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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820013/diagnostic-performance-of-central-vein-sign-for-multiple-sclerosis-with-a-simplified-three-lesion-algorithm
#1
Andrew J Solomon, Richard Watts, Daniel Ontaneda, Martina Absinta, Pascal Sati, Daniel S Reich
BACKGROUND: Detection of a "central vein sign" (CVS) on FLAIR* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly specific and sensitive for multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of simplified CVS algorithms for MS diagnosis. METHODS: MRIs from 10 participants with MS without additional comorbidities for MRI white matter abnormalities; 10 with MS and additional comorbidities for white matter abnormalities; 10 with migraine, white matter abnormalities, and no additional comorbidities; and 10 who had previously been erroneously diagnosed with MS were evaluated...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818358/black-toenail-sign-in-melas-syndrome
#2
Matthew T Whitehead, Michael Wien, Bonmyong Lee, Nancy Bass, Andrea Gropman
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder often causing progressive brain injury that is not confined to large arterial territories. Severe insults ultimately lead to gyral necrosis affecting the cortex and juxtacortical white matter; the neuroimaging correlate is partial gyral signal suppression on T2/FLAIR sequences that resemble black toenails. We aimed to characterize the imaging features and the natural history of MELAS-related gyral necrosis...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815096/a-case-of-congenital-brainstem-oligodendroglioma-pathology-findings-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Stefan Kostadinov, Suzanne de la Monte
Congenital and perinatal primary brain neoplasms are extremely rare. Brainstem neoplasms in the perinatal and neonatal period are typically of high-grade nature and have poor prognoses with survival rates of less than 2 years from diagnosis. Herein, we report an unusual case of congenital anaplastic oligodendroglioma that arose in the pons and was detected as diffuse pontine glioma on in utero imaging studies during prenatal evaluation at 26 weeks' gestation. A male infant was delivered at 36.4 weeks of gestation via Cesarean section who developed progressive dyspnea shortly after birth...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814098/quantitative-and-qualitative-mri-evaluation-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-an-elderly-population-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Ruta Nylander, Markus Fahlström, Egill Rostrup, Joel Kullberg, Soheil Damangir, Håkan Ahlström, Lars Lind, Elna-Marie Larsson
Background Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunes, and microbleeds are seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in small vessel disease (SVD). Purpose To assess SVD on MRI and its evolution over five years in an elderly population and to investigate whether relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at baseline was related to the progression of white matter (WM) lesions. Material and Methods In a population-based study, 406 participants aged 75 years underwent morphological MRI of the brain and 252 of them again at age 80 years...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811520/chronic-post-stroke-aphasia-severity-is-determined-by-fragmentation-of-residual-white-matter-networks
#5
Barbara K Marebwa, Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Lynda Feenaughty, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Many stroke survivors with aphasia in the acute period experience spontaneous recovery within the first six months after the stroke. However, approximately 30-40% sustain permanent aphasia and the factors determining incomplete recovery are unclear. Suboptimal recovery may be influenced by disruption of areas seemingly spared by the stroke due to loss of white matter connectivity and network integrity. We reconstructed individual anatomical whole-brain connectomes from 90 left hemisphere stroke survivors using diffusion MR images...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810566/correlation-analysis-between-the-ldl-c-in-serum-and-the-onset-of-transient-ischemic-attack-caused-by-csvd
#6
Yaqi Chen, Mei Hu, Hongying Gong
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum and the onset of transient ischemic attack caused by cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD). Between September 2012 and September 2015, 249 patients who were diagnosed as CSVD were randomly enrolled in this study. According to MRI results, patients were divided into the patient and control groups. In the patient group, the patients were further subdivided into the white matter lesion (WML) group (n=86) and lacunar infarction (LI) group (n=53)...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810563/dystrophia-myotonica-type-1-presenting-with-dysarthria-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Chunrong Li, Xiaoling Zhang, Chunkui Zhou, Lijun Zhu, Kangding Liu, Shaokuan Fang
