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White matter lesions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228325/episodic-migraine-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-association-of-pain-lateralization
#1
Ahmet Yalcin, Mustafa Ceylan, Omer Faruk Bayraktutan, Adem Akkurt
Background: Migraine pathophysiology involves a neuronal mechanism that is closely associated with the neuronal activation of peripheral trigeminal nociceptive pathways. It also involves a vascular mechanism that is supported by studies concerning the presence of migraine with aura in various vascular diseases. Migraine is associated with silent infarct-like lesions and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) that can be encountered during magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the migraine-WMH link based on pain lateralization...
December 8, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226864/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-white-matter-neuronal-fiber-integrity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Kan Ding, Takashi Tarumi, David C Zhu, Benjamin Tseng, Binu P Thomas, Marcel Turner, Justin Repshas, Diana R Kerwin, Kyle B Womack, Hanzhang Lu, C Munro Cullum, Rong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence showed the self-reported levels of physical activity are positively associated with white matter (WM) integrity and cognitive performance in normal adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the objective measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was not used in these studies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of CRF measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) with WM fiber integrity and neurocognitive performance in older adults with MCI...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222823/dominant-role-of-microglial-and-macrophage-innate-immune-responses-in-human-ischemic-infarcts
#3
Tobias Zrzavy, Joana Machado-Santos, Sheren Christine, Christoph Baumgartner, Howard L Weiner, Oleg Butovsky, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory mechanisms, involving granulocytes, T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and activated microglia, have been suggested to play a pathogenic role in experimental models of stroke and may be targets for therapeutic intervention. However, knowledge on the inflammatory response in human stroke lesions is limited. Here, we performed a quantitative study on the inflammatory reaction in human ischemic infarct lesions. We found increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, mainly CD8+ cells, but not of B-lymphocytes. Their number was very low in comparison to that seen in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system and they did not show signs of activation...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220730/effect-of-white-matter-changes-on-risk-score-for-peri-procedural-complications-after-carotid-artery-stenting
#4
Chun Yu, Wen Cheng Guo, Lei Zhu, Jin Yun Tan, Wei Hao Shi, Xiao Long Zhang, Yu Xiang Gu, Xiang Han, Qiang Dong
OBJECTIVES: The presence of more severe white matter changes (WMC) may be associated with a higher risk of peri-procedural strokes in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, to what extent WMC affects peri-procedural risk of CAS is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of WMC on peri-procedural complications by modifying a CAS peri-procedural risk scale through adding the assessment of WMC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A database of patients undergoing CAS was sampled from 2007 to 2014 in a single Chinese medical center...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219028/ambulatory-pulse-pressure-brain-neuronal-fiber-integrity-and-cerebral-blood-flow-in-older-adults
#5
Takashi Tarumi, Binu P Thomas, Ciwen Wang, Li Zhang, Jie Liu, Marcel Turner, Jonathan Riley, Nikita Tangella, Kyle B Womack, Diana R Kerwin, C Munro Cullum, Hanzhang Lu, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, David C Zhu, Rong Zhang
Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) reflects the end-organ vascular stress in daily life; however, its influence on brain neuronal fiber integrity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the associations among ABP, white matter (WM) neuronal fiber integrity, and CBF in older adults. We tested 144 participants via ABP monitoring and diffusion tensor imaging. The total level and pulsatile indices of CBF were measured by phase-contrast MRI and transcranial Doppler, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218499/effect-of-clip3-upregulation-on-astrocyte-proliferation-and-subsequent-glial-scar-formation-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-via-stat3-pathway-after-injury
#6
Xiaoqing Chen, Cheng Chen, Jie Hao, Jiyun Zhang, Feng Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event resulting in neuron degeneration and permanent paralysis through inflammatory cytokine overproduction and glial scar formation. Presently, the endogenous molecular mechanisms coordinating glial scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain elusive. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-known transcription factor particularly involving in cell proliferation and inflammation in the lesion site following SCI. Meanwhile, CAP-Gly domain containing linker protein 3(CLIP3), a vital cytoplasmic protein, has been confirmed to providing an optimal conduit for intracellular signal transduction and interacting with STAT3 with mass spectrometry analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218106/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-effectively-protects-brain-against-chronic-cerebral-hypo-perfusion-induced-neuropathological-changes
#7
Han-Tan Chai, Kuan-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chih-Hung Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Yung-Lung Chen, Chun-Man Yuen, Pei-Lin Shao, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Ching-Jen Wang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip, Sheung-Fat Ko
This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy could protect mouse brain from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP)-induced neuropathological changes in a bilateral carotid arterial stenosis (CAS) model. Adult-male C57BL/6 (B6) mice (n=36) were randomized into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (CHP) and group 3 [CHP+ECSW (100 impulses at 0.15 mJ/mm2) on day 5, 10 and 15 after CHP induction]. By day 60 after CHP induction, the white matter lesion, protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/iNOS), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4/nitrotyrosine), angiogenesis (eNOS/CD31), apoptotic (Bax/caspase-3/PARP), fibrotic (Smad3/TGF-ß) and mitochondrial-damaged (cytosolic cytochrome-C) biomarkers were significantly higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1, whereas the protein expressions of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), anti-fibrotic (BMP-2/Smad1/5), and mitochondrial-integrity (mitochondrial cytochrome-C) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern to inflammation among the three groups (all P<0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217741/on-the-reproducibility-of-inversion-recovery-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-imaging-in-cerebrovascular-disease
#8
S M Wong, W H Backes, C E Zhang, J Staals, R J van Oostenbrugge, C R L P N Jeukens, J F A Jansen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging can measure both microvascular and parenchymal abnormalities simultaneously. The contamination of CSF signal can be suppressed using inversion recovery preparation. The clinical feasibility of inversion recovery-intravoxel incoherent motion imaging was investigated in patients with cerebrovascular disease by studying its reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with cerebrovascular disease (66 ± 8 years of age) underwent inversion recovery-intravoxel incoherent motion imaging twice...
