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Concussions, traumatic brain injuries, head injuries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#1
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889010/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-concussion
#2
REVIEW
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Amir Garakani, Lawrence S Gross, Marcia K Goin, Janet Pine, Andrew E Slaby, Calvin R Sumner, David A Baron
Over the past decade, concussion has become the most widely discussed injury in contact sports. However, concussions also occur in several other settings, such as non-contact sports, elderly individuals, young children, military personnel, and victims of domestic violence. Concussion is frequently undiagnosed as a cause of psychiatric morbidity, especially when the patient has no history of loss of consciousness or direct head trauma. Almost all of the extant literature focuses on traumatic brain injury and assumes that concussion is merely a mild form of traumatic brain injury, which has resulted in a lack of understanding about what concussion is, and how to diagnose, monitor, and treat its varied neuropsychiatric symptoms...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861473/-direct-cost-of-primary-care-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adults-by-grd-in-third-level-of-care
#3
Rodolfo Barragán-Hervella, Álvaro Montiel-Jarquín, Iván Limón-Serrano, Víctor Escobedo-Sosa, Jorge Loría-Castellanos
OBJECTIVE: To describe the direct cost of primary health care for patients with mild traumatic head injury in a third level medical facility. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in 219 patients with mild traumatic brain injury (GRD 090 S06.0 ICD-10 including uncomplicated concussion without complication and increased comorbidity). LOCATION: A medical unit of tertiary care in the State of Puebla, Mexico. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Direct costs were taken from ACDO...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855264/acute-effects-of-near-infrared-light-therapy-on-brain-state-in-healthy-subjects-as-quantified-by-qeeg-measures
#4
Fred Grover, Jon Weston, Michael Weston
OBJECTIVE: Recent investigation suggests that near infrared (NIR) light may improve symptoms from mild traumatic brain injury. In addition, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) has shown measures correlating with concussion: P300, reaction time, and amplitude. The objective of this study was to determine whether NIR light treatment has an acute effect on brain state in healthy patients as measured by EEG. METHODS: A total of 31 healthy volunteers, between the ages of 14 and 65, underwent qEEG event-related response tests before and after a 20-min NIR light head treatment...
November 17, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#5
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842519/administration-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-depression-associated-with-deep-brain-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-post-traumatic-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-study
#6
Miles G Cunningham, Golnaz Yadollahikhales, Gordana Vitaliano, Craig van Horne
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective for parkinsonian symptoms poorly responsive to medications. DBS is typically well-tolerated, as are the maintenance battery changes. Here we describe an adverse event during a battery replacement procedure that caused rapid onset of severe depression. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 58-year-old woman who was in a serious motor vehicle accident and sustained a concussion with loss of consciousness...
November 15, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#7
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805468/vision-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-concussion
#8
Cinthi Pillai, John W Gittinger
Traumatic brain injury results from an acute impact to the head causing brain dysfunction. Concussion is a form of mild traumatic brain injury. There are significant short- and long-term sequelae of concussion, and early diagnosis and management are key to recovery. Visual system symptoms and signs are common following concussion and have been shown to be a useful feature of concussion testing. Neuro-ophthalmic findings include abnormalities in the pupillary light reflex, accommodation, convergence, extraocular motility, steroacuity, as well as pursuit and saccades...
November 2, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784200/prevalence-of-incomplete-functional-and-symptomatic-recovery-among-patients-with-head-injury-but-brain-injury-debatable-hibrid-running-title-outcomes-in-patients-with-head-injury-but-brain-injury-debatable
#9
Frederick Kofi Korley, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Hayley J Falk, Matthew E Peters, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Durga Roy, Vani Rao, Haris I Sair, Uju Ofoche, Anna J Hall, Freshta Akbari, Timothy E Van Meter, Allen D Everett, Jennifer Van Eyk, Kathleen T Bechtold
Head injury patients not meeting the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM)'s criteria for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), referred to hereafter as HIBRID (Head Injury BRain Injury Debatable) are often excluded from studies. The prognostic importance of HIBRID is unclear. We investigated the differences in functional and symptomatic recovery at one month after injury among TBI patients classified as: HIBRID, ACRM+ cranial CT-, and cranial CT+; and trauma and healthy controls. Subjects were enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort (Head Injury Serum Markers for Assessing Response to Trauma, HeadSMART)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768069/a-repetitive-concussive-head-injury-model-in-mice
#10
Zhihui Yang, Fan Lin, Amanda S Weissman, Emily Jaalouk, Qing-Shan Xue, Kevin K W Wang
Despite the concussion/ mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) being the most frequent occurrence of traumatic brain injury, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury and its effects. To develop a better understanding of concussions, animals are often used because they provide a controlled, rigorous, and efficient model. Studies have adapted traditional animal models to perform mTBI to stimulate mild injury severity by changing the injury parameters. These models have been used because they can produce morphologically similar brain injuries to the clinical condition and provide a spectrum of injury severities...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679447/modeling-and-optimization-of-airbag-helmets-for-preventing-head-injuries-in-bicycling
#11
Mehmet Kurt, Kaveh Laksari, Calvin Kuo, Gerald A Grant, David B Camarillo
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651073/concussions-and-risk-within-cultural-contexts-of-play
#12
Gabriel Alejandro Torres Colón, Sharia Smith, Jenny Fucillo
Concussions are a type of traumatic injury caused by a jolting of the brain that disrupts normal brain function, and multiple concussions can lead to serious long-term health consequences. In this article, we examine the relationship between college students' understanding of concussions and their willingness to continue playing despite the possibility of sustaining multiple head injuries. We use a mixed-methods approach that includes participant observation, cultural domain analysis, and structured interviews...
