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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738970/a-predictive-focus-of-gain-modulation-encodes-target-trajectories-in-insect-vision
#1
Steven D Wiederman, Joseph M Fabian, James R Dunbier, David C O'Carroll
When a human catches a ball, they estimate future target location based on the current trajectory. How animals, small and large, encode such predictive processes at the single neuron level is unknown. Here we describe small target-selective neurons in predatory dragonflies that exhibit localized enhanced sensitivity for targets displaced to new locations just ahead of the prior path, with suppression elsewhere in the surround. This focused region of gain modulation is driven by predictive mechanisms, with the direction tuning shifting selectively to match the target's prior path...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737839/moving-an-evidence-based-parenting-program-into-the-community
#2
Caroline K P Roben, Mary Dozier, E B Caron, Kristin Bernard
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a parenting program developed to enhance sensitivity among parents of infants who experience early adversity. In several randomized clinical trials, the intervention's efficacy has been demonstrated. Moving interventions into the community with adequate fidelity is challenging, though, and intervention effects are often much smaller than when tested in randomized clinical trials. To enhance the likelihood that ABC is delivered with high fidelity, a microanalytic fidelity assessment was developed...
July 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737627/direct-and-indirect-effectiveness-of-the-ten-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-carriage-in-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#3
Arto A Palmu, Maija Toropainen, Tarja Kaijalainen, Lotta Siira, Mika Lahdenkari, Heta Nieminen, Ritva K Syrjänen, Terhi M Kilpi, Jukka Jokinen
Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) vaccine trial was designed to evaluate effectiveness of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10, GSK). We conducted two satellite studies to evaluate PHiD-CV10 effectiveness against pneumococcal carriage in FinIP-vaccinated children (long-term direct and indirect effectiveness combined) and in their unvaccinated siblings (indirect effectiveness within the family).FinIP was a cluster-randomized trial, where >47000 children <19 months of age were recruited 2009-2010...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736593/successful-treatment-of-achilles-tendinopathy-with-electroacupuncture-two-cases
#4
Matthew Kendall Hawks
Background: Achilles tendinopathy is a common injury for active patient populations and is challenging to treat. Acupuncture tendon-based therapy was first described in the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine. In modern times, specific techniques have been described poorly in the literature. The aim of this case report is to describe a new technique of acupuncture for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy and provide 2 illustrative cases. Cases: Treatments for the 2 patients were performed in a deployed military treatment facility...
June 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736196/serological-and-molecular-epidemiological-outcomes-after-two-decades-of-universal-infant-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-vaccination-in-nunavut-canada
#5
Chris Huynh, Gerald Y Minuk, Julia Uhanova, Maureen Baikie, Thomas Wong, Carla Osiowy
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection within the Canadian Arctic is considered endemic (>2% prevalence). Within the Arctic region of Nunavut, a vaccination program targeted at newborn infants was initiated approximately 20years ago, along with interim grade school catch-up programs, with the result that individuals born after 1980 are presumed vaccinated. This study investigates the effectiveness of these programs and is the first seroepidemiological survey to determine HBV prevalence in Nunavut in the post-vaccination era...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734250/assessment-of-direct-exposure-and-leaching-risk-from-pahs-in-roadway-and-stormwater-system-residuals
#6
Edmund Azah, Hwidong Kim, Timothy Townsend
Wastes generated from municipal cleaning activities such as street sweeping, ditch cleaning, stormwater pond maintenance, and catch basin sediment removal require appropriate management. Beneficial use of these types of waste is a good alternative to landfilling; however, there are genuine concerns about possible soil and groundwater contamination by pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study assessed the potential risks associated with beneficial use of roadway and stormwater system residuals collected from 14 cities across the state of Florida, USA...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734075/high-occurrence-of-jellyfish-predation-by-black-browed-and-campbell-albatross-identified-by-dna-metabarcoding
#7
Julie C McInnes, Rachael Alderman, Mary-Anne Lea, Ben Raymond, Bruce E Deagle, Richard A Phillips, Andrew Stanworth, David R Thompson, Paulo Catry, Henri Weimerskirch, Cristián G Suazo, Michaël Gras, Simon N Jarman
Gelatinous zooplankton are a large component of the animal biomass in all marine environments, but are considered to be uncommon in the diet of most marine top predators. However, the diets of key predator groups like seabirds have conventionally been assessed from stomach content analyses, which cannot detect most gelatinous prey. As marine top predators are used to identify changes in the overall species composition of marine ecosystems, such biases in dietary assessment may impact our detection of important ecosystem regime shifts...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732199/catch-shiny-droplets-in-suspension-finding-the-needle-in-a-haystack
#8
Nina V Hein-Fuchs, Renate König
In a recent issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Chaipan et al. (2017) described a high-throughput screening methodology to identify epitopes on HIV-1 particles recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. The approach utilizes a droplet-based microfluidics platform combining robust phenotypic single-virus sorting with next-generation sequencing of viral quasispecies.
