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Concussions, traumatic brain injuries, head injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619800/not-just-contact-sports-significant-numbers-of-sports-related-concussions-in-cycling
#1
Ingo Helmich, Daniel von Götz, Carina Emsermann, Fu Xuanjin, Anne Griese, Ilka Lauterbach, Hedda Lausberg
BACKGROUND: Although sports-related concussions (SRCs) / mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) in contact sports have recently received much attention, investigation of SRCs in cycling - a sport yielding some of the highest percentages of SRC - remains strikingly limited. In particular, rates of incidence, cycling-specific causes, and potential long-term effects of SRC have not been examined in this sport. Here, a retrospective online survey was used to investigate the incidence and potential long-term effects of SRCs among cyclists...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498077/persistent-symptoms-and-activity-changes-three-months-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Rebecca Cooksley, Emma Maguire, Natasha A Lannin, Carolyn A Unsworth, Michelle Farquhar, Claire Galea, Biswadev Mitra, Julia Schmidt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Approximately, 80% of traumatic brain injuries are considered mild in severity. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may cause temporary or persisting impairments that can adversely affect an individual's ability to participate in daily occupations and life roles. This study aimed to identify symptoms, factors predicting level of symptoms and functional and psycho-social outcomes for participants with mTBI three months following injury. METHOD: Patients discharged from the Emergency Department of a major metropolitan hospital with a diagnosis of mTBI were contacted by telephone three months after injury...
March 2, 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460006/mechanical-disruption-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-following-experimental-concussion
#3
Victoria E Johnson, Maura T Weber, Rui Xiao, D Kacy Cullen, David F Meaney, William Stewart, Douglas H Smith
Although concussion is now recognized as a major health issue, its non-lethal nature has limited characterization of the underlying pathophysiology. In particular, potential neuropathological changes have typically been inferred from non-invasive techniques or post-mortem examinations of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we used a swine model of head rotational acceleration based on human concussion to examine blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity after injury in association with diffuse axonal injury and glial responses...
February 19, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430327/-mild-head-injury
#4
José Manuel Ortega Zufiría, Noemí Lomillos Prieto, Bernardino Choque Cuba, Martin Tamarit Degenhardt, Pedro Poveda Núñez, María Remedios López Serrano, Azahara Belén López Raigada
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health concern, because a sizeable number of patients with mild TBI will develop potentially life-threatening complications. The target of this study was to describe a large series of adult patients suffering from mild TBI, treated at University Hospital of Getafe, between 2010 and 2015 (n = 2480). We examined the patients' epidemiological and baseline clinical profile, diagnosis, treatment and ultimate outcomes, to identify major prognostic factors that influence the final result...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414471/assessing-women-s-lacrosse-head-impacts-using-finite-element-modelling
#5
J Michio Clark, T Blaine Hoshizaki, Michael D Gilchrist
Recently studies have assessed the ability of helmets to reduce peak linear and rotational acceleration for women's lacrosse head impacts. However, such measures have had low correlation with injury. Maximum principal strain interprets loading curves which provide better injury prediction than peak linear and rotational acceleration, especially in compliant situations which create low magnitude accelerations but long impact durations. The purpose of this study was to assess head and helmet impacts in women's lacrosse using finite element modelling...
January 26, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397300/effect-of-helmet-use-on-traumatic-brain-injuries-and-other-head-injuries-in-alpine-sport
#6
Nicolas Bailly, Jean-Dominique Laporte, Sanae Afquir, Catherine Masson, Thierry Donnadieu, Jean-Baptiste Delay, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
INTRODUCTION: Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head)...
