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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#1
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342250/pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia-detected-by-serotype-specific-urinary-antigen-detection-assays
#2
Richard G Wunderink, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Robert Balk, Sherene Fakhran, Daniel Mark Courtney, Chao Qi, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Cynthia G Whitney, Matthew R Moore, Anna Bramley, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Carlos G Grijalva
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered the leading bacterial cause of pneumonia in adults. Yet, it was not commonly detected by traditional culture-based and conventional urinary testing in a recent multicenter etiology study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used novel serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (SSUAD) assays to determine whether pneumococcal cases were missed by traditional testing. Methods: We studied adult patients hospitalized with CAP at 5 hospitals in Chicago and Nashville (2010-2012) and enrolled in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342160/expression-of-the-lux-genes-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-modulates-pilus-expression-and-virulence
#3
Jenny A Herbert, Andrea M Mitchell, Ryan Ritchie, Jiangtao Ma, Kirsty Ross-Hutchinson, Timothy J Mitchell
Bioluminescence has been harnessed for use in bacterial reporter systems and for in vivo imaging of infection in animal models. Strain Xen35, a bioluminescent derivative of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 strain TIGR4 was previously constructed for use for in vivo imaging of infections in animal models. We have shown that strain Xen35 is less virulent than its parent TIGR4 and that this is associated with the expression of the genes for bioluminescence. The expression of the luxA-E genes in the pneumococcus reduces virulence and down regulates the expression of the pneumococcal pilus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341338/human-teeth-biobank-microbiological-analysis-of-the-teeth-storage-solution
#4
Fabiana Almeida Curylofo-Zotti, Francine Lorencetti-Silva, Jéssica de Almeida Coelho, Rachel Maciel Monteiro, Evandro Watanabe, Silmara Aparecida Milori Corona
The cross-infections may occur during handling of dental elements, affecting the health of dental practitioners and researchers. This study aimed to analyze the influence of the storage medium temperature on the bacterial contingent of the human teeth used for research purposes. Thirty human teeth were donated to the Human Teeth Biobank immediately after extraction. The teeth were cleaned with tap water and neutral soap. The teeth were randomly distributed according to the temperature of the storage solution (deionized water): at 4 °C (refrigerator) or at -10 °C (freezer) and were stored individually in sterile vials during 60 days...
January 17, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341315/use-of-quantitative-real-time-pcr-to-determine-viability-of-streptococcus-equi-subspecies-equi-in-respiratory-secretions-from-horses-with-strangles
#5
N Pusterla, C M Leutenegger, S M Barnum, B A Byrne
BACKGROUND: In recent years, molecular approaches have been able to characterise the viability of equine upper respiratory tract pathogens using absolute molecular quantitation as well as detection of transcripts for virulence genes. OBJECTIVES: The objective this study was to investigate molecular surrogates for S. equi subspecies equi (S. equi) viability in biological samples from horses with strangles. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341168/in-search-of-a-counter-you-can-count-on-relative-efficacy-of-human-visual-and-automated-colony-counting
#6
Linda M Young, Dustin J Rieman, Lisa Walden, Vicki Abrams Motz
To evaluate comparative efficiency of traditional vs. automated colony counting methods, cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25945), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12225), Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC19615), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC49619) were prepared as pure cultures and mixed cultures at 0.5 McFarland standard and serial dilutions were performed. Plates were inoculated in triplicate with 50 CFUs, 125 CFUs, 250 CFUs and 500 CFUs and counted by four researchers, visually and using each of the automated counters...
January 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340331/location-specific-oral-microbiome-possesses-features-associated-with-ckd
#7
Jianzhong Hu, Srinivas Iragavarapu, Girish N Nadkarni, Ruiqi Huang, Monica Erazo, Xiuliang Bao, Divya Verghese, Steven Coca, Mairaj K Ahmed, Inga Peter
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a progressive loss of renal function, can lead to serious complications if underdiagnosed. Many studies suggest that the oral microbiota plays important role in the health of the host; however, little is known about the association between the oral microbiota and CKD pathogenesis. Methods: In this study, we surveyed the oral microbiota in saliva, the left and right molars, and the anterior mandibular lingual area from 77 participants (18 with and 59 without CKD), and tested their association with CKD to identify microbial features that may be predictive of CKD status...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339459/a-novel-two-component-system-of-streptococcus-sanguinis-affecting-functions-associated-with-viability-in-saliva-and-biofilm-formation
#8
Tarsila M Camargo, Rafael N Stipp, Lívia A Alves, Erika N Harth-Chu, José F Höfling, Renata O Mattos-Graner
Streptococcus sanguinis is a pioneer species of teeth and a common opportunistic pathogen of infective endocarditis. In this study, we identified a two-component system, SptRS Ss , affecting S. sanguinis survival in saliva and biofilm formation. Isogenic mutants of sptRSs (SKsptR) and sptSSs (SKsptS) showed reduced cell counts in ex vivo assays of viability in saliva, compared to parent strain SK36 and complemented mutants. Reduced counts of the mutants in saliva were associated with reduced growth rates in poor nutrient medium (RPMI) and increased susceptibility to deposition of C3b and MAC of the complement system, a defense component of saliva and serum...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339458/co-association-between-group-b-streptococcus-and-candida-albicans-promotes-interactions-with-vaginal-epithelium
#9
Grace R Pidwill, Sara Rego, Howard F Jenkinson, Richard J Lamont, Angela H Nobbs
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis worldwide. In the majority of cases, GBS is transmitted vertically from mother to neonate, making maternal vaginal colonisation a key risk factor for neonatal disease. The fungus Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of the female genitourinary tract, and the causative agent of vaginal thrush. Carriage of C. albicans has been shown to be an independent risk factor for vaginal colonisation by GBS. However, the nature of interactions between these two microbes is poorly understood...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339428/mucosal-infections-and-invasive-potential-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-enhanced-by-oligopeptide-binding-proteins-alic-and-alid
#10
Jessica L Bradshaw, Haley R Pipkins, Lance E Keller, James K Pendarvis, Larry S McDaniel
Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) is an emerging human pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx and is associated with noninvasive diseases such as otitis media (OM), conjunctivitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Since capsule expression was previously thought to be necessary for establishment of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype-specific polysaccharide capsules are targeted by currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. Yet, NESp expressing oligopeptide binding proteins AliC and AliD have been isolated during IPD...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337246/tlr3-gene-in-japanese-sea-perch-lateolabrax-japonicus-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-after-bacterial-infection
#11
Pengfei Wang, Chao Zhao, Chengyang Wang, Sigang Fan, Lulu Yan, Lihua Qiu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in fish innate immune and are involved in the defense process of bacteria invasion. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of TLR3 from the sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus, was cloned and characterized. The full length of LjTLR3 cDNA was 3265 bp including an open reading frame of 2679 bp encoding a peptide of 922 amino acids. Tissues distribution analysis indicated that LjTLR3 showed a tissue-specific variation with high expression in spleen, head-kidney and liver...
January 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336179/belimumab-and-antipneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
Tudor Azoicai, Sabina Antoniu, Irina Draga Caruntu, Doina Azoicai, Ileana Antohe, Cristina Gavrilovici
In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), flares can be caused by infections. In particular, Streptococcus pneumoniae infection can be severe or even