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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734802/co-transplantation-of-mesenchymal-and-neural-stem-cells-and-overexpressing-stromal-derived-factor-1-for-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Andrew N Stewart, Griffin Kendziorski, Zachary M Deak, Dara J Brown, Matthew N Fini, Katherine L Copely, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neuronal stem cells (NSCs) has been used to treat spinal cord injuries (SCI). As a mechanism of therapy, MSCs secrete high amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines and trophic factors, while NSCs can differentiate into neuronal lineages and aid in tissue replacement. Additionally, the forced overexpression of secreted proteins can enhance the secretome of transplanted cells, which can increase therapeutic efficacy. This study utilized a combinational treatment consisting of MSCs, NSCs, and the forced overexpression of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) from MSCs (SDF-1-MSCs), to treat a rat model of SCI...
July 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733853/cerebral-magnetic-resonance-findings-during-enzyme-replacement-therapy-in-mucopolysaccharidosis
#2
Yoshiko Matsubara, Osamu Miyazaki, Motomichi Kosuga, Torayuki Okuyama, Shunsuke Nosaka
BACKGROUND: Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is an effective treatment for mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I, II, IVA and VI, its effectiveness in children with central nervous system (CNS) disorders is said to be poor because the blood-brain barrier cannot be penetrated by ERT drugs. OBJECTIVE: To assess CNS involvement in mucopolysaccharidosis at the start of enzyme replacement therapy and to investigate the time course of ERT in the central nervous system...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733756/glial-and-neuronal-antibodies-in-patients-with-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#3
Güneş Altıokka-Uzun, Ece Erdağ, Betül Baykan, John Tzartos, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Bedia Samancı, Erdinç Dursun, Paraskevi Zisimopoulou, Katerina Karagiorgou, Christos Stergiou, Erdi Şahin, Esme Ekizoğlu, Murat Kürtüncü, Erdem Tüzün
Headache and visual disturbances are the main presenting symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP) with an unknown cause. We aimed to investigate the antibodies against optic neuritis-associated glial antigens, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and uncharacterized neuronal membrane antigens in IIH patients. Consecutive patients diagnosed according to Friedman revised diagnostic criteria and control subjects were included after their consent...
July 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725174/altered-functional-connectivity-following-an-inflammatory-white-matter-injury-in-the-newborn-rat-a-high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution-intrinsic-optical-imaging-study
#4
Edgar Guevara, Wyston C Pierre, Camille Tessier, Luis Akakpo, Irène Londono, Frédéric Lesage, Gregory A Lodygensky
Very preterm newborns have an increased risk of developing an inflammatory cerebral white matter injury that may lead to severe neuro-cognitive impairment. In this study we performed functional connectivity (fc) analysis using resting-state optical imaging of intrinsic signals (rs-OIS) to assess the impact of inflammation on resting-state networks (RSN) in a pre-clinical model of perinatal inflammatory brain injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline injections were administered in postnatal day (P3) rat pups and optical imaging of intrinsic signals were obtained 3 weeks later...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724595/hypertensive-encephalopathy-mimicking-cerebral-vasculitis-with-pontine-oedema-cerebellar-white-matter-lesions-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions
#5
Daniela Ceccarelli, David Hargroves, Ibrahim Balogun, Thomas Webb
A 47-year-old man with poorly controlled hypertension presented with headaches, right-sided weakness and dysarthria. CT and MRI scans of the brain showed widespread abnormalities including significant pontine oedema, basal ganglia and corona radiata infarctions and cerebellar white matter high signal. Imaging of the intracerebral vasculature also demonstrated wall irregularities. Initially a central nervous system inflammatory disorder was thought to be the most likely diagnosis, possibly acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis or cerebral vasculitis, and the patient was treated with high-dose intravenous steroids...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724581/mri-evidence-of-acute-inflammation-in-leukocortical-lesions-of-patients-with-early-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Josefina Maranzano, David A Rudko, Kunio Nakamura, Stuart Cook, Diego Cadavid, Leo Wolansky, Douglas L Arnold, Sridar Narayanan
OBJECTIVE: To identify gadolinium-enhancing lesions affecting the cortex of patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe the frequency and evolution of these lesions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational, longitudinal analysis of MRI scans collected as part of the Betaseron vs Copaxone in Multiple Sclerosis with Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3T MRI Endpoints (BECOME) study. Seventy-five patients with early-stage MS were scanned monthly, over a period of 12-24 months, using 3T MRI after administration of triple-dose gadolinium...
