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Fabrizia Caiazzo, Vittorio Alfieri
In the framework of Additive Manufacturing of metals, Directed Energy Deposition of steel powder over flat surfaces and edges has been investigated in this paper. The aims are the repair and overhaul of actual, worn-out, high price sensitive metal components. A full-factorial experimental plan has been arranged, the results have been discussed in terms of geometry, microhardness and thermal affection as functions of the main governing parameters, laser power, scanning speed and mass flow rate; dilution and catching efficiency have been evaluated as well to compare quality and effectiveness of the process under conditions of both flat and edge depositions...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Benjamin D Jaffe, Peter J Landolt
Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Camille Jeunet, Louis Albert, Ferran Argelaguet, Anatole Lecuyer
While the Sense of Agency (SoA) has so far been predominantly characterised in VR as a component of the Sense of Embodiment, other communities (e.g., in psychology or neurosciences) have investigated the SoA from a different perspective proposing complementary theories. Yet, despite the acknowledged potential benefits of catching up with these theories a gap remains. This paper first aims to contribute to fill this gap by introducing a theory according to which the SoA can be divided into two components, the feeling and the judgment of agency, and relies on three principles, namely the principles of priority, exclusivity and consistency...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Charlotte Zerna, Amy Y X Yu, Jayesh Modi, Shiel K Patel, Jonathan I Coulter, Eric E Smith, Shelagh B Coutts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) are associated with cognitive decline, increased stroke risk, and disability in old age. We hypothesized that superimposed acute cerebrovascular occlusion on chronic preexisting injury (leukoaraiosis) leads to worse outcome after minor cerebrovascular event, both using quantitative (volumetric) and qualitative (Fazekas scale) assessment, as well as relative total brain volume. METHODS: WML volume assessment was performed in 425 patients with high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA; motor/speech deficits >5 minutes) or minor strokes from the CATCH study (CT and MRI in the Triage of TIA and Minor Cerebrovascular Events to Identify High Risk Patients)...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Jennifer C Selgrath, Sarah E Gergel, Amanda C J Vincent
Locally sustainable resource extraction activities, at times, transform into ecologically detrimental enterprises. Understanding such transitions is a primary challenge for conservation and management of many ecosystems. In marine systems, over-exploitation of small-scale fisheries creates problems such as reduced biodiversity and lower catches. However, long-term documentation of how governance and associated changes in fishing gears may have contributed to such declines is often lacking. Using fisher interviews, we characterized fishing gear dynamics over 60 years (1950-2010) in a coral reef ecosystem in the Philippines subject to changing fishing regulations...
2018: PloS One
Mahboubeh Kheirabadi, Gardner S Creech, Jennifer X Qiao, David S Nirschl, David K Leahy, Kenneth M Boy, Percy H Carter, Martin D Eastgate
Macrocyclic peptides containing N-alkylated amino acids have emerged as a promising therapeutic modality, capable of modulating protein-protein interactions and intracellular delivery of hydrophilic payloads. While multi-channel automated Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) is a practical approach for peptide synthesis, the requirement for slow and inefficient chromatographic purification of the product peptides is a significant limitation to exploring these novel compounds. Herein, we invent a "catch-release" strategy for the non-chromatographic purification of macrocyclic peptides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
John A Troutman, Mary C Sullivan, Gregory J Carr, Jeffrey Fisher
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are developed from compound-independent information to describe important anatomical and physiological characteristics of an individual or population of interest. Modeling pediatric populations is challenging because of the rapid changes that occur during growth, particularly in the first few weeks and months after birth. Neonates who are born premature pose several unique challenges in PBPK model development. To provide appropriate descriptions for body weight (BW) and height (Ht) for age and appropriate incremental gains in PBPK models of the developing preterm and full term neonate, anthropometric measurements collected longitudinally from 1,063 preterm and 158 full term neonates were combined with 2,872 cross-sectional measurements obtained from the NHANES 2007-2010 survey...
