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Concussions, traumatic brain injuries, head injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434160/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-is-not-associated-with-volumetric-differences-in-former-high-school-football-players
#1
Douglas P Terry, L Stephen Miller
We investigated potential brain volumetric differences in a sample of former high school football players many years after these injuries. Forty community-dwelling males ages 40-65 who played high school football, but not college or professional sports, were recruited. The experimental group (n = 20) endorsed experiencing two or more mTBIs on an empirically validated mTBI assessment tool (median = 3, range = 2-15). The control group (n = 20) denied ever experiencing an mTBI. Participants completed a self-report index of current mTBI symptomatology and underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scanning, which were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package...
April 22, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404801/serum-neurofilament-light-as-a-biomarker-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-contact-sports
#2
Pashtun Shahim, Henrik Zetterberg, Yelverton Tegner, Kaj Blennow
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the axonal protein neurofilament light (NFL) in serum is a sensitive biomarker to detect subtle brain injury or concussion in contact sports athletes. METHODS: Two prospective cohort studies involving (1) 14 Swedish amateur boxers who underwent fluid biomarker assessments at 7-10 days after bout and after 3 months of rest from boxing and (2) 35 Swedish professional hockey players who underwent blood biomarker assessment at 1, 12, 36, and 144 hours after concussion and when the players returned to play were performed...
April 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394205/a-three-dimensional-computational-human-head-model-that-captures-live-human-brain-dynamics
#3
Shailesh Ganpule, Nitin P Daphalapurkar, Kaliat T Ramesh, Andrew K Knutsen, Dzung L Pham, Philip V Bayly, Jerry L Prince
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributed to abnormal stretching of axons caused by blunt head trauma or acceleration of the head. We developed an anatomically accurate, subject-specific, three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the human brain, and used it to study the dynamic deformations in the substructures of the brain when the head is subjected to rotational accelerations. The computational head models use anatomy and morphology of the white matter fibers obtained using MRI...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387556/long-term-cognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-consequences-of-repetitive-concussion-and-head-impact-exposure
#4
Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea
Initially, interest in sport-related concussion arose from the premise that the study of athletes engaged in sports associated with high rates of concussion could provide insight into the mechanisms, phenomenology, and recovery from mild traumatic brain injury. Over the last decade, concerns have focused on the possibility that, for some athletes, repetitive concussions may raise the long-term risk for cognitive decline, neurobehavioral changes, and neurodegenerative disease. First conceptualized as a discrete event with variable recovery trajectories, concussion is now viewed by some as a trigger of neurobiological events that may influence neurobehavioral function over the course of the life span...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381654/disorder-of-executive-function-of-the-brain-after-head-injury-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-neuroimaging-and-diagnostic-criteria-for-implementation-of-administrative-support-in-japan
#5
Jun Shinoda, Yoshitaka Asano
The diagnotic criteria for disorder of the executive function of the brain (DEFB) as a syndrome of sequela were administratively established (ad-DEFB) in Japan in 2006 to support disabled patients whose impairment, limited to cognition (memory, attention, execution, and behavior), emerges after organic brain injuries regardless of physical deficits. However, some patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been excluded from receiving medico-social services. In particular, this tendency is more prominent in patients with mild TBI because no lesions are apparent on conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase...
