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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813715/induction-of-cyclooxygenase-2-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-is-mediated-by-cytolysins
#1
Ulrike Blaschke, Andreas Beineke, Johanna Klemens, Eva Medina, Oliver Goldmann
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an arachidonic acid metabolite regulating a broad range of physiological activities, is an important modulator of the severity of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we investigated the role of streptococcal cytolysin S (SLS) and streptococcal cytolysin O (SLO) in the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins, in in vitro cultured macrophages and during in vivo infection. Macrophages were infected with S. pyogenes wild type or with the isogenic mutant strains deficient in SLS (ΔSLS), SLO (ΔSLO), or both (ΔSLS/ΔSLO), and the expression of COX-2 was determined at the transcriptional and the protein level...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#2
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813477/colonization-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnant-women-over-a-6-year-period-in-dongguan-china
#3
Wenjing Ji, Lihua Zhang, Zhusheng Guo, Shujin Xie, Weiqing Yang, Junjian Chen, Jiamin Wang, Zhiqin Cheng, Xin Wang, Xuehai Zhu, Jianwen Wang, Haiqing Wang, Juan Huang, Ning Liang, David J McIver
This study investigated the prevalence of recto-vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in Dongguan, China. Recto-vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women at gestational age 35-37 weeks between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2014. Isolates were serotyped by latex-agglutination and were tested against seven antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Of 7,726 pregnant women who completed GBS testing, 636 (8.2%) were GBS carriers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811943/reviewing-the-emergence-of-lactococcus-garvieae-a-case-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-lactococcus-garvieae-and-escherichia-coli-coinfection
#4
Tatvam T Choksi, Farhan Dadani
Lactococcus garvieae is considered a low virulence organism which is rarely associated with human infections. Most of the reported cases have been associated with bacteremia with or without endocarditis. We report a rare case of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) caused by Lactococcus garvieae and Escherichia coli coinfection without any bacteremia in a patient with indwelling urinary catheter placed for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The patient also had a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with long standing famotidine treatment...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811592/high-performance-therapeutic-quercetin-doped-adhesive-for-adhesive-dentin-interfaces
#5
Hongye Yang, Kang Li, Huiyi Yan, Siying Liu, Yake Wang, Cui Huang
Almost half of dental restorations have failed in less than 10 years, and approximately 60% of practice time has been consumed to replace these dental restorations. As such, contemporary dentin adhesives should be modified to treat secondary caries and prevent the degradation of adhesive-dentin interfaces. To achieve this goal, we developed a versatile therapeutic adhesive in the present study by incorporating quercetin, which is a naturally derived plant extract, into a commercial adhesive at three concentrations (100, 500 and 1000 µg/mL)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810984/impact-of-a-7-day-field-training-on-oral-health-condition-in-japan-ground-self-defense-force-personnel
#6
Koji Yamashita, Takeshi Nishiyama, Emi Nagata, Atik Ramadhani, Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa, Takahiko Oho
INTRODUCTION: In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809607/amoxapine-demonstrates-incomplete-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-activity-from-human-gut-microbiota
#7
Wei Yang, Bin Wei, Ru Yan
Amoxapine has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase. This study aims to explore the factors causing unsatisfactory efficacy of amoxapine in alleviating CPT-11-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in mice and to predict the outcomes in humans. Amoxapine (100 µM) exhibited poor and varied inhibition on β-glucuronidase activity in gut microbiota from 10 healthy individuals and their pool (pool, 11.9%; individuals, 3.6%-54.4%) with IC50 >100 µM and potent inhibition toward E...
August 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#8
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808691/fluoride-depletes-acidogenic-taxa-in-oral-but-not-gut-microbial-communities-in-mice
#9
Koji Yasuda, Tiffany Hsu, Carey A Gallini, Lauren J Mclver, Emma Schwager, Andy Shi, Casey R DuLong, Randall N Schwager, Galeb S Abu-Ali, Eric A Franzosa, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Xochitl C Morgan
Fluoridation of drinking water and dental products prevents dental caries primarily by inhibiting energy harvest in oral cariogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis), thus leading to their depletion. However, the extent to which oral and gut microbial communities are affected by host fluoride exposure has been underexplored. In this study, we modeled human fluoride exposures to municipal water and dental products by treating mice with low or high levels of fluoride over a 12-week period...