Dystrophia myotonica (DM) type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder, caused by a trinucleotide CTG repeat expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene (chromosome 19q13.3). The disorder affects different organ systems, including the skeletal muscles, ocular lens, lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tract, as well as the endocrine and central nervous systems. The skeletal muscles are most frequently involved, whereby the disorder manifests as myotonia, muscle weakness and amyotrophy...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805273/neurotoxicosis-in-horses-associated-with-consumption-of-trema-micrantha
#8
M P Lorenzett, P R Pereira, D M Bassuino, G Konradt, W Panziera, M V Bianchi, F F Argenta, M E Hammerschmitt, R A Caprioli, C S L de Barros, S P Pavarini, D Driemeier
BACKGROUND: Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed. OBJECTIVES: This study describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
August 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803512/heterogeneous-pathological-processes-account-for-thalamic-degeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis-insights-from-7%C3%A2-t-imaging
#9
Céline Louapre, Sindhuja T Govindarajan, Costanza Giannì, Nancy Madigan, Jacob A Sloane, Constantina A Treaba, Elena Herranz, Revere P Kinkel, Caterina Mainero
BACKGROUND: Thalamic degeneration impacts multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate heterogeneous thalamic pathology, its correlation with white matter (WM), cortical lesions and thickness, and as function of distance from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: In 41 MS subjects and 17 controls, using 3 and 7 T imaging, we tested for (1) differences in thalamic volume and quantitative T2* (q-T2*) (2) globally and (3) within concentric bands originating from the CSF/thalamus interface; (4) the relation between thalamic, cortical, and WM metrics; and (5) the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics to clinical scores...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801477/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-renal-function-are-associated-with-brain-alterations-and-poststroke-cognitive-decline
#10
Einor Ben Assayag, Roy Eldor, Amos D Korczyn, Efrat Kliper, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Oren Tene, Jeremy Molad, Itzhak Shapira, Shlomo Berliner, Viki Volfson, Ludmila Shopin, Yehuda Strauss, Hen Hallevi, Natan M Bornstein, Eitan Auriel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with diseases of the brain, kidney, and vasculature. However, the relationship between T2DM, chronic kidney disease, brain alterations, and cognitive function after stroke is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the inter-relationship between T2DM, impaired renal function, brain pathology on imaging, and cognitive decline in a longitudinal poststroke cohort. METHODS: The TABASCO (Tel Aviv brain acute stroke cohort) is a prospective cohort of stroke/transient ischemic attack survivors...
August 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800041/influence-of-preeclampsia-and-late-life-hypertension-on-mri-measures-of-cortical-atrophy
#11
Mekala R Raman, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Samantha M Zuk, Matthew L Senjem, Wendy M White, Julie A Fields, Michelle M Mielke, Timothy G Lesnick, Kent R Bailey, Clifford R Jack, Virginia M Miller, Vesna D Garovic, Kejal Kantarci
OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of preeclampsia are at an increased risk of hypertension and structural brain changes. However, the combined effect of both preeclampsia and late-life hypertension on brain structural changes is not known and was investigated in this study. METHODS: Participants were identified from the population-based Rochester Epidemiology Project cohort. Four groups of women were recruited and investigated in this study: first, women with a history of normotensive pregnancy who have late-life hypertension (n = 8, median age = 62), second, women with a history of normotensive pregnancy who do not have late-life hypertension (n = 32, median age = 59), third, women with a history of preeclampsia who have late-life hypertension (n = 24, median age = 60), and fourth, women with a history of preeclampsia who do not have late-life hypertension (n = 16, median age = 57)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799704/the-nature-consequences-and-management-of-neurological-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Bahman Jabbari, Nosratola D Vaziri
Perhaps no other organ in the body is affected as often and in as many ways as the brain is in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several factors contribute to the neurological disorders in CKD including accumulation of uremic toxins, metabolic and hemodynamic disorders, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired blood brain barrier among others. The neurological disorders in CKD involve both peripheral and central nervous system. The peripheral neurological symptoms of CKD are due to somatic and cranial peripheral neuropathies as well as a myopathy...