January 31, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368186/protection-before-impact-the-potential-neuroprotective-role-of-nutritional-supplementation-in-sports-related-head-trauma
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony J Anzalone, Stephanie M Turner
Even in the presence of underreporting, sports-related concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are on the rise. In the absence of proper diagnosis, an athlete may return to play prior to full recovery, increasing the risk of second-impact syndrome or protracted symptoms. Recent evidence has demonstrated that sub-concussive impacts, those sustained routinely in practice and competition, result in a quantifiable pathophysiological response and the accumulation of both concussive and sub-concussive impacts sustained over a lifetime of sports participation may lead to long-term neurological impairments and an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360998/concussion-microvascular-injury-and-early-tauopathy-in-young-athletes-after-impact-head-injury-and-an-impact-concussion-mouse-model
#8
Chad A Tagge, Andrew M Fisher, Olga V Minaeva, Amanda Gaudreau-Balderrama, Juliet A Moncaster, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Mark W Wojnarowicz, Noel Casey, Haiyan Lu, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Sudad Saman, Maria Ericsson, Kristen D Onos, Ronel Veksler, Vladimir V Senatorov, Asami Kondo, Xiao Z Zhou, Omid Miry, Linnea R Vose, Katisha R Gopaul, Chirag Upreti, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert C Cantu, Victor E Alvarez, Audrey M Hildebrandt, Erich S Franz, Janusz Konrad, James A Hamilton, Ning Hua, Yorghos Tripodis, Andrew T Anderson, Gareth R Howell, Daniela Kaufer, Garth F Hall, Kun P Lu, Richard M Ransohoff, Robin O Cleveland, Neil W Kowall, Thor D Stein, Bruce T Lamb, Bertrand R Huber, William C Moss, Alon Friedman, Patric K Stanton, Ann C McKee, Lee E Goldstein
The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To investigate causal mechanisms, we developed a mouse model of lateral closed-head impact injury that uses momentum transfer to induce traumatic head acceleration...
February 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349651/epidemiology-of-head-injuries-focusing-on-concussions-in-team-contact-sports-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Annika Prien, Alexander Grafe, Roland Rössler, Astrid Junge, Evert Verhagen
BACKGROUND: Although injuries to the head represent a small proportion of all sport injuries, they are of great concern due to their potential long-term consequences, which are even suspected in mild traumatic brain injuries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to compare the incidence of concussions and other head injuries in elite level football, rugby, ice hockey and American Football. METHODS: Four electronic databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed) were searched...
April 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284906/may-heading-in-soccer-result-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review-of-literature
#10
REVIEW
Gorazd Bunc, Janez Ravnik, Tomaz Velnar
Background: Globally, soccer is the most popular team sport, unifying many fans all around the world. The epidemiological studies so far have confirmed that head playing and hitting the ball with head may cause minor head injuries, which exert their effects in a cumulative way. Methods: Literature search for this review was conducted and data about traumatic brain injury collected from various sources. Results: The consequences of head injury are evident as chronic changes in cognition, including disturbances in concentration and slowing of mental and physical agility...
October 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258949/outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-elderly-population-a-tertiary-center-experience-in-a-developing-country
#11
G Lakshmi Prasad, N Anmol, Girish R Menon
BACKGROUND: The growing elderly population has contributed to an increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in this cohort worldwide. Here we describe our institutional experience in the management of TBI in elderly Indian patients. METHODS: This was a 3-year retrospective analysis of 73 consecutive patients age ≥65 years admitted to our university hospital with TBI. Exclusion criteria included a history of concussion injury, chronic subdural hematoma (SDH), discharge against medical advice, and declared dead within 6 hours after arrival...
March 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197614/an-anatomical-and-physiological-basis-for-the-cardiovascular-autonomic-nervous-system-consequences-of-sport-related-brain-injury
#12
Michael F La Fountaine
Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain that is induced by the application or transmission of traumatic biomechanical forces to the head. The result of the impact is the onset of transient symptoms that may be experienced for approximately 2weeks in most individuals. However, in some individuals, symptoms may not resolve and persist for a protracted period and a chronic injury ensues. Concussion symptoms are generally characterized by their emergence through changes in affect, cognition, or multi-sensory processes including the visual and vestibular systems...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179620/a-novel-method-for-quantifying-human-in-situ-whole-brain-deformation-under-rotational-loading-using-sonomicrometry
#13
Ahmed Alshareef, J Sebastian Giudice, Jason Forman, Robert S Salzar, Matthew B Panzer
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are one of the least understood injuries to the body. Finite element (FE) models of the brain have been crucial for understanding concussion and for developing injury mitigation systems; however, the experimental brain deformation data currently used to validate these models are limited. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the investigation of in situ three-dimensional brain deformation during pure rotational loading of the head, using sonomicrometry. Sonomicrometry uses ultrasonic pulses to measure the dynamic distances between piezoelectric crystals implanted in any sound-transmitting media...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159407/association-of-salivary-microrna-changes-with-prolonged-concussion-symptoms