July 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808686/a-conformational-checkpoint-between-dna-binding-and-cleavage-by-crispr-cas9
#10
Yavuz S Dagdas, Janice S Chen, Samuel H Sternberg, Jennifer A Doudna, Ahmet Yildiz
The Cas9 endonuclease is widely used for genome engineering applications by programming its single-guide RNA, and ongoing work is aimed at improving the accuracy and efficiency of DNA targeting. DNA cleavage of Cas9 is controlled by the conformational state of the HNH nuclease domain, but the mechanism that governs HNH activation at on-target DNA while reducing cleavage activity at off-target sites remains poorly understood. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, we identified an intermediate state of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9, representing a conformational checkpoint between DNA binding and cleavage...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808474/effect-of-shin-iseihaito-xinyiqingfeitang-on-acute-streptococcus-pneumoniae-murine-sinusitis-via-macrophage-activation
#11
Masaaki Minami, Toru Konishi, Hiroshi Takase, Zhixia Jiang, Tetsuya Arai, Toshiaki Makino
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes sinusitis. The general treatment of S. pneumonia sinusitis is by using antibiotics; however, one of their serious problems is the attenuation of their effect. Shin'iseihaito (Xinyiqingfeitang), a formula of Japanese traditional Kampo medicine, has been used for the treatment of sinusitis in Japan. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of Shin'iseihaito against S. pneumoniae-caused sinusitis in mice. Oral administration of Shin'iseihaito extract (SSHT) decreased the nasal colonization of S...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808327/spontaneous-detachment-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-by-synergistic-effect-between-zwitterion-and-sugar-alcohol
#12
Jong Hyun Lim, Sang-Hun Song, Hyun-Sub Park, Jeong Rae Lee, Sang-Min Lee
A biofilm, a community of microorganisms, is highly resistant to antibiotics, resulting in massive losses in various areas. We herein present a strategy to remove Streptococcus mutans biofilms through a spontaneous exfoliation by the synergistic effect between zwitterion and sugar alcohols. It is assumed that the anionic site of zwitterion can be coupled with sugar alcohols and the cationic site remains in the state of lacking electrons. The cationic site allows the complexes to be delivered to negatively charged exopolysaccharides of biofilms...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808302/effects-of-one-week-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-on-the-early-development-of-gut-microbiota-and-metabolites-in-preterm-infants
#13
Danping Zhu, Sa Xiao, Jialin Yu, Qing Ai, Yu He, Chen Cheng, Yunhui Zhang, Yun Pan
The early postnatal period is the most dynamic and vulnerable stage in the assembly of intestinal microbiota. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to newborn preterm babies and are frequently used for a prolonged duration in China. We hypothesized that the prolonged antibiotic therapy would affect the early development of intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the stool microbiota and metabolites in 36 preterm babies with or without antibiotic treatment. These babies were divided into three groups, including two groups treated with the combination of penicillin and moxalactam or piperacillin-tazobactam for 7 days, and the other group was free of antibiotics...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808205/farnesol-inhibits-development-of-caries-by-augmenting-oxygen-sensitivity-and-suppressing-virulence-associated-gene-expression-instreptococcus-mutans
#14
Li Cao, Zhen-Zhen Zhang, Shuang-Bo Xu, Ming Ma, Xin Wei
Streptococcus mutans is a primary etiological agent of dental caries. Farnesol, as a potential antimicrobial agent, inhibits the development ofS. mutans biofilm. In this study, we hypothesized that farnesol inhibits caries development in vitro and interferes with biofilm formation by regulating virulence-associated gene expression. The inhibitory effects of farnesol to S. mutans biofilms on enamel surfaces were investigated by determining micro-hardness and calcium measurements. Additionally, the morphological changes ofS...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808157/cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-promotes-pulmonary-inflammation-and-systemic-disease-during-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#15
Rudra Bhowmick, Stacie Clark, Joseph V Bonventre, John M Leong, Beth A McCormick