July 19, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718993/role-of-fdg-pet-mri-fdg-pet-ct-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-mri-in-differentiating-radiation-necrosis-from-tumor-recurrence-in-glioblastomas
#7
Mojgan Hojjati, Chaitra Badve, Vasant Garg, Curtis Tatsuoka, Lisa Rogers, Andrew Sloan, Peter Faulhaber, Pablo R Ros, Leo J Wolansky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the utility of quantitative PET/MRI, dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI (pMRI), and PET/CT in differentiating radiation necrosis (RN) from tumor recurrence (TR) in patients with treated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: The study included 24 patients with GBM treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and temozolomide who presented with progression on imaging follow-up. All patients underwent PET/MRI and pMRI during a single examination...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718218/impact-of-prenatal-immune-challenge-on-the-demyelination-injury-during-adulthood
#8
Abdeslam Mouihate, Hessah Al-Hashash, Sarah Rakhshani-Moghadam, Samah Kalakh
AIM: Brain inflammation is associated with several brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease characterized by demyelination. Whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation in the white matter during adulthood is unclear. In the present study, we used a well-established experimental model of focal demyelination to assess whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation. METHODS: Pregnant rats were injected with either lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, ip) or pyrogen-free saline...
July 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717668/different-renal-phenotypes-in-related-adult-males-with-fabry-disease-with-the-same-classic-genotype
#9
Renzo Mignani, Mariarita Moschella, Giovanna Cenacchi, Ilaria Donati, Marta Flachi, Daniela Grimaldi, Davide Cerretani, Paola De Giovanni, Marcello Montevecchi, Angelo Rigotti, Alessandro Ravasio
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease related patients with classical mutation usually exhibit similar severe phenotype especially concerning renal manifestation. METHODS: A dry blood spot screening (DBS) and the DNA analysis has been performed in a 48-year-old man (Patient 1) because of paresthesia. RESULTS: The DBS revealed absent leukocyte α-Gal A enzyme activity while DNA analysis identified the I354K mutation. Serum creatinine and e-GFR were in normal range and also albuminuria and proteinuria were absent...
July 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716250/white-matter-lesions-and-cognitive-impairment-may-be-related-to-recovery-from-unilateral-spatial-neglect-after-stroke
#10
Chisako Köder Kamakura, Yuji Ueno, Yuzuru Sakai, Hisao Yoshida, Saiko Aiba, Akito Hayashi, Hideki Shimura, Katsuhiko Takeda, Keiko Kamakura, Nobutaka Hattori, Takao Urabe
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is frequently found in ischemic stroke patients. Because USN is related to poor functional outcomes, evaluating recovery from USN after stroke is critical. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke with lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere on MRI and exhibiting left USN were administered the Behavior Inattention Test (BIT) at 1 and 3weeks after admission. BIT improvement was defined as a ≥1-point increase in ≥4 of the 6 BIT subtests from 1 to 3weeks, or a total BIT score ≥131 at 3weeks...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713861/behavioural-clusters-and-predictors-of-performance-during-recovery-from-stroke
#11
L E Ramsey, J S Siegel, C E Lang, M Strube, G L Shulman, M Corbetta
We examined the patterns and variability of recovery post-stroke in multiple behavioral domains. A large cohort of first time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions was studied prospectively and longitudinally at 1-2 weeks, 3 months and one year post-injury with structural MRI to measure lesion anatomy and in-depth neuropsychological assessment. Impairment was described at all timepoints by a few clusters of correlated deficits. The time course and magnitude of recovery was similar across domains, with change scores largely proportional to the initial deficit and most recovery occurring within the first three months...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713238/targeting-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-road-toward-an-imaging-based-biomarker
#12
Jeroen Van Schependom, Guy Nagels
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuro-degenerative and -inflammatory disease leading to physical and cognitive impairment, pathological fatigue and depression, and affecting patients' quality of life and employment status. The combination of inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration leads to the emergence of MS lesions, reduced white and gray matter brain volumes, a reduced conduction velocity and microstructural changes in the so-called Normal Appearing White Matter (NAWM). Currently, there are very limited options to treat cognitive impairment and its origin is only poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711407/severe-neuroimaging-anomalies-are-usually-associated-with-random-x-inactivation-in-leucocytes-circulating-dna-in-x-linked-dominant-incontinentia-pigmenti
#13
Volodia Dangouloff-Ros, Smail Hadj-Rabia, Judite Oliveira Santos, Elodie Bal, Isabelle Desguerre, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Isabelle An, Asma Smahi, Christine Bodemer, Arnold Munnich, Julie Steffann, Nathalie Boddaert
Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) is a skin disorder with neurological impairment in 30% of cases. The most common disease causing mutation is a deletion of exons 4-10 of the IKBKG gene, located on chromosome Xq28, with skewed X-chromosome inactivation in females, but few cases of random X-inactivation have been reported. We have correlated brain anomalies with X-chromosome inactivation status determined on leucocytes circulating DNA. We reviewed MRI of 18 girls with genetically proven IP. We found three patterns of MRI, normal MRI (n=5), mild white matter abnormalities with cortical and corpus callosum atrophy (n=6), and severe cortical abnormalities suggesting a vascular disease (n=7)...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709123/subclinical-white-matter-lesions-and-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-are-associated-with-eeg-slowing-in-a-memory-clinic-cohort
#14