#14
Jeremiah J Johnson, Andrea C Loeffert, Jennifer Stokes, Robert P Olympia, Harry Bramley, Steven D Hicks
Importance: Approximately one-third of children who experience a concussion develop prolonged concussion symptoms. To our knowledge, there are currently no objective or easily administered tests for predicting prolonged concussion symptoms. Several studies have identified alterations in epigenetic molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) following traumatic brain injury. No studies have examined whether miRNA expression can detect prolonged concussion symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of salivary miRNAs for identifying children with concussion who are at risk for prolonged symptoms...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149385/pre-clinical-models-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-challenges-and-lessons-learned
#15
REVIEW
Patrick M Kochanek, Jessica S Wallisch, Hülya Bayır, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE: Despite the enormity of the problem and the lack of new therapies, research in the pre-clinical arena specifically using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) models is limited. In this review, some of the key models addressing both the age spectrum of pediatric TBI and its unique injury mechanisms will be highlighted. Four topics will be addressed, namely, (1) unique facets of the developing brain important to TBI model development, (2) a description of some of the most commonly used pre-clinical models of severe pediatric TBI including work in both rodents and large animals, (3) a description of the pediatric models of mild TBI and repetitive mild TBI that are relatively new, and finally (4) a discussion of challenges, gaps, and potential future directions to further advance work in pediatric TBI models...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098981/what-is-the-definition-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Paul McCrory, Nina Feddermann-Demont, Jiří Dvořák, J David Cassidy, Andrew McIntosh, Pieter E Vos, Ruben J Echemendia, Willem Meeuwisse, Alexander A Tarnutzer
OBJECTIVES: Various definitions for concussion have been proposed, each having its strengths and weaknesses. We reviewed and compared current definitions and identified criteria necessary for an operational definition of sports-related concussion (SRC) in preparation of the 5th Concussion Consensus Conference (Berlin, Germany). We also assessed the role of biomechanical studies in informing an operational definition of SRC. DESIGN: This is a systematic literature review...
June 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084105/intracranial-pathology-ct-in-emergency-department-patients-with-high-gcs-and-high-standard-assessment-of-concussion-sac-scores
#17
Kenneth C Curley, Brian J OʼNeil, Rosanne Naunheim, David W Wright
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that a subpopulation of patients with mild/moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) had intracranial pathology despite having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 15 and a Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) score of 25 or higher. SETTING: A network of 11 US emergency departments (ED) enrolling patients in a multisite study of TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women between the ages of 18 and 85 years admitted to a participating ED having sustained a closed head injury within the prior 72 hours and a GCS score of 13 to 15 at the time of enrollment...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035978/use-of-blood-biomarkers-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion-a-systematic-review-in-the-context-of-their-biological-significance
#18
Brendan OʼConnell, Áine M Kelly, David Mockler, Matej Orešič, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Damir Janigro, Fiona Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To critically review current knowledge on the positive and negative predictive value of blood biomarkers for concussion; to illustrate the clinical and biological contexts that help evaluate the use of these markers in sport-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). METHODS: This systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We reviewed the measurement, clinical utility, endpoint, and biological significance of blood biomarkers in concussion...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030453/gaba-alterations-in-pediatric-sport-concussion
#19
Seth D Friedman, Andrew V Poliakov, Christopher Budech, Dennis W W Shaw, David Breiger, Thomas Jinguji, Brian Krabak, David Coppel, Tressa Mattioli Lewis, Samuel Browd, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether frontal-lobe magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) would be altered in a sample of adolescents scanned after sport concussion because mild traumatic brain injury is often associated with working memory problems. METHODS: Eleven adolescents (age 14-17 years) who had sustained a first-time sport concussion were studied with MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy within 23 to 44 days after injury (mean 30...
November 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025849/the-association-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-traumatic-brain-injury-concussion-in-adulthood-a-scoping-review-protocol
#20
Zechen Ma, Mark T Bayley, Laure Perrier, Priya Dhir, Lana Dépatie, Paul Comper, Lesley Ruttan, Sarah Ep Munce
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a significant risk factor for physical and mental illnesses later in life. Concussion or traumatic brain injury is a challenging condition where preinjury factors may interact to affect recovery. The association between ACEs and traumatic brain injury/concussion is not well mapped in any previous reviews of the literature. Using a scoping review methodology, the research question that will be addressed is: what is known from the existing literature about the association between ACEs and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The methodological frameworks outlined by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al will be used...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
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