September 19, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646958/assessment-of-the-king-devick%C3%A2-kd-test-for-screening-acute-mtbi-concussion-in-warfighters
#13
David V Walsh, José E Capó-Aponte, Thomas Beltran, Wesley R Cole, Ashley Ballard, Joseph Y Dumayas
OBJECTIVES: The Department of Defense reported that 344,030 cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were clinically confirmed from 2000 to 2015, with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for 82.3% of all cases. Unfortunately, warfighters with TBI are often identified only when moderate or severe head injuries have occurred, leaving more subtle mTBI cases undiagnosed. This study aims to identify and validate an eye-movement visual test for screening acute mTBI. METHODS: Two-hundred active duty military personnel were recruited to perform the King-Devick® (KD) test...
September 11, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639602/early-traumatic-brain-injury-screen-in-6594-inpatient-combat-casualties
#14
Christopher Connelly, Kathleen Martin, Joel Elterman, Jean A Orman, David Zonies
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to review the inpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) screening program at a Role IV regional resource trauma center. TBI has been coined the "signature wound" during current U.S. combat operations. All patients injured in Iraq or Afghanistan who transit through Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) undergo an initial TBI screen regardless of anatomic injury. The incidence and factors associated with positive screening for concussion (physical event+alteration of consciousness (AOC)) and TBI diagnoses were examined...
September 7, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639135/-it-was-only-a-mild-concussion-exploring-the-description-of-sports-concussion-in-online-news-articles
#15
Osman Hassan Ahmed, Eric E Hall
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Concussion is widely discussed in online sports news articles, but the terms used to report this injury vary. This study aimed to use a systematic search strategy and explore the description of sports concussion in online sports news articles. METHODS: A systematic approach was employed to obtain online articles related to sports concussion from four sports associated with concussion (hockey, football, soccer, and rugby). Included articles were evaluated for the descriptors used in relation to concussion and possible consequences associated with concussion...
July 15, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637960/neuroepidemiology-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
A J Gardner, R Zafonte
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. TBI is defined as an acute brain injury resulting from mechanical energy to the head from external physical forces. Some of the leading causes of TBI include falls, assaults, motor vehicle or traffic accidents, and sport-related concussion. Two of the most common identified risk factors are sex (males are nearly three times more likely to suffer a TBI than females); and a bimodal age pattern (persons 65 years and older, and children under 14 years old)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604725/a-porcine-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-via-head-rotational-acceleration
#17
D Kacy Cullen, James P Harris, Kevin D Browne, John A Wolf, John E Duda, David F Meaney, Susan S Margulies, Douglas H Smith
Unique from other brain disorders, traumatic brain injury (TBI) generally results from a discrete biomechanical event that induces rapid head movement. The large size and high organization of the human brain makes it particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury from rotational accelerations that can cause dynamic deformation of the brain tissue. Therefore, replicating the injury biomechanics of human TBI in animal models presents a substantial challenge, particularly with regard to addressing brain size and injury parameters...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604720/weight-drop-models-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Brian T Kalish, Michael J Whalen
Weight drop models in rodents have been used for several decades to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Weight drop models have been used to replicate focal cerebral contusion as well as diffuse brain injury characterized by axonal damage. More recently, closed head injury models with free head rotation have been developed to model sports concussions, which feature functional disturbances in the absence of overt brain damage assessed by conventional imaging techniques...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604709/the-history-and-evolution-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-models
#19
John Povlishock
This narrative provides a brief history of experimental animal model development for the study of traumatic brain injury. It draws upon a relatively rich history of early animal modeling that employed higher order animals to assess concussive brain injury while exploring the importance of head movement versus stabilization in evaluating the animal's response to injury. These themes are extended to the development of angular/rotational acceleration/deceleration models that also exploited brain movement to generate both the morbidity and pathology typically associated with human traumatic brain injury...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592625/pathophysiology-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-brain-injury-at-cold-and-hot-environments-novel-drug-targets-for-neuroprotection
#20
Hari Shanker Sharma, Dafin F Muresanu, José V Lafuente, Ala Nozari, Ranjana Patnaik, Stephen D Skaper, Aruna Sharma
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) function in health and disease. Thus, in almost all neurodegenerative, traumatic or metabolic insults the BBB breakdown occurs to large molecules e.g., serum proteins. Entry of serum proteins into the brain fluid microenvironment leads to edema formation and subsequently cellular injuries. Accordingly, restoration of the BBB function using drugs will lead to neurorepair. However, injury to the brain occurring following blast, bullet wounds, or knife injury appears to initiate different set of pathophysiological responses...
September 2, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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