April 6, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365745/consistency-of-self-reported-neurocognitive-symptoms-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-concussive-events-from-end-of-first-deployment-to-veteran-health-administration-comprehensive-traumatic-brain-injury-evaluation-by-operations-enduring-freedom-iraqi
#6
Arthur C Russo, Esther C Fingerhut
Objective: This study examined the consistency of self-reported symptoms and concussive events in combat veterans who reported experiencing concussive events. Method: One hundred and forty, single deployed, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn combat veterans with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluations (CTBIE) and no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess consistency of self-reported (a) traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related symptoms, (b) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms, and (c) TBI-related concussive events from soon after deployment to time of VHA CTBIE...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343463/prospective-head-to-head-study-of-three-computerized-neurocognitive-assessment-tools-part-2-utility-for-assessment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-emergency-department-patients
#7
Lindsay D Nelson, Robyn E Furger, Peter Gikas, E Brooke Lerner, William B Barr, Thomas A Hammeke, Christopher Randolph, Kevin Guskiewicz, Michael A McCrea
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of three computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (CNTs; i.e., ANAM, DANA, and ImPACT) for assessing mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in patients recruited through a level I trauma center emergency department (ED). METHODS: mTBI (n=94) and matched trauma control (n=80) subjects recruited from a level I trauma center emergency department completed symptom and neurocognitive assessments within 72 hr of injury and at 15 and 45 days post-injury...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338593/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-cte-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#8
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. CTE symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition and motor function, however CTE is only currently diagnosed post-mortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 WT rats, 8 rats received 2 injuries ('2xTBI'), 27 rats received 5 injuries ('5xTBI') and 13 rats were sham controls...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326890/functional-and-molecular-correlates-following-single-and-repeated-rat-closed-head-concussion-indices-of-vulnerability-following-brain-injury
#9
Andrea Mountney, Angela Boutte, Casandra M Cartagena, William J Flerlage, David Johnson, Chanyang Rho, Xi-Chun M Lu, Angela M Yarnell, Sean R Marcsisin, Jason Sousa, Chau Vuong, Victor E Zottig, Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Janice Gilsdorf, Frank C Tortella, Deborah A Shear
Closed-head concussive injury is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Isolated concussions frequently produce acute neurological impairments; however, individuals typically recover spontaneously within a short time frame. In contrast, brain injuries resulting from multiple concussions can result in cumulative damage and elevated risk of developing chronic brain pathologies, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Increased attention has focused on identification of diagnostic markers that can prognostically serve as indices of brain health after injury, revealing the temporal profile of vulnerability to a second insult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324787/interactive-ebooks-in-educating-patients-and-their-families-about-head-injury-regardless-of-age
#10
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Amir Mahmoodi, Melissa Huang, Diem Kieu Tran, Jefferson W Chen
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common and debilitating injury that is particularly prevalent in patients over 60. Given the influence of head injury on dementia (and vice versa), and the increased likelihood of ground-level falls, elderly patients are vulnerable to TBI. Educational interventions can increase knowledge and influence preventative activity to decrease the likelihood of further TBI. We sought to determine the efficacy of interactive tablet-based educational interventions in elderly patients on self-reported knowledge...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298170/concussion-induces-hippocampal-circuitry-disruption-in-swine
#11
John A Wolf, Brian N Johnson, Victoria E Johnson, Mary E Putt, Kevin D Browne, Constance J Mietus, Daniel P Brown, Kathryn L Wofford, Douglas H Smith, M Sean Grady, Akiva S Cohen, D Kacy Cullen
Hippocampal-dependent deficits in learning and memory formation are a prominent feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the role of the hippocampus in cognitive dysfunction after concussion (mild TBI) is unknown. We therefore investigated functional and structural changes in the swine hippocampus following TBI using a model of head rotational acceleration that closely replicates the biomechanics and neuropathology of closed-head TBI in humans. We examined neurophysiological changes using a novel ex vivo hippocampal slice paradigm with extracellular stimulation and recording in the dentate gyrus and CA1 occurring at 7 days following non-impact inertial TBI in swine...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269244/portable-video-oculography-device-for-implementation-in-sideline-concussion-assessments-a-prototype
#12
Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever
Concussion is currently a serious health problem and can lead to severe brain dysfunction. There is a definite need for sensitive and reliable tests to detect and evaluate the subtle changes in brain function caused by concussion. This study details the development of a low cost portable eye tracking device that can aid in the detection of concussions. The device evaluates ocular motor function and can be used on the sidelines of sporting events to give a quick indication of the severity of head trauma. It can further be used to evaluate and monitor mild Traumatic Brain Injuries and aid in the return to play decision making process...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227478/portable-video-oculography-device-for-implementation-in-sideline-concussion-assessments-a-prototype
#13
Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Dawie J Van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer
