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Concussions, traumatic brain injuries, head injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922224/neuroendocrine-abnormalities-following-traumatic-brain-injury-an-important-contributor-to-neuropsychiatric-sequelae
#1
REVIEW
Amir M Molaie, Jamie Maguire
Neuropsychiatric symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common and contribute negatively to TBI outcomes by reducing overall quality of life. The development of neurobehavioral sequelae, such as concentration deficits, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and loss of emotional well-being has historically been attributed to an ambiguous "post-concussive syndrome," considered secondary to frank structural injury and axonal damage. However, recent research suggests that neuroendocrine dysfunction, specifically hypopituitarism, plays an important role in the etiology of these symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911576/symptoms-disabilities-and-life-satisfaction-five-years-after-whiplash-injuries
#2
Johan Styrke, Peter Sojka, Ulf Björnstig, Britt-Marie Stålnacke
Background Chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) are often associated with social functioning problems and decreased ability to perform previous activities. This may lead to decreased life satisfaction, which is insufficiently studied in the context of whiplash injuries. Symptoms included in chronic WAD are similar to symptoms frequently reported by persons who have sustained mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)/concussion. In cases of MTBI, the severity and number of symptoms have been suggested to have a diagnostic value...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874782/trend-of-age-adjusted-rates-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-in-u-s-emergency-departments-from-2006-to-2013
#3
Cheng Chen, Jin Peng, Eric A Sribnick, Motao Zhu, Henry Xiang
Objective : To use the 2006⁻2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database to describe trends of age-adjusted rates of pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments. Methods : Time trend analysis was conducted on age-adjusted rates among children ≤17 years in the U.S. The annual percent change (APC) was calculated by fitting a least squares regression to the logarithm of the rates, using the calendar year as an independent variable. Results : In males, motor-vehicle-related trauma (APC -2...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874472/the-incidence-of-anosmia-after-traumatic-brain-injury-the-shefbit-cohort
#4
Rajiv Singh, Thomas Humphries, Suzanne Mason, Fiona Lecky, Jeremy Dawson, Saurabh Sinha
BACKGROUND: While anosmia is common after Traumatic Brain Injury(TBI) (prevalence 4%-68%),studies differ in the associations found with other variables. AIMS: To assess the incidence of anosmia within a large, mixed TBI cohort and examine relationships with other injury or demographic features, including depression and global outcome(GOSE). DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND SETTING: 774 consecutive TBI admissions over 2 years, assessed within a specialist neurorehabilitation clinic...
June 6, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866717/evaluating-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-management-at-a-regional-emergency-department
#5
Ashlee Maree Brown, Dara M Twomey, Anna Wong Shee
BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) are usually the first point of contact, and often the only medical service available, for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in rural and regional areas. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been created to ensure best practice management of mTBI in EDs. Adherence to mTBI CPGs has rarely been evaluated in rural and regional areas. AIM: The aim of this paper was to assess a regional health service's adherence to their mTBI CPG...
June 4, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796153/head-ct-guidelines-following-concussion-among-the-youngest-trauma-patients-can-we-limit-radiation-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Bryan J Harvell, Stephen D Helmer, Jeanette G Ward, Elizabeth Ablah, Raymond Grundmeyer, James M Haan
Introduction: Recent studies have provided guidelines on the use of head computed tomography (CT) scans in pediatric trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of these guidelines among concussed pediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of patients four years or younger with a concussion from blunt trauma. Demographics, head injury characteristics, clinical indicators for head CT scan (severe mechanism, physical exam findings of basilar skull fracture, non-frontal scalp hematoma, Glasgow Coma Scale score, loss of consciousness, neurologic deficit, altered mental status, vomiting, headache, amnesia, irritability, behavioral changes, seizures, lethargy), CT results, and hospital course were collected...
