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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535609/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharide-using-bifidobacterial-%C3%AE-galactosidase-purified-from-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#1
So Young Oh, So Youn Youn, Myung Soo Park, Hyoung Geun Kim, Nam In Baek, Zhi Peng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are known to be selectively utilized by Bifidobacterium, which can bring about healthy changes of the composition of intestinal microflora. In this study, β-GOS are synthesized using bifidobacterial β-galactosidase(G1) purified from recombinant E. coli with a high GOS yield and with high productivity and enhanced bifidogenic activity. The purified recombinant G1 showed maximum production of β-GOS at pH 8.5 and 45°C. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the major peaks of the produced β-GOS showed MW of 527 and 689, indicating the synthesis of β-GOS at degrees of polymerization (DP) of 3 and DP4, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535299/analysis-of-bacterial-metagenomes-from-the-southwestern-gulf-of-mexico-for-pathogens-detection
#2
Wendy Escobedo-Hinojosa, Liliana Pardo-López
Little is known about the diversity of bacteria in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The aim of the study illustrated in this perspective was to search for the presence of bacterial pathogens in this ecosystem, using metagenomic data recently generated by the Mexican research group known as the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium. Several genera of bacteria annotated as pathogens were detected in water and sediment marine samples. As expected, native and ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria genera such as Burkolderia, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio were highly represented...
May 23, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534880/a-tale-of-two-risks-smoking-diabetes-and-the-subgingival-microbiome
#3
Sukirth M Ganesan, Vinayak Joshi, Megan Fellows, Shareef M Dabdoub, Haikady N Nagaraja, Benjamin O'Donnell, Neeta Rohit Deshpande, Purnima S Kumar
Although smoking and diabetes have been established as the only two risk factors for periodontitis, their individual and synergistic impacts on the periodontal microbiome are not well studied. The present investigation analyzed 2.7 million 16S sequences from 175 non-smoking normoglycemic individuals (controls), smokers, diabetics and diabetic smokers with periodontitis as well as periodontally healthy controls, smokers and diabetics to assess subgingival bacterial biodiversity and co-occurrence patterns. The microbial signatures of periodontally healthy smokers, but not diabetics, were highly aligned with the disease-associated microbiomes of their respective cohorts...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534309/environmental-monitoring-and-assessment-of-antibacterial-metabolite-producing-actinobacteria-screened-from-marine-sediments-in-south-coastal-regions-of-karnataka-india
#4
Sinosh Skariyachan, Shruthi Garka, Sushmitha Puttaswamy, Shobitha Shanbhogue, Raksha Devaraju, Rajeswari Narayanappa
Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533994/infective-endocarditis-presenting-as-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-an-appeal-for-caution
#5
Talal Asif, Amena Mohiuddin, Badar Hasan, Amgad Masoud
Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as the presenting feature of infective endocarditis (IE) is rare. It has classically been described in association with the rupture of intracranial mycotic aneurysms (ICMA). Here we describe a very rare case of non-aneurysmal spontaneous SAH in a patient with IE. The patient originally presented with a headache and low-grade fever. Neuroimaging including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed SAH. She was eventually diagnosed with streptococcus gallolyticus (formerly streptococcus bovis) IE...