Concussion is currently a serious health problem and can lead to severe brain dysfunction. There is a definite need for sensitive and reliable tests to detect and evaluate the subtle changes in brain function caused by concussion. This study details the development of a low cost portable eye tracking device that can aid in the detection of concussions. The device evaluates ocular motor function and can be used on the sidelines of sporting events to give a quick indication of the severity of head trauma. It can further be used to evaluate and monitor mild Traumatic Brain Injuries and aid in the return to play decision making process...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207508/concussion-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-related-chronic-pain-in-males-and-females-a-diagnostic-modelling-study
#14
Tatyana Mollayeva, J David Cassidy, Colin M Shapiro, Shirin Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio
Pain is an unpleasant, complex, and perceived experience that places a significant burden on patients and clinicians. Its severity may be mediated by emotion, attitude, and environmental influences, and pain may be expressed differently in males and females. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently associated with chronic pain. This diagnostic modeling study examined sex differences in the construct of chronic pain in patients with delayed recovery from concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).Data were collected from standardized questionnaires, neuroimaging records, and comprehensive clinical assessments...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176234/frequent-mild-head-injury-promotes-trigeminal-sensitivity-concomitant-with-microglial-proliferation-astrocytosis-and-increased-neuropeptide-levels-in-the-trigeminal-pain-system
#15
Ashley L Tyburski, Lan Cheng, Soroush Assari, Kurosh Darvish, Melanie B Elliott
BACKGROUND: Frequent mild head injuries or concussion along with the presence of headache may contribute to the persistence of concussion symptoms. METHODS: In this study, the acute effects of recovery between mild head injuries and the frequency of injuries on a headache behavior, trigeminal allodynia, was assessed using von Frey testing up to one week after injury, while histopathological changes in the trigeminal pain pathway were evaluated using western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170122/utility-of-serum-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-and-stratification-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Lawrence M Lewis, Derek Schloemann, Linda Papa, Robert Fucetola, Jeffrey Bazarian, Miranda Lindburg, Robert Welch
OBJECTIVE: To compare test characteristics of a single serum concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-100β, and ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), obtained within 6 hours of head injury, to diagnose mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in head-injured subjects. METHODS: Adults aged 18-80 who presented to one of seven EDs with a blunt closed head injury, underwent head CT within 4 hours of injury, and had blood drawn for biomarker analysis within 6 hours of injury were eligible...
February 7, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162097/is-age-associated-with-the-severity-of-post-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-symptoms
#17
Tina Hu, Cindy Hunt, Donna Ouchterlony
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a significant public health concern. Research has shown that mTBI is associated with persistent physical, cognitive, and behavioural symptoms, leading to significant direct and indirect medical costs. Our objective was to determine if age impacts the type and severity of post-mTBI symptoms experienced. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data at a level 1 tertiary care outpatient head injury clinic...
February 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156140/short-term-neurocognitive-and-symptomatic-outcomes-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-multi-centre-observational-cohort-study
#18
Benjamin M Bloom, Kathryn Kinsella, Jason Pott, Hiren C Patel, Tim Harris, Fiona Lecky, Rupert Pearse
OBJECTIVE: To determine the short-term cognitive and symptomatic outcome following mild traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Setting: Emergency Departments of two UK tertiary referral hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients presenting to the Emergency Departments of the Royal London Hospital and Salford Royal Hospital with suspected traumatic brain injury within 24 hours and Glasgow Coma Score > 8. A non-TBI comparison group included adult patients with no head or neck injury...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140672/head-injury-serum-markers-for-assessing-response-to-trauma-design-of-the-headsmart-study
#19
Matthew E Peters, Vani Rao, Kathleen T Bechtold, Durga Roy, Haris I Sair, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Robert D Stevens, D Scott Batty, Hayley Falk, Christopher Fernandez, Uju Ofoche, Alexandra Vassila, Anna J Hall, Braden Anderson, Edward Bessman, Constantine G Lyketsos, Allen D Everett, Jennifer Van Eyk, Frederick K Korley
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis and risk stratification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) at time of presentation remains a clinical challenge. The Head Injury Serum Markers for Assessing Response to Trauma study (HeadSMART) aims to examine blood-based biomarkers for diagnosing and determining prognosis in TBI. METHODS: HeadSMART is a 6-month prospective cohort study comparing emergency department patients evaluated for TBI (exposure group) to (1) emergency department patients evaluated for traumatic injury without head trauma and (2) healthy persons...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117263/plasma-micro-rna-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#20
Biswadev Mitra, Thomas F Rau, Nanda Surendran, James H Brennan, Prasanthan Thaveenthiran, Edmond Sorich, Mark C Fitzgerald, Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Sarjubhai A Patel
Prediction of post-concussive syndrome after apparent mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent cognitive recovery remains challenging, with substantial limitations of current methods of cognitive testing. This pilot study aimed to determine if levels of micro ribonucleic acids (RNAs) circulating in plasma are altered following TBI, and if changes to levels of such biomarkers over time could assist in determination of prognosis after TBI. Patients were enrolled after TBI on presentation to the Emergency Department and allocated to three groups: A - TBI (physical trauma to the head), witnessed loss of consciousness, amnesia, GCS=15, a normal CT Brain and a recorded first pass after post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) scale; B TBI, witnessed LOC, amnesia, GCS=15, a normal CT brain and a PTA scale test fail and: C - TBI and initial GCS <13 on arrival to the ED...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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