Pulmonary infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by a robust alveolar infiltration of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells or PMNs) that can promote systemic spread of the infection if not resolved. We previously showed that 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), which is required to generate the PMN chemoattractant hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) from arachidonic acid (AA), promotes acute pulmonary inflammation and systemic infection after lung challenge with S. pneumoniae As phospholipase A2 (PLA2) promotes the release of AA, we investigated the role of PLA2 in local and systemic disease during S...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808155/roca-is-an-accessory-protein-to-the-virulence-regulating-covr-s-two-component-system-in-the-group-a-streptococcus
#16
Ira Jain, Eric W Miller, Jessica L Danger, Kathryn J Pflughoeft, Paul Sumby
Regulating gene expression during infection is critical to the ability of pathogens to circumvent the immune response and cause disease. This is true for the group A Streptococcus (GAS), a pathogen that causes both invasive (e.g. necrotizing fasciitis) and non-invasive (e.g. pharyngitis) diseases. The control of virulence (CovR/S) two-component system has a major role in regulating GAS virulence factor expression. The regulator of cov (RocA) protein, which is a predicted kinase, functions in an undetermined manner through CovR/S to alter gene expression and reduce invasive disease virulence...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808131/intercellular-communication-via-the-comx-inducing-peptide-xip-of-streptococcus-mutans
#17
Justin Kaspar, Simon A M Underhill, Robert C Shields, Adrian Reyes, Suzanne Rosenzweig, Stephen J Hagen, Robert A Burne
Gram-positive bacteria utilize exported peptides to coordinate genetic and physiological processes required for biofilm formation, stress responses and ecological competitiveness. One example is activation of natural genetic competence by ComR and the comX-inducing peptide (XIP) in Streptococcus mutans Although the competence pathway can be activated by addition of synthetic XIP in defined medium, the hypothesis that XIP is able to function as an intercellular signal molecule has not been rigorously tested...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807913/reducing-antibacterial-development-risk-for-gsk1322322-by-exploring-potential-human-dose-regimens-in-nonclinical-efficacy-studies-using-immunocompetent-rats
#18
Jennifer L Hoover, Christine M Singley, Philippa Elefante, Peter DeMarsh, Magdalena Zalacain, Stephen Rittenhouse
Directly testing proposed clinical dosing regimens in nonclinical studies can reduce risk during the development of novel antibacterial agents. Optimal dosing regimens can be identified in animal models by testing recreated human pharmacokinetic profiles. An example of this approach is presented using continuous intravenous infusions of GSK1322322 in immunocompetent rats to evaluate recreated Phase 1 human exposures in pneumonia models with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae and an abscess model with Staphylococcus aureus GSK1322322 was administered via continuous intravenous infusion to recreate 1000 or 1500 mg oral doses every 12h in humans...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807772/streptococcus-agalactiae-impairs-cerebral-bioenergetics-in-experimentally-infected-silver-catfish
#19
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Belisa S Parmeggiani, Roberto C V Santos, Guilhian Leipnitz, Karen L S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Bernardo Baldisserotto
It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807573/axially-substituted-silicon-iv-phthalocyanine-and-its-quaternized-derivative-as-photosensitizers-towards-tumor-cells-and-bacterial-pathogens
#20
İpek Ömeroğlu, Esra Nur Kaya, Meltem Göksel, Vesselin Kussovski, Vanya Mantareva, Mahmut Durmuş
Axially di-(alpha,alpha-diphenyl-4-pyridylmethoxy) silicon(IV) phthalocyanine (3) and its quaternized derivative (3Q) were synthesized and tested as photosensitizers against tumor and bacterial cells. These new phthalocyanines were characterized by elemental analysis, and different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, UV-Vis, MALDI-TOF and (1)H NMR. The photophysical properties such as absorption and fluorescence, and the photochemical properties such as singlet oxygen generation of both phthalocyanines were investigated in solutions...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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