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Concussions, traumatic brain injuries, head injuries

Mehmet Kurt, Kaveh Laksari, Calvin Kuo, Gerald A Grant, David B Camarillo
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Gabriel Alejandro Torres Colón, Sharia Smith, Jenny Fucillo
Concussions are a type of traumatic injury caused by a jolting of the brain that disrupts normal brain function, and multiple concussions can lead to serious long-term health consequences. In this article, we examine the relationship between college students' understanding of concussions and their willingness to continue playing despite the possibility of sustaining multiple head injuries. We use a mixed-methods approach that includes participant observation, cultural domain analysis, and structured interviews...
September 19, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
David V Walsh, José E Capó-Aponte, Thomas Beltran, Wesley R Cole, Ashley Ballard, Joseph Y Dumayas
OBJECTIVES: The Department of Defense reported that 344,030 cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were clinically confirmed from 2000 to 2015, with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for 82.3% of all cases. Unfortunately, warfighters with TBI are often identified only when moderate or severe head injuries have occurred, leaving more subtle mTBI cases undiagnosed. This study aims to identify and validate an eye-movement visual test for screening acute mTBI. METHODS: Two-hundred active duty military personnel were recruited to perform the King-Devick® (KD) test...
September 11, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Christopher Connelly, Kathleen Martin, Joel Elterman, Jean A Orman, David Zonies
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to review the inpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) screening program at a Role IV regional resource trauma center. TBI has been coined the "signature wound" during current U.S. combat operations. All patients injured in Iraq or Afghanistan who transit through Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) undergo an initial TBI screen regardless of anatomic injury. The incidence and factors associated with positive screening for concussion (physical event+alteration of consciousness (AOC)) and TBI diagnoses were examined...
September 7, 2016: Injury
Osman Hassan Ahmed, Eric E Hall
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Concussion is widely discussed in online sports news articles, but the terms used to report this injury vary. This study aimed to use a systematic search strategy and explore the description of sports concussion in online sports news articles. METHODS: A systematic approach was employed to obtain online articles related to sports concussion from four sports associated with concussion (hockey, football, soccer, and rugby). Included articles were evaluated for the descriptors used in relation to concussion and possible consequences associated with concussion...
July 15, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
A J Gardner, R Zafonte
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. TBI is defined as an acute brain injury resulting from mechanical energy to the head from external physical forces. Some of the leading causes of TBI include falls, assaults, motor vehicle or traffic accidents, and sport-related concussion. Two of the most common identified risk factors are sex (males are nearly three times more likely to suffer a TBI than females); and a bimodal age pattern (persons 65 years and older, and children under 14 years old)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
D Kacy Cullen, James P Harris, Kevin D Browne, John A Wolf, John E Duda, David F Meaney, Susan S Margulies, Douglas H Smith
Unique from other brain disorders, traumatic brain injury (TBI) generally results from a discrete biomechanical event that induces rapid head movement. The large size and high organization of the human brain makes it particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury from rotational accelerations that can cause dynamic deformation of the brain tissue. Therefore, replicating the injury biomechanics of human TBI in animal models presents a substantial challenge, particularly with regard to addressing brain size and injury parameters...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Brian T Kalish, Michael J Whalen
Weight drop models in rodents have been used for several decades to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Weight drop models have been used to replicate focal cerebral contusion as well as diffuse brain injury characterized by axonal damage. More recently, closed head injury models with free head rotation have been developed to model sports concussions, which feature functional disturbances in the absence of overt brain damage assessed by conventional imaging techniques...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
John Povlishock
This narrative provides a brief history of experimental animal model development for the study of traumatic brain injury. It draws upon a relatively rich history of early animal modeling that employed higher order animals to assess concussive brain injury while exploring the importance of head movement versus stabilization in evaluating the animal's response to injury. These themes are extended to the development of angular/rotational acceleration/deceleration models that also exploited brain movement to generate both the morbidity and pathology typically associated with human traumatic brain injury...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hari Shanker Sharma, Dafin F Muresanu, José V Lafuente, Ala Nozari, Ranjana Patnaik, Stephen D Skaper, Aruna Sharma
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) function in health and disease. Thus, in almost all neurodegenerative, traumatic or metabolic insults the BBB breakdown occurs to large molecules e.g., serum proteins. Entry of serum proteins into the brain fluid microenvironment leads to edema formation and subsequently cellular injuries. Accordingly, restoration of the BBB function using drugs will lead to neurorepair. However, injury to the brain occurring following blast, bullet wounds, or knife injury appears to initiate different set of pathophysiological responses...
September 2, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Suzanne Barker-Collo, Alice Theadom, Kelly Jones, Valery L Feigin, Michael Kahan
BACKGROUND: Use of International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in healthcare administrative databases may underestimate the epidemiology of TBI. The present study examined the use of ICD-10 codes in a population-based New Zealand sample. METHODS: TBI related ICD-codes within the New Zealand health database were examined for all incident cases from a population-based TBI sample (n = 1,369). Impact of age, gender, ethnicity, presence/absence of skull fracture, where the case was located (i...
