjects and patients with cerebral lesions. Within this framework, new neurocognitive models based on hodological properties have been developed under a connectomic perspective in order to explain substrates and cognitive mechanisms related to cerebral functions such as language and memory. With regards to focal and drug-resistant epilepsy conceived as a network disorder, new insights in terms of structural connectivity have led to significant advances in epilepsy research, concerning fundamental research (neurocognitive mechanisms of plasticity) and clinical application (optimization of decision making for curative surgery)...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616027/detailed-characterization-of-t-cell-receptor-repertoires-in-multiple-sclerosis-brain-lesions
#13
Raquel Planas, Imke Metz, Roland Martin, Mireia Sospedra
The antigen-specific activation of pathogenic T cells is considered essential in the initiation and maintenance of multiple sclerosis (MS). The site of activation, the differential involvement of CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, their functional phenotype, and specificity, are important aspects to understand MS pathogenesis. The analysis of clonal expansions of brain-infiltrating T cells may reveal local antigen-driven activation or specific brain homing and allow the identification of putatively pathogenic T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615927/hemodynamic-and-metabolic-assessment-of-neonates-with-punctate-white-matter-lesions-using-phase-contrast-mri-and-t2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging-trust-mri
#14
Ying Qi, Peiying Liu, Zixuan Lin, Hanzhang Lu, Xiaoming Wang
The brain's hemodynamic and metabolism of punctate white matter lesions (PWML) is poorly understood due to a scarcity of non-invasive imaging techniques. The aim of this study was to apply new MRI techniques to quantify cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ), global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen saturation fractions in venous blood (Yv) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in neonates with PWML, for better understanding of the pathophysiology of PWML. Fifty-one newborns were recruited continuously, including 23 neonatal patients with PWML and 28 normal control neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614655/low-cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-and-a%C3%AE-40-are-related-to-white-matter-lesions-in-cognitively-normal-elderly
#15
Ingmar Skoog, Silke Kern, Henrik Zetterberg, Svante Östling, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Xinxin Guo, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ42 may be the earliest manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Knowledge on how CSF Aβ interacts with different brain pathologies early in the disease process is limited. We examined how CSF Aβ markers relate to brain atrophy and white matter lesions (WMLs) in octogenarians with and without dementia to explore the earliest pathogenetic pathways of AD in the oldest old. OBJECTIVE: To study CSF amyloid biomarkers in relation to brain atrophy and WMLs in 85-year-olds with and without dementia...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607917/-cadasil-with-cysteine-sparing-notch3-mutation-manifesting-as-dissociated-progression-between-cognitive-impairment-and-brain-image-findings-in-3-years-a-case-report
#16
Keisuke Tachiyama, Yuji Shiga, Yutaka Shimoe, Ikuko Mizuta, Toshiki Mizuno, Masaru Kuriyama
A 55-year-old man with no history of stroke or migraine presented to the clinic with cognitive impairment and depression that had been experiencing for two years. Neurological examination showed bilateral pyramidal signs, and impairments in cognition and attention. Brain MRI revealed multiple lacunar lesions and microbleeds in the deep cerebral white matter, subcortical regions, and brainstem, as well as diffuse white matter hyperintensities without anterior temporal pole involvement. Cerebral single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed bilateral hypoperfusion in the basal ganglia...
March 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605593/lesion-mapping-in-acute-stroke-aphasia-and-its-implications-for-recovery
#17
Stephanie J Forkel, Marco Catani
Patients with stroke lesions offer a unique window into understanding human brain function. Studying stroke lesions poses several challenges due to the complexity of the lesion anatomy and the mechanisms causing local and remote disruptions on brain networks. In this prospective longitudinal study, we compare standard and advanced approaches to white matter lesion mapping applied to acute stroke patients with aphasia. Eighteen patients with acute left hemisphere stroke were recruited and scanned within two weeks from symptom onset...
March 29, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604970/central-nervous-system-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#18
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604173/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-review-of-clinico-radiological-features-and-mimics
#19
REVIEW
Rohit Sharma, Stephanie Dearaugo, Bernard Infeld, Richard O'Sullivan, Richard P Gerraty
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in the elderly, but has other clinico-radiological manifestations. In the last two decades, certain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, namely gradient-recalled echo imaging and the newer and more sensitive susceptibility-weighted imaging, have been utilised to detect susceptibility-sensitive lesions such as cerebral microbleeds and cortical superficial siderosis. These can be utilised sensitively and specifically by the Modified Boston Criteria to make a diagnosis of CAA without the need for 'gold-standard' histopathology from biopsy...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600597/mmp7-cleaves-remyelination-impairing-fibronectin-aggregates-and-its-expression-is-reduced-in-chronic-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#20
Peng Wang, Rianne P Gorter, Jenny C de Jonge, Muhammad Nazmuddin, Chao Zhao, Sandra Amor, Dick Hoekstra, Wia Baron
Upon demyelination, transient expression of fibronectin precedes successful remyelination. However, in chronic demyelination observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), aggregates of fibronectin persist and contribute to remyelination failure. Accordingly, removing fibronectin (aggregates) would constitute an effective strategy for promoting remyelination. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes known to remodel extracellular matrix components, including fibronectin. Here, we examined the ability of MMPs to degrade fibronectin aggregates...
March 30, 2018: Glia
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