Milica G Kramberger, Katarina Giske, Lena Cavallin, Ingemar Kåreholt, Thomas Andersson, Bengt Winblad, Vesna Jelic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) findings obtained by standardized visual analysis, subclinical white matter lesions (WML) and brain atrophy in a large memory clinic population. METHODS: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=58), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=141), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI, n=194) had clinical, MRI based WML severity and regional atrophy assessments, and routine resting EEG recording...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708728/differentiating-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas-from-glioblastomas-and-inflammatory-demyelinating-pseudotumor-using-relative-minimum-apparent-diffusion-coefficients
#15
Jian-Bo Wen, Wei-Yuan Huang, Wei-Xing-Zi Xu, Gang Wu, Dao-Ying Geng, Bo Yin
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging, the relative minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (rADCmin) in differentiating primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from glioblastomas (GBMs) and inflammatory demyelinating pseudotumors (IDPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance images were reviewed retrospectively in 82 patients including 39 PCNSLs, 35 GBMs, and 8 IDPs. Regions of interest were drawn around the tumor on contrast-enhanced axial images; these images were transferred onto coregistered ADC maps to obtain the ADCmin, and the normalized ADCmin ratios (rADCmin) were calculated using the formula rADCmin = ADCmin of the lesion / ADCmin of the normal white matter...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707765/tissue-microarray-methodology-identifies-complement-pathway-activation-and-dysregulation-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Sam Loveless, James W Neal, Owain W Howell, Katharine E Harding, Patrick Sarkies, Rhian Evans, Ryan J Bevan, Svetlana Hakobyan, Claire L Harris, Neil P Robertson, B Paul Morgan
BACKGROUND: The complement pathway has potential contributions to both white (WM) and grey matter (GM) pathology in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A quantitative assessment of complement involvement is lacking. OBJECTIVE: Tissue MicroArray methodology was used in conjunction with immunohistochemistry to investigate the localization of complement pathway proteins in progressive MS cortical GM and subcortical WM. METHODS: Antibodies targeting complement proteins C1q, C3b, regulatory proteins C1 inhibitor (C1INH), complement receptor 1 (CR1), clusterin, factor H (FH) and the C5a anaphylatoxin receptor (C5aR) were utilised alongside standard markers of tissue pathology...
July 14, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706620/adams-oliver-syndrome-with-unusual-central-nervous-system-findings-and-an-extrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt
#17
Carlos Pérez-García, Yolanda Ruíz Martín, Alejandra Aguado Del Hoyo, Carlos Marín Rodríguez, Minia Campos Domínguez
We report a case of a premature neonate girl with scalp and skull defects and brachydactyly of the feet consistent with an Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS). The patient had central nervous system abnormalities, such as periventricular calcifications, hypoplastic corpus callosum, and bilateral hemispheric corticosubcortical hemorrhagic lesions. A muscular ventricular septal defect and a portosystemic shunt were diagnosed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of congenital supratentorial grey-white matter junction lesions without dural sinus thrombosis in association with AOS...
June 26, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705824/carotid-plaque-morphology-and-ischemic-vascular-brain-disease-on-mri
#18
Q J A van den Bouwhuijsen, M W Vernooij, B F J Verhaaren, H A Vrooman, W J Niessen, G P Krestin, M A Ikram, O H Franco, A van der Lugt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vulnerable carotid plaque components are reported to increase the risk of cerebrovascular events. Yet, the relation between plaque composition and subclinical ischemic brain disease is not known. We studied, in the general population, the association between carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and ischemic brain disease on MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 951 participants underwent both carotid MR imaging and brain MR imaging...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705817/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumor-of-the-cerebrum-a-new-leave-me-alone-lesion-with-a-characteristic-imaging-pattern
#19
R H Nunes, C C Hsu, A J da Rocha, L L F do Amaral, L F S Godoy, T W Watkins, V H Marussi, M Warmuth-Metz, H C Alves, F G Goncalves, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, A G Osborn
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum is a recently reported benign, mixed glial neuronal lesion that is included in the 2016 updated World Health Organization classification of brain neoplasms as a unique cytoarchitectural pattern of gangliocytoma. We report 33 cases of presumed multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum that exhibit a remarkably similar pattern of imaging findings consisting of a subcortical cluster of nodular lesions located on the inner surface of an otherwise normal-appearing cortex, principally within the deep cortical ribbon and superficial subcortical white matter, which is hyperintense on FLAIR...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705068/quantifying-the-susceptibility-variation-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-multiple-sclerosis-by-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#20
Weiwei Chen, Yan Zhang, Ketao Mu, Chu Pan, Susan A Gauthier, Wenzhen Zhu, Yi Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the magnetic susceptibility of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using quantitative susceptibility mapping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four patients with relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) (37 with gadolinium-enhancing lesions and 57 with only gadolinium-nonenhancing lesions) and 55 healthy control subjects were included in this retrospective study. The susceptibility values of NAWM relative to CSF in patients with MS were compared with those of white matter (WM) in healthy control subjects and were correlated with the patient status of gadolinium-enhancing lesions, disease duration, and expanded disability status scale scores...
July 13, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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