July 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729847/effects-of-intensive-crew-training-on-individual-and-collective-characteristics-of-oar-movement-in-rowing-as-a-coxless-pair
#9
Mathieu Feigean, Mehdi R'Kiouak, Reinoud J Bootsma, Jérôme Bourbousson
This case study examined how two rowers adapted their rowing patterns following crew training as a newly formed coxless pair. The two participants were expert (double-oar) single scull-boat rowers. Performing as a crew in the coxless-pair's sweep-boat, where each rower operates a single oar, on-the-water data were collected before and after a 6-week intensive team-training program. Rowing patterns were characterized by the horizontal oar angle, oar angular velocity and linear oar-water velocity profiles during the catch (minimal oar angle) to finish (maximal oar angle) half-cycles of the propulsive water phase...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729018/sustained-reduction-in-vaccine-type-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-despite-waning-effects-of-a-catch-up-campaign-in-kilifi-kenya-a-mathematical-model-based-on-pre-vaccination-data
#10
John Ojal, Stefan Flasche, Laura L Hammitt, Donald Akech, Moses C Kiti, Tatu Kamau, Ifedayo Adetifa, Markku Nurhonen, J Anthony G Scott, Kari Auranen
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Kenya introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine together with a catch-up campaign for children aged <5years in Kilifi County. In a post-vaccination surveillance study based in Kilifi, there was a substantial decline in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, given the continued circulation of the vaccine serotypes it is possible that vaccine-serotype disease may re-emerge once the effects of the catch-up campaign wear off. METHODS: We developed a compartmental, age-structured dynamic model of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease for three serotype groups: the 10-valent vaccine serotypes and two groups of non-vaccine serotypes based on their susceptibility to mutual competition...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728430/patient-handoff-education-are-medical-schools-catching-up
#11
Robyn Davis, Joshua Davis, Katherine Berg, Dale Berg, Charity J Morgan, Stefani Russo, Lee Ann Riesenberg
Communication errors during shift-to-shift handoffs are a leading cause of preventable adverse events. Nevertheless, handoff skills are variably taught at medical schools. The authors administered questionnaires on handoffs to interns during orientation. Questions focused on medical school handoff education, experiences, and perceptions. The majority (546/718) reported having some form of education on handoffs during medical school, with 48% indicating this was 1 hour or less. Most respondents (98%) reported that they believe patients experience adverse events because of inadequate handoffs, and more than one third had witnessed a patient safety issue...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727733/a-new-methodology-for-sampling-blackflies-for-the-entomological-surveillance-of-onchocerciasis-in-brazil
#12
Érika S do Nascimento-Carvalho, Raquel de Andrade Cesário, Vladimir Fazito do Vale, Arion Tulio Aranda, Ana Carolina Dos Santos Valente, Marilza Maia-Herzog
The effectiveness of the MosqTent® trap was evaluated in endemic area to onchocerciasis in Brazil. This study seeks to provide subsidies for the monitoring of the onchocerciasis transmission in the country. The study was carried out at the Homoxi and Thirei villages, located in the Yanomami Indigenous Land, in the state of Roraima. This area presents hyperendemicity, high blackflies densities, large population migrations and mining activities. The Homoxi and Thirei villages are assisted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727643/improving-early-adolescent-girls-motor-skill-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Natalie Lander, Philip J Morgan, Jo Salmon, Lisa M Barnett
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) levels decline substantially during adolescence, and are consistently lower in girls. Competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor for the decline in PA typically observed in adolescent girls; yet, girls' mastery in FMS is low. Whilst interventions can improve FMS, there is a lack of interventions targeting girls, and very few are conducted in high schools. Additionally, interventions are usually conducted by researchers, not teachers, and thus have little chance of being embedded into curricula...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725435/biogeophysical-and-physiological-processes-drive-movement-patterns-in-a-marine-predator