December 7, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212715/bcas1-expression-defines-a-population-of-early-myelinating-oligodendrocytes-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#9
Maryam K Fard, Franziska van der Meer, Paula Sánchez, Ludovico Cantuti-Castelvetri, Sunit Mandad, Sarah Jäkel, Eugenio F Fornasiero, Sebastian Schmitt, Marc Ehrlich, Laura Starost, Tanja Kuhlmann, Christina Sergiou, Verena Schultz, Claudia Wrzos, Wolfgang Brück, Henning Urlaub, Leda Dimou, Christine Stadelmann, Mikael Simons
Investigations into brain function and disease depend on the precise classification of neural cell types. Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage differ greatly in their morphology, but accurate identification has thus far only been possible for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes in humans. We find that breast carcinoma amplified sequence 1 (BCAS1) expression identifies an oligodendroglial subpopulation in the mouse and human brain. These cells are newly formed, myelinating oligodendrocytes that segregate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes and mark regions of active myelin formation in development and in the adult...
December 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209586/diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-tractography-application-in-pre-operative-planning-of-intra-axial-brain-lesions
#10
Neetu Soni, Anant Mehrotra, Sanjay Behari, Sunil Kumar, Nishant Gupta
Gliomas are the most common brain tumors that diffusely infiltrate the surrounding white matter (WM) tracts. Conventional MRI is commonly used for tumor localization and characterization. However, this does not give precise information about the WM infiltration surrounding the tumor. Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive magnetic resonance (MR) technique that measures WM tissue integrity and tractography (fiber tracking) used to investigate the preferential directionality of diffusion. DTI allows visualization of WM tracts in the immediate vicinity of brain tumors that permit maximum tumor resection while also preserving the eloquent brain areas...
October 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209585/video-microscope-robotic-arm-assisted-neuronavigation-guided-glioma-resection-and-regional-sampling
#11
Muhammad Waqas, Syed Ather Enam, Fauzan A Hashmi, Fatima Mubarak, Fazal Arain
High-grade gliomas possess internal pathological heterogeneity. Selective sampling of different tumor regions can help in the study of this heterogeneity. In this report, we have described the use of a novel navigation and optical system for the selective regional sampling of a high-grade glioma lesion. A 45-year-old gentleman presented to us with complaints of intermittent frontal headaches for past eight months. On examination, he had subtle pyramidal weakness in left upper and lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large contrast-enhancing, space-occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe causing perilesional edema and midline shift...
October 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208342/pediatric-stroke-related-to-lyme-neuroborreliosis-data-from-the-swiss-neuropaediatric-stroke-registry-and-literature-review
#12
O Monteventi, M Steinlin, M Regényi, E Roulet-Perez, P Weber, J Fluss
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular complications of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are poorly documented in the paediatric population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis from prospectively registered cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) from the Swiss NeuroPaediatric Stroke Registry (SNPSR) from 2000 to 2015. Only cases with serologically confirmed LNB were included. In addition, a literature review on paediatric stroke cases secondary to Lyme neuroborreliosis in the same time frame was performed...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204962/adult-leukoencephalopathies-with-prominent-infratentorial-involvement-can-be-caused-by-erdheim-chester-disease
#13
Luisa Chiapparini, Giulio Cavalli, Tiziana Langella, Anna Venerando, Giacomo De Luca, Sergio Raspante, Giorgio Marotta, Bianca Pollo, Giuseppe Lauria, Maria Giulia Cangi, Simonetta Gerevini, Andrea Botturi, Davide Pareyson, Lorenzo Dagna, Ettore Salsano
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathies with prominent involvement of cerebellum and brainstem, henceforward called prominent infratentorial leukoencephalopathies (PILs), encompass a variety of inherited and acquired white matter diseases. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis likely under-diagnosed as cause of adult PIL. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and laboratory information of ten consecutive sporadic adult patients with PIL of unknown origin, who were investigated for ECD...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204290/meningeal-carcinomatosis-and-spinal-cord-infiltration-caused-by-a-locally-invasive-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-in-a-cat
#14
Christoforos Posporis, Llorenç Grau-Roma, Olga Travetti, Maria Oliveira, Laura Polledo, Annette Wessmann
Case summary: A 12-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with acute non-painful hindlimb proprioceptive ataxia localising to T3-L3 spinal cord segments. MRI revealed paravertebral muscular hyperintensity on T2-weighted images at the level of T7-T8 vertebrae. The cat improved on conservative management but deteriorated 3 months later. Repeated MRI showed meningeal enhancement at the same level and hyperintensity of the paravertebral musculature extending to the right thoracic wall and pleural space on short tau inversion recovery images...