April 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533236/antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activities-of-a-novel-synthetic-cyclic-lipopeptide-against-cariogenic-streptococcus-mutans-ua159
#6
Kyung R Min, Adriana Galvis, Brandon Williams, Ramanjaneyulu Rayala, Predrag Cudic, Dragana Ajdic
Despite continuous efforts to control cariogenic dental biofilms, very few effective antimicrobial treatments exist. In this study, we characterized the activity of a novel synthetic cyclic lipopeptide 4 (CLP-4), derived from fusaricidin, against the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159. We determined CLP-4's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), spontaneous resistance frequency, and we performed time-kill assays. Additionally, we assessed CLP-4's potential to inhibit biofilm formation (MBIC) and eradicate pre-formed biofilms (MBEC)...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532794/immunogenicity-of-phospholipase-a2-toxins-and-their-role-in-streptococcus-equi-pathogenicity
#7
M R López-Álvarez, M Salze, A Cenier, C Robinson, R Paillot, A S Waller
Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses worldwide. Phospholipase A2 toxins (PLA2) cleave phospholipid molecules at position sn-2 contributing to the production of leukotrienes that are important inflammatory mediators. Two homologous phospholipases, SlaA and SlaB are encoded by the S. equi genome suggesting that PLA2 toxins may contribute to its pathogenicity. Here we report the immunogenicity and role of PLA2 toxins during natural and experimental infection of horses with S...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532793/streptococcus-agalactiae-in-elephants-a-comparative-study-with-isolates-from-human-and-zoo-animal-and-livestock-origin
#8
Tobias Eisenberg, Jörg Rau, Uta Westerhüs, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Ahmad Fawzy, Karen Schlez, Michael Zschöck, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff, Carsten Heydel, Reinhard Sting, Stefanie P Glaeser, Dipen Pulami, Mark van der Linden, Christa Ewers
Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531866/bilateral-peritonsillar-abscess-a-case-report-and-pertinent-literature-review
#9
Ibrahim AlAwadh, Turki Aldrees, Saleh AlQaryan, Sami Alharethy, Hassan AlShehri
INTRODUCTION: The peritonsillar space is defined as the area between the palatine tonsillar capsule medially and the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle laterally. Unilateral peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is more common than the bilateral condition. To the best of our knowledge, only 13 cases of bilateral PTA have been reported worldwide; this is the first case reported from Saudi Arabia. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case involving a 16-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with a5-day history of sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, drooling, and a muffled "hot-potato" voice, but with no symptoms of airway compromise...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531208/phylogenetic-analysis-of-emergent-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-22f-causing-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#10
Walter H B Demczuk, Irene Martin, Linda Hoang, Paul Van Caeseele, Brigitte Lefebvre, Greg Horsman, David Haldane, Jonathan Gubbay, Sam Ratnam, Gregory German, Jennifer Daley Bernier, Lori Strudwick, Allison McGeer, George G Zhanel, Gary Van Domselaar, Morag Graham, Michael R Mulvey
Since implementation of the 13-valent polyvalent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Canada during 2010, the proportion of PCV13 serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has declined from 55% (n = 1492) in 2010 to 31% (n = 764) in 2014. A concurrent increase of non-PCV13 serotypes has occurred and 22F has become the most prevalent serotype in Canada increasing from 7% (n = 183) to 11% (n = 283). Core single nucleotide variant phylogenetic analysis was performed on 137 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 22F isolates collected across Canada from 2005-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531168/a-novel-millet-based-probiotic-fermented-food-for-the-developing-world
#11
Elisa Di Stefano, Jessica White, Shannon Seney, Sharareh Hekmat, Tim McDowell, Mark Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L...
May 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530395/rapid-detection-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-based-on-magnetically-assisted-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-ma-sers
#12
Ariana Fargasova, Anna Balzerova, Robert Prucek, Miroslava Htoutou Sedláková, Katerina Bogdanova, Jiri Gallo, Milan Kolar, Vaclav Ranc, Radek Zboril
Accurate and rapid diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is vital for rational and effective therapeutic management of this condition. Several diagnostic strategies have been developed for discriminating between infected and non-infected cases. However, none of them can reliably diagnose the whole spectrum of clinical presentations of PJI. Here we report a new method for PJI detection based on magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) using streptavidin-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNP@Strep) whose surface is functionalized with suitable biotinylated antibodies and then coated with silver nanoparticles by self-assembly...