March 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
M I Gladyshev
For the first time, the quantity of protectors of cardiovascular deceases-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3, DHA), obtained through fish (Eurasian perch) catch in water bodies of different trophic status was determined. A formula was drawn to calculate the quantity of obtained EPA + DHA (kg km-2 year-1 ) depending on the concentration of total phosphorus in water. It is found that the maximum quantity of EPA + DHA can be obtained by humans from fish caught in mesotrophic water bodies...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ebenezer K Aidoo, Yaw A Afrane, Maxwell Gesuge Machani, Winnie Chebore, Bernard Walter Lawson, Harrysone Atieli, Simon Kariuki, Ming-Chieh Lee, Cristian Koepfli, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic reservoirs of malaria parasites using index cases as entry points into the community is potentially a cost-effective way towards achieving malaria elimination. METHODS: Within 1 year, 1430 confirmed malaria cases were identified in Marani hospital, western Kenya. Fifty cases were followed up, and 108 index case household members and 612 neighbours within a 100 m radius were screened. As controls, samples were collected from 510 individuals matched with index cases and located at a distance of ≥ 500 m from them...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ana Paula Barbosa Martins, Leonardo Manir Feitosa, Rosangela Paula Lessa, Zafira Silva Almeida, Michelle Heupel, Wagner Macedo Silva, Ligia Tchaicka, Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes
Increasing fishing effort has caused declines in shark populations worldwide. Understanding biological and ecological characteristics of sharks is essential to effectively implement management measures, but to fully understand drivers of fishing pressure social factors must be considered through multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. The present study aimed to use fisher and trader knowledge to describe the shark catch and product supply chain in Northeastern Brazil, and evaluate perceptions regarding the regional conservation status of shark species...
2018: PloS One
Neema Pallikkarathodi Mani, Manjunatha Ganiga, Jobin Cyriac
Fluorescence sensors for biologically active molecules are catching attention due to their good performance and simplicity. Herein, we report a fluorescence sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of dopamine (DA) in aqueous samples. MoS2 nanohybrid material composed of MoS2 quantum dots dispersed over MoS2 nanosheets (MoS2 QDNS) in alkaline medium was employed as the fluorescent probe. In the presence of DA, the photoluminescence intensity of MoS2 QDNS was quenched linearly with increasing concentration of the former...
March 13, 2018: Analyst
Matthew Graham, Jonathan E Suk, Saki Takahashi, C Jessica Metcalf, Adela Paez Jimenez, Vladimir Prikazsky, Matthew J Ferrari, Justin Lessler
We report on and evaluate the process and findings of a real-time modeling exercise in response to an outbreak of measles in Lola prefecture, Guinea, in early 2015 in the wake of the Ebola crisis. Multiple statistical methods for the estimation of the size of the susceptible (i.e., unvaccinated) population were applied to weekly reported measles case data on seven subprefectures throughout Lola. Stochastic compartmental models were used to project future measles incidence in each subprefecture in both an initial and a follow-up iteration of forecasting...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Steffen Jeschke, Patrik Johansson, Piotr Jankowski, Adam Best
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are pyranoside-based macromolecules with a hydrophobic cavity to encapsulate small molecules. They are used as molecular vehicles, for instance in pharmaceutical drug delivery or as solubility enhancer of monomers for their polymerization in aqueous solution. In this context, it was discovered about 10 years ago that the bis(trifluoromethylsulonyl)imide (TFSI) anion forms host-guest complexes with βCD in aqueous media. The rising interest in using the TFSI anion in lithium-based battery electrolytes open for its encapsulation by βCD as an attractive approach to increase the contribution of the cation to the total ion conductivity...