July 2017: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201856/complete-reversal-of-diffusion-restriction-after-treatment-of-traumatic-carotid-cavernous-fistula
#15
Jeong Hyun Shim, Inbo Han
A 15-year-old man presented with stupor following a motorcycle traffic accident. The patient was diagnosed with a traumatic left carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) with pseudoaneurysm of the left internal carotid artery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed transiently restricted diffusion in the left centrum semiovale white matter and lower temporo-occipital area extending to the splenium of the corpus callosum, with high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging. On the 35th day of admission, the patient had complete neurological recovery and a follow-up brain MRI revealed complete resolution of the lesions in the left centrum semiovale and splenium of the corpus callosum...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201326/a-challenging-entity-multiple-sclerosis-or-collagen-tissue-disorders-a-case-series-of-6-patients
#16
Raida Ben Salah, Yosra Cherif, Faten Frikha, Dammak Chifaa, Mouna Snoussi, Moez Jallouli, Sameh Marzouk, Mhiri Chokri, Zouhir Bahloul
Background: Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating processes are sometimes difficult to differentiate from the neurological involvement in autoimmune diseases. Distinguishing multiple sclerosis from other lesions due to autoimmune diseases is crucial to avoid unsuitable or delayed treatments. Methods: Charts of 6 patients diagnosed with mimicking multiple sclerosis between 1996 and 2014 were retrospectively assessed. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 35±7 years...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201191/extended-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-on-the-effect-of-classically-activated-microglia-transplantation-on-white-matter-regeneration-following-spinal-cord-focal-injury-in-adult-rats
#17
Wiesław Marcol, Wojciech Ślusarczyk, Magdalena Larysz-Brysz, Krzysztof Łabuzek, Bartosz Kapustka, Rafał Staszkiewicz, Paulina Rosicka, Katarzyna Kalita, Władysław Węglarz, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
Spinal cord injuries are still a serious problem for regenerative medicine. Previous research has demonstrated that activated microglia accumulate in spinal lesions, influencing the injured tissues in various ways. Therefore, transplantation of activated microglia may have a beneficial role in the regeneration of the nervous system. The present study examined the influence of transplanted activated microglial cells in adult rats with injured spinal cords. Rats were randomly divided into an experimental (M) and control (C) group, and were subjected to non-laminectomy focal injury of spinal cord white matter by means of a high-pressured air stream...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200907/chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-and-plasticity-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery-following-permanent-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion
#18
Kyung-Ok Cho, Seul-Ki Kim, Seong Yun Kim
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a group of heterogeneous diseases with the common feature of cerebral hypoperfusion. To identify key factors contributing to VaD pathophysiology, we performed a detailed comparison of Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). Eight-week old male Wistar and SD rats underwent BCCAo, followed by a reference memory test using a five-radial arm maze with tactile cues. Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was performed with a laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) system...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199200/age-stratification-and-impact-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-to-arachidonic-acid-ratios-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#19
Yuji Ueno, Ryota Tanaka, Kazuo Yamashiro, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kenichiro Hira, Naohide Kurita, Mayu Sakurai, Takao Urabe, Kazunori Shimada, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Daida, Nobutaka Hattori
AIM: We focused on the ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to arachidonic acid (AA) and explored the significance of these ratios relative to clinical characteristics by age in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent radiological investigations and laboratory examinations, including measurement of serum EPA, DHA, and AA levels, and controls. Patients were classified according to age (<65, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years) and the tertile of EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios, and clinical aspects were compared with these factors...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198072/pres-in-the-course-of-hemato-oncological-treatment-in-children
#20
Katarzyna Musioł, Sylwia Waz, Michał Boroń, Magdalena Kwiatek, Magdalena Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Katarzyna Gruszczyńska, Grażyna Sobol-Milejska
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical syndrome of varying aetiologies, characterised by acute neurological symptoms of brain dysfunction with MRI abnormalities in posterior cerebral white and grey matter. In most cases, symptoms resolve without neurological consequences. AIM: The aim of this paper is the analysis of predisposing factors, clinical outcomes and radiological features of PRES in eight children with hemato-oncological disease...
December 2, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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