August 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799299/a-comparative-study-of-csf-viral-rna-loads-between-hiv-positive-patients-with-neurological-manifestations-and-neurologically-asymptomatic-hiv-patients
#13
A D Mathur, S Devesh
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting reports in literature about correlation of CSF viral RNA levels with neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients. Many studies in animals and human subjects have shown that CSF HIV-1 RNA can be useful as a specific marker of HIV induced neuropathology. To the contrary there are studies which show that neurological disease states can occur in absence of significant increase of CSF HIV RNA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at Base hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, a tertiary care hospitals for HIV patients...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798352/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibition-promotes-white-matter-integrity-and-long-term-functional-recovery-after-chronic-hypoperfusion-in-mice
#14
Yuxue Chen, Hao Tian, Ensheng Yao, Yeye Tian, Huaqiu Zhang, Li Xu, Zhiyuan Yu, Yongkang Fang, Wei Wang, Peng Du, Minjie Xie
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced cerebrovascular white matter lesions (WMLs) are closely associated with cognitive impairment and other neurological deficits. The mechanism of demyelination in response to hypoperfusion has not yet been fully clarified. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an endogenous key enzyme in the metabolic conversion and degradation of P450 eicosanoids called epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Inhibition of sEH has been suggested to represent a prototype "combination therapy" targeting multiple mechanisms of stroke injury with a single agent...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798024/fabry-disease-in-families-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-clinical-manifestations-in-the-classic-and-later-onset-phenotypes
#15
Berglind Adalsteinsdottir, Runolfur Palsson, Robert J Desnick, Marianna Gardarsdottir, Polakit Teekakirikul, Martin Maron, Evan Appelbaum, Ulf Neisius, Barry J Maron, Michael A Burke, Brenden Chen, Silvere Pagant, Christoffer V Madsen, Ragnar Danielsen, Reynir Arngrimsson, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Jonathan G Seidman, Christine E Seidman, Gunnar Th Gunnarsson
BACKGROUND: The screening of Icelandic patients clinically diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulted in identification of 8 individuals from 2 families with X-linked Fabry disease (FD) caused by GLA(α-galactosidase A gene) mutations encoding p.D322E (family A) or p.I232T (family B). METHODS AND RESULTS: Familial screening of at-risk relatives identified mutations in 16 family A members (8 men and 8 heterozygotes) and 25 family B members (10 men and 15 heterozygotes)...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794971/the-relationship-between-cortical-lesions-and-periventricular-nawm-abnormalities-suggests-a-shared-mechanism-of-injury-in-primary-progressive-ms
#16
Matteo Pardini, Maria Petracca, Asaff Harel, Lazar Fleysher, Niels Oesingmann, Giulia Bommarito, Michelle Fabian, Declan Chard, Fred Lublin, Matilde Inglese
In subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS), pathology is more frequent near the inner and outer surfaces of the brain. Here, we sought to explore if in subjects with primary progressive MS (PPMS) cortical lesion load is selectively associated with the severity of periventricular normal appearing white matter (NAWM) damage, as assessed with diffusion weighted imaging. To this aim, twenty-four subjects with PPMS and twenty healthy controls were included in the study. Using diffusion data, skeletonized mean diffusivity (MD) NAWM maps were computed excluding WM lesions and a 2 mm-thick peri-lesional rim...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792103/progression-of-regional-atrophy-in-the-left-hemisphere-contributes-to-clinical-and-cognitive-deterioration-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-5-year-study
#17
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Sarlota Mesaros, Gianna C Riccitelli, Jelena Dackovic, Jelena Drulovic, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In this longitudinal study, we investigated the regional patterns of focal lesions accumulation, and gray (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy progression over a five-year follow-up (FU) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their association with clinical and cognitive deterioration. Neurological, neuropsychological and brain MRI (dual-echo and 3D T1-weighted sequences) assessments were prospectively performed at baseline (T0) and after a median FU of 4.9 years from 66 MS patients (including relapse-onset and primary progressive MS) and 16 matched controls...
August 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790885/revisiting-the-neural-basis-of-acquired-amusia-lesion-patterns-and-structural-changes-underlying-amusia-recovery
#18
Aleksi J Sihvonen, Pablo Ripollés, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Seppo Soinila, Teppo Särkämö
Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90), we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789906/tocotrienols-the-unsaturated-sidekick-shifting-new-paradigms-in-vitamin-e-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Madhu M Kanchi, Muthu K Shanmugam, Grishma Rane, Gautam Sethi, Alan P Kumar
Vitamin E family members: tocotrienols and tocopherols are widely known for their health benefits. Decades of research on tocotrienols have shown they have diverse biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective and skin protection benefits, as well as improved cognition, bone health, longevity and reduction of cholesterol levels in plasma. Tocotrienols also modulate several intracellular molecular targets and, most importantly, have been shown to improve lipid profiles, reduce total cholesterol and reduce the volume of white matter lesions in human clinical trials...
August 5, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783808/recrudescence-of-deficits-after-stroke-clinical-and-imaging-phenotype-triggers-and-risk-factors
#20
Mehmet A Topcuoglu, Esen Saka, Scott B Silverman, Lee H Schwamm, Aneesh B Singhal
Importance: Reemergence of previous stroke-related deficits (or poststroke recrudescence [PSR]) is an underrecognized and inadequately characterized phenomenon. Objective: To investigate the clinical features, triggers, and risk factors for PSR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective study incorporated a crossover cohort study to identify triggers and a case-control study to identify risk factors. The study used the Massachusetts General Hospital Research Patient Data Repository to identify patients for the period January 1, 2000, to November 30, 2015, who had a primary or secondary diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at least once, and whose inpatient or outpatient clinician note or discharge summary stated the term recrudescence...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Neurology
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