May 2018: Kansas journal of medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788111/acute-assessment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-traumatic-stress-after-exposure-to-a-deployment-related-explosive-blast
#7
Monty T Baker, John C Moring, Willie J Hale, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Richard A Bryant, Donna K Broshek, Jeffrey T Barth, Robert Villarreal, Cynthia L Lancaster, Steffany L Malach, Jose M Lara-Ruiz, William Isler, Alan L Peterson
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after the initial blast exposure...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766124/routine-repeat-head-ct-may-not-be-necessary-for-patients-with-mild-tbi
#8
Claire B Rosen, Diego D Luy, Molly R Deane, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
Background: Routine repeat cranial CT (RHCT) is standard of care for CT-verified traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite mixed evidence, those with mild TBI are subject to radiation and expense from serial CT scans. Thus, we investigated the necessity and utility of RHCT for patients with mild TBI. We hypothesized that repeat head CT in these patients would not alter patient care or outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively studied patients suffering from mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 13-15) and treated at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center from November 2014 through January 2015...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757458/posttraumatic-headache-basic-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets
#9
REVIEW
Joshua Kamins, Andrew Charles
Frequent or continuous headache, often refractory to medical therapy, is a common occurrence after head trauma. In addition to being the most common acute symptom after traumatic brain injury (TBI), headache is also one of the most persistent and disabling symptoms. Different studies indicate that 18-58% of those suffering a TBI will have significant headache at 1 year following the trauma. In addition to being disabling on its own, posttraumatic headache (PTH) is a predictor of overall outcome after concussion...
May 14, 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738554/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-can-cause-acute-neurologic-impairment-without-overt-structural-damage-in-juvenile-rats
#10
Alicia Meconi, Ryan C Wortman, David K Wright, Katie J Neale, Melissa Clarkson, Sandy R Shultz, Brian R Christie
Repeated concussion is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious public health concern around the world. Moreover, there is a greater awareness amongst health professionals of the potential for repeated pediatric concussions to detrimentally alter the structure and function of the developing brain. To better study this issue, we developed an awake closed head injury (ACHI) model that enabled repeated concussions to be performed reliably and reproducibly in juvenile rats. A neurological assessment protocol (NAP) score was generated immediately after each ACHI to help quantify the cumulative effects of repeated injury on level of consciousness, and basic motor and reflexive capacity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690799/prediction-of-persistent-post-concussion-symptoms-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Maryse C Cnossen, Joukje van der Naalt, Jacoba M Spikman, Daan Nieboer, John K Yue, Ethan A Winkler, Geoffrey Manley, Nicole von Steinbuechel, Suzanne Polinder, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester Lingsma
Persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) occur frequently after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The identification of patients at risk for poor outcome remains challenging since valid prediction models are missing. The objectives of the current study were to assess the quality and clinical value of prediction models for PPCS , and to develop a new model based on the synthesis of existing models and addition of complaints at emergency department (ED). MTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) were prospectively recruited from three Dutch level I trauma centers between 2013-2015 in the UPFRONT study...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674994/a-cross-sectional-study-on-cerebral-hemodynamics-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-pediatric-population
#12
Corey M Thibeault, Samuel Thorpe, Michael J O'Brien, Nicolas Canac, Mina Ranjbaran, Ilyas Patanam, Artin Sarraf, James LeVangie, Fabien Scalzo, Seth J Wilk, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Robert B Hamilton
The microvasculature is prominently affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (concussion). Assessment of cerebral hemodynamics shows promise as biomarkers of TBI, and may help inform development of therapies aimed at promoting neurologic recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution in cerebral hemodynamics observable with transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound in subjects suffering from a concussion at different intervals during recovery. Pediatric subjects between the ages of 14 and 19 years clinically diagnosed with a concussion were observed at different points post-injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619800/not-just-contact-sports-significant-numbers-of-sports-related-concussions-in-cycling
#13
Ingo Helmich, Daniel von Götz, Carina Emsermann, Fu Xuanjin, Anne Griese, Ilka Lauterbach, Hedda Lausberg
BACKGROUND: Although sports-related concussions (SRCs) / mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) in contact sports have recently received much attention, investigation of SRCs in cycling - a sport yielding some of the highest percentages of SRC - remains strikingly limited. In particular, rates of incidence, cycling-specific causes, and potential long-term effects of SRC have not been examined in this sport. Here, a retrospective online survey was used to investigate the incidence and potential long-term effects of SRCs among cyclists...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498077/persistent-symptoms-and-activity-changes-three-months-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Rebecca Cooksley, Emma Maguire, Natasha A Lannin, Carolyn A Unsworth, Michelle Farquhar, Claire Galea, Biswadev Mitra, Julia Schmidt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Approximately, 80% of traumatic brain injuries are considered mild in severity. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may cause temporary or persisting impairments that can adversely affect an individual's ability to participate in daily occupations and life roles. This study aimed to identify symptoms, factors predicting level of symptoms and functional and psycho-social outcomes for participants with mTBI three months following injury. METHOD: Patients discharged from the Emergency Department of a major metropolitan hospital with a diagnosis of mTBI were contacted by telephone three months after injury...