March 12, 2018: ChemSusChem
Ahmed Moustafa, Weizhong Li, Harinder Singh, Kelvin J Moncera, Manolito G Torralba, Yanbao Yu, Oriol Manuel, William Biggs, J Craig Venter, Karen E Nelson, Rembert Pieper, Amalio Telenti
Urine culture and microscopy techniques are used to profile the bacterial species present in urinary tract infections. To gain insight into the urinary flora, we analyzed clinical laboratory features and the microbial metagenome of 121 clean-catch urine samples. 16S rDNA gene signatures were successfully obtained for 116 participants, while metagenome sequencing data was successfully generated for samples from 49 participants. Although 16S rDNA sequencing was more sensitive, metagenome sequencing allowed for a more comprehensive and unbiased representation of the microbial flora, including eukarya and viral pathogens, and of bacterial virulence factors...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
S C Seah, S A L Laili, A Hairiah, A G Ab Rahim
Caesarean scar implantation is one of the rarest form of ectopic pregnancies and most unwanted complication of caesarean scar. However, with the increasing numbers of caesarean section performed, caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) may be on the rise. The diagnosis is often difficult, but establishing an accurate diagnosis of CSP in the early first trimester is utmost important to prevent its detrimental consequences of uterine rupture and fatal haemorrhage. Hence, we present a case to highlight the role of imaging in diagnosing and managing this condition to prevent its associated high morbidity and mortality...
February 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Safaa I Tayel, Shimaa E Soliman, Hanan M Elsayed
BACKGROUND AND AIM: increasing prevalence of neonatal sepsis in recent years catch attention to early prevention and management. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism can modulate VDR expression level that greatly influences immunity and susceptibility to microbial infections. We aimed to investigate the association of VDR polymorphism at FokI, rs2228570 T/C, and TaqI, rs731236 C/T gene with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This work carried on 160 subjects classified into 80 cases (40 mothers and their 40 septic neonates) and 80 healthy controls (40 volunteer mothers and their 40 healthy neonates)...
March 9, 2018: Steroids
Betul Sen, Aysun Şavk, Fatih Sen
Dimethylamine borane (DMAB) has been considered as one of the important hydrogen sources with a simple process by the help of the efficient catalyst. For this purpose, herein, platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs), placed inside carbon black hybrid (Pt NPs@CBH), activated carbon (Pt NPs@AC) and Vulcan carbon (Pt NPs@VC), have been prepared as highly monodisperse catalysts for dehydrogenation reactions of DMAB at room temperature. The morphological and physical structure of the monodisperse catalysts have been identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) etc...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Sabrina Renaud, Ronan Ledevin, Benoit Pisanu, Jean-Louis Chapuis, Petra Quillfeldt, Emilie A Hardouin
Convergent evolution in similar environments constitutes strong evidence of adaptive evolution. Transported with people around the world, house mice colonized even remote areas, such as Sub-Antarctic islands. There, they returned to a feral way of life, shifting towards a diet enriched in terrestrial macroinvertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that this triggered convergent evolution of the mandible, a morphological character involved in food consumption. Mandible shape from four Sub-Antarctic islands was compared to phylogeny, tracing the history of colonization, and climatic conditions...
March 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Haoming Yang, David Z Zhu, Lin Li
Catch basins are designed to convey surface runoff into sewer systems. They are also found to be effective in retaining sediments. A number of factors can influence catch basin sediment capture efficiency, such as sediment size distribution, flow hydraulics and catch basin design. To better understand the influence of these factors, numerical simulations using the Eulerian-Lagrangian method were conducted to provide insights into flow fields and to predict sediment capture rates. The numerical model was validated using previous experimental measurements of flow field and sediment capture rates for sediment sizes larger than 0...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
M O Rosales-Velázquez, A F Muttray, R H Devlin
The effect of feed cycling (consisting of periods of starvation followed by periods of refeeding to satiation) on compensatory growth was evaluated in growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic wild-type coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. The specific growth rate (GSR ) of feed-restricted non-transgenic O. kisutch was not significantly different from the GSR of fully-fed non-transgenic O. kisutch during two refeeding periods, whereas the GSR of feed-restricted transgenic O. kisutch was significantly higher in relation to the GSR of fully-fed transgenic O...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
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