May 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530235/hit-and-go-cas9-delivered-through-a-lentiviral-based-self-limiting-circuit
#13
Gianluca Petris, Antonio Casini, Claudia Montagna, Francesca Lorenzin, Davide Prandi, Alessandro Romanel, Jacopo Zasso, Luciano Conti, Francesca Demichelis, Anna Cereseto
In vivo application of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology is still limited by unwanted Cas9 genomic cleavages. Long-term expression of Cas9 increases the number of genomic loci non-specifically cleaved by the nuclease. Here we develop a Self-Limiting Cas9 circuit for Enhanced Safety and specificity (SLiCES) which consists of an expression unit for Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), a self-targeting sgRNA and a second sgRNA targeting a chosen genomic locus. The self-limiting circuit results in increased genome editing specificity by controlling Cas9 levels...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530184/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-mentha-pulegium-and-investigation-of-their-antibacterial-antifungal-and-anticancer-activity
#14
Ali Hamad Abd Kelkawi, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
A simple and eco-friendly method for efficient synthesis of stable colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Mentha pulegium extracts is described. A series of reactions was conducted using different types and concentrations of plant extract as well as metal ions to optimize the reaction conditions. AgNPs were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zetasizer, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530170/k-modulates-genetic-competence-and-the-stress-regulon-of-streptococcus-mutans
#15
Gursonika Binepal, Iwona B Wenderska, Paula Crowley, Richard N Besingi, Dilani B Senadheera, L Jeannine Brady, Dennis G Cvitkovitch
Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in dental plaque fluid. Previously, we reported the link between K+ transport via Trk2 in Streptococcus mutans and its two critical virulence attributes: acid tolerance and surface adhesion. Herein, we build further on the intimate link between K+ levels and S. mutans biology. High (>25 mM) versus low (≤5 mM) K+ concentrations in the growth medium affected conformational epitopes of cell surface-localized adhesin P1. At low K+, the expression of stress response elements gcrR and codY, cell-adhesion-associated genes such as spaP and metabolism-associated genes such as bglP was induced at stationary phase (P<0...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530140/associations-of-nasopharyngeal-metabolome-and-microbiome-with-severity-among-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-multi-omic-analysis
#16
Christopher J Stewart, Jonathan M Mansbach, Matthew C Wong, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
RATIONALE: Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory infection in infants; however, it remains unclear which infants with bronchiolitis will develop severe illness. In addition, while emerging evidence indicates associations of the upper-airway microbiome with bronchiolitis severity, little is known about the mechanisms linking airway microbes and host response to disease severity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relations among the nasopharyngeal airway metabolome profiles, microbiome profiles, and severity in infants with bronchiolitis...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530088/-common-treatment-for-acute-tonsillitis-in-the-community
#17
Oded Mazor, Martine Granek-Catarivas, Shmuel Giveon
BACKGROUND: Streptococcal tonsillitis among adults is a common diagnosis. There is wide agreement regarding the recommended treatment, which is Phenoxymethyl Penicillin (Penicillin V) 1000 mg daily (usually 500 mg BID for 10 days). OBJECTIVES: Description of the variability of routine antibiotic treatment prescribed by family physicians in the community for the treatment of acute tonsillitis (which represents a common diagnosis in primary care), and observation of the prescribed antibiotics adherence to the guidelines...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529944/optimization-of-time-for-neural-stem-cells-transplantation-for-brain-stroke-in-rats
#18
Seyyed Mohyeddin Ziaee, Parisa Tabeshmehr, Khawaja Husnain Haider, Majidreza Farrokhi, Abdolhamid Shariat, Atena Amiri, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Despite encouraging data in terms of neurological outcome, stem cell based therapy for ischemic stroke in experimental models and human patients is still hampered by multiple as yet un-optimized variables, i.e., time of intervention, that significantly influence the prognosis. The aim of the present study was to delineate the optimum time for neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The NSCs were isolated from 14 days embryo rat ganglion eminence and were cultured in NSA medium (neurobasal medium, 2% B27, 1% N2, bFGF 10 ng/mL, EGF 20 ng/mL and 1% pen/strep)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529928/the-probiotic-compound-vsl-3-modulates-mucosal-peripheral-and-systemic-immunity-following-murine-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment
#19
Ira Ekmekciu, Eliane von Klitzing, Ulrike Fiebiger, Christian Neumann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
There is compelling evidence linking the commensal intestinal microbiota with host health and, in turn, antibiotic induced perturbations of microbiota composition with distinct pathologies. Despite the attractiveness of probiotic therapy as a tool to beneficially alter the intestinal microbiota, its immunological effects are still incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 consisting of eight distinct bacterial species (including Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529888/simultaneous-streptococcus-pneumoniae-empyema-in-fraternal-twins
#20
Alvaro E Galvis, Sana Kamboj, Craig Nakamura
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of community acquired pneumonia. The current trend in Streptococcus pneumoniae infections has been the rise of multi-drug resistance in the last two decades. We present the case of a pair of 16-month old African-American fraternal twins who presented to the emergency room on the same day for symptoms consistent with pneumonia. Upon further examination, the twins showed remarkably similar symptoms, and cultures revealed penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in both twins...
2017: IDCases
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