#14
Lucy A Howey, Bradley M Wetherbee, Emily R Tolentino, Mahmood S Shivji
BACKGROUND: Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) are among the most abundant and widely distributed of oceanic elasmobranchs. Millions are taken annually in pelagic longline fisheries and comprise the highest component of auctioned fin weight in the international shark fin trade. Though studies of blue sharks outnumber those of other large pelagic sharks, the species' complicated and sexually segregated life history still confound current understanding of Atlantic movement patterns. Lack of detailed information regarding movement and vertical behavior continues to limit management efforts that require such data for stock assessment and sustainable catch modeling...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722141/failure-to-rescue-as-a-nurse-sensitive-indicator
#15
Jane Mushta, Kathy L Rush, Elizabeth Andersen
PROBLEM: The aim of this concept analysis was to clarify failure to rescure as a nurse-sensitive indicator. Although the concept of failure to rescue as a nurse-sensitive outcome has appeared in the nursing literature for over a decade, conceptual clarity is needed to address its variable and ambiguous use in health care. METHODS: Walker and Avant's eight-stage method of concept analysis was used to explore the concept of failure to rescue in nursing practice. Twenty-one papers were retrieved from Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and MEDLINE databases and selected for review and synthesis...
July 19, 2017: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720823/learning-and-memory-catching-fear-memories
#16
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720445/moving-beyond-sex-assessing-the-impact-of-gender-identity-on-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-recommendations-and-uptake-among-a-national-sample-of-rural-residing-lgbt-young-adults
#17
Robert A Bednarczyk, Jennifer L Whitehead, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: While national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. METHODS: We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720113/evaluation-of-electric-nets-as-means-to-sample-mosquito-vectors-host-seeking-on-humans-and-primates
#18
Frances Hawkes, Benny Obrain Manin, Sui Han Ng, Stephen J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua, Heather M Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is found in macaques and is the only major zoonotic malaria to affect humans. Transmission of P. knowlesi between people and macaques depends on the host species preferences and feeding behavior of mosquito vectors. However, these behaviours are difficult to measure due to the lack of standardized methods for sampling potential vectors attracted to different host species. This study evaluated electrocuting net traps as a safe, standardised method for sampling P...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719365/proposed-model-for-the-cultural-adaptation-of-an-internet-based-depression-prevention-intervention-catch-it-for-arab-adolescents
#19
Zach Abuwalla, Zaynab Kadhem, Tracy Gladstone, Ereny Mikhael, Amir Bishay, Benjamin W Van Voorhees
Background Evidence-based Internet depression prevention intervention programs are not readily available for Arab youth, but may be effective in this group. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based Western psychotherapy is an important step toward better prevention and treatment of depressive illness in the Arab community. Project CATCH-IT is an Internet-based depression prevention intervention tool that is tailored for adolescents and young adults. Methods The PEN-3 theoretical framework was used for the cultural adaptation of Project CATCH-IT for Arab adolescents...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718808/beta-palmitate-improves-bone-length-and-quality-during-catch-up-growth-in-young-rats
#20
Meytal Bar-Maisels, Yankel Gabet, Raanan Shamir, Sahar Hiram-Bab, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Moshe Phillip, Fabiana Bar-Yoseph, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA) and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
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