2016: Neuroepidemiology
Yang Qin, Gai-Li Li, Xian-Hua Xu, Zhi-Yong Sun, Jian-Wen Gu, Fa-Bao Gao
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a common health issue. Several people repeatedly experience head impact milder than that causing concussion. The present study aimed to confirm the effects of such repeated impact on the brain structure and cognitive abilities. Rat models were established by closed skull weight-drop injury. The animals were anesthetized, subjected to single (s)-sham, s-mTBI, repetitive (r)-sham, and r-mTBI, and recovery times were recorded. MRI, including T2-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), as well as, neurological severity scores (mNSS) were assessed for the dynamics of the brain structure and neurological function...
August 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Latha Ganti, Yasamin Daneshvar, Sarah Ayala, Aakash N Bodhit, Keith R Peters
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, neurocognitive testing is performed weeks to months after head injury and is mostly performed on patients who continue to have symptoms or difficulties. In this study, we sought to determine whether these tests, when administered acutely, could assist in predicting short-term outcomes after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: This is an IRB-approved prospective study of adult patients who came to the emergency department of our Level-1 trauma center with TBI...
2016: Military Medical Research
Renato Polimanti, Chia-Yen Chen, Robert J Ursano, Steven G Heeringa, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock, Jordan Smoller, Xiaoying Sun, Joel Gelernter, Murray B Stein
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to the increased rates of suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder in military personnel and veterans; and it is also associated with the risk of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. A cross-phenotype high-resolution polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis of persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) was conducted in 845 U.S. Army soldiers who sustained TBI during their deployment. We used a prospective longitudinal survey of three Brigade Combat Teams to assess deployment-acquired TBI and persistent physical, cognitive, and emotional PCS...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jacob S Young, Jonathan G Hobbs, Julian E Bailes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has come to the forefront of both the scientific and popular culture. Specifically, sports-related concussions or mild TBI (mTBI) has become the center of scientific scrutiny with a large amount of research focusing on the long-term sequela of this type of injury. As the populace continues to age, the impact of TBI on the aging brain will become clearer. Currently, reports have come to light that link TBI to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as certain psychiatric diseases...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Erica Fowler, Christopher Kobe, Kristin J Roberts, Christy L Collins, Lara B McKenzie
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, rate, and characteristics of injuries associated with strollers and carriers among young children in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for children 5 years of age and younger treated in emergency departments (1990-2010), who sustained an injury associated with a stroller or carrier. RESULTS: An estimated 360,937 (95% confidence interval: 294,279-427,594) children aged 5 years or younger were treated in emergency departments for stroller- or carrier-related injuries, an average of 17,187 annually...
July 9, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
Carolyn A Emery, Karen M Barlow, Brian L Brooks, Jeffrey E Max, Angela Villavicencio-Requis, Vithya Gnanakumar, Helen Lee Robertson, Kathryn Schneider, Keith Owen Yeates
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding longer-term psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes (for example, anxiety, mood disorders, depression, and attention disorders) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children and adolescents has not been previously synthesized. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the available evidence examining psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes following mTBI in children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine electronic databases were systematically searched from 1980 to August 2014...
May 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
David Tweedie, Koji Fukui, Yazhou Li, Qian-Sheng Yu, Shani Barak, Ian A Tamargo, Vardit Rubovitch, Harold W Holloway, Elin Lehrmann, William H Wood, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, Evelyn Perez, Henriette Van Praag, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Robert E Becker, Chaim G Pick, Nigel H Greig
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), often caused by a concussive impact to the head, affects an estimated 1.7 million Americans annually. With no approved drugs, its pharmacological treatment represents a significant and currently unmet medical need. In our prior development of the anti-cholinesterase compound phenserine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, we recognized that it also possesses non-cholinergic actions with clinical potential. Here, we demonstrate neuroprotective actions of phenserine in neuronal cultures challenged with oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, two insults of relevance to TBI...
2016: PloS One
Leodante da Costa, Christiaan Bas van Niftrik, David Crane, Jorn Fierstra, Allison Bethune
OBJECTIVE: Increased awareness around neurocognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has progressed the search for objective, diagnostic, and monitoring tools, yet imaging biomarkers for mTBI and recovery are not established in clinical use. It has been suggested that mTBI impairs cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to CO2, which could be related to post-concussive syndrome (PCS). We investigate CVR evolution after mTBI using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and possible correlation with PCS...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Je Yeong Sone, Douglas Kondziolka, Jason H Huang, Uzma Samadani
Helmets are one of the earliest and most enduring methods of personal protection in human civilization. Although primarily developed for combat purposes in ancient times, modern helmets have become highly diversified to sports, recreation, and transportation. History and the scientific literature exhibit that helmets continue to be the primary and most effective prevention method against traumatic brain injury (TBI), which presents high mortality and morbidity rates in the US. The neurosurgical and neurotrauma literature on helmets and TBI indicate that helmets provide effectual protection against moderate to severe head trauma resulting in severe disability or death...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
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