March 2, 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460006/mechanical-disruption-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-following-experimental-concussion
#15
Victoria E Johnson, Maura T Weber, Rui Xiao, D Kacy Cullen, David F Meaney, William Stewart, Douglas H Smith
Although concussion is now recognized as a major health issue, its non-lethal nature has limited characterization of the underlying pathophysiology. In particular, potential neuropathological changes have typically been inferred from non-invasive techniques or post-mortem examinations of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we used a swine model of head rotational acceleration based on human concussion to examine blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity after injury in association with diffuse axonal injury and glial responses...
May 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430327/-mild-head-injury
#16
José Manuel Ortega Zufiría, Noemí Lomillos Prieto, Bernardino Choque Cuba, Martin Tamarit Degenhardt, Pedro Poveda Núñez, María Remedios López Serrano, Azahara Belén López Raigada
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health concern, because a sizeable number of patients with mild TBI will develop potentially life-threatening complications. The target of this study was to describe a large series of adult patients suffering from mild TBI, treated at University Hospital of Getafe, between 2010 and 2015 ( n = 2480). We examined the patients' epidemiological and baseline clinical profile, diagnosis, treatment and ultimate outcomes, to identify major prognostic factors that influence the final result...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414471/assessing-women-s-lacrosse-head-impacts-using-finite-element-modelling
#17
J Michio Clark, T Blaine Hoshizaki, Michael D Gilchrist
Recently studies have assessed the ability of helmets to reduce peak linear and rotational acceleration for women's lacrosse head impacts. However, such measures have had low correlation with injury. Maximum principal strain interprets loading curves which provide better injury prediction than peak linear and rotational acceleration, especially in compliant situations which create low magnitude accelerations but long impact durations. The purpose of this study was to assess head and helmet impacts in women's lacrosse using finite element modelling...
April 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397300/effect-of-helmet-use-on-traumatic-brain-injuries-and-other-head-injuries-in-alpine-sport
#18
Nicolas Bailly, Jean-Dominique Laporte, Sanae Afquir, Catherine Masson, Thierry Donnadieu, Jean-Baptiste Delay, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
INTRODUCTION: Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head)...
January 31, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368186/protection-before-impact-the-potential-neuroprotective-role-of-nutritional-supplementation-in-sports-related-head-trauma
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony J Anzalone, Stephanie M Turner
Even in the presence of underreporting, sports-related concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are on the rise. In the absence of proper diagnosis, an athlete may return to play prior to full recovery, increasing the risk of second-impact syndrome or protracted symptoms. Recent evidence has demonstrated that sub-concussive impacts, those sustained routinely in practice and competition, result in a quantifiable pathophysiological response and the accumulation of both concussive and sub-concussive impacts sustained over a lifetime of sports participation may lead to long-term neurological impairments and an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases...
March 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360998/concussion-microvascular-injury-and-early-tauopathy-in-young-athletes-after-impact-head-injury-and-an-impact-concussion-mouse-model
#20
Chad A Tagge, Andrew M Fisher, Olga V Minaeva, Amanda Gaudreau-Balderrama, Juliet A Moncaster, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Mark W Wojnarowicz, Noel Casey, Haiyan Lu, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Sudad Saman, Maria Ericsson, Kristen D Onos, Ronel Veksler, Vladimir V Senatorov, Asami Kondo, Xiao Z Zhou, Omid Miry, Linnea R Vose, Katisha R Gopaul, Chirag Upreti, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert C Cantu, Victor E Alvarez, Audrey M Hildebrandt, Erich S Franz, Janusz Konrad, James A Hamilton, Ning Hua, Yorghos Tripodis, Andrew T Anderson, Gareth R Howell, Daniela Kaufer, Garth F Hall, Kun P Lu, Richard M Ransohoff, Robin O Cleveland, Neil W Kowall, Thor D Stein, Bruce T Lamb, Bertrand R Huber, William C Moss, Alon Friedman, Patric K Stanton, Ann C McKee, Lee E Goldstein
The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To investigate causal mechanisms, we developed a mouse model of lateral closed-head impact injury that uses momentum transfer to induce traumatic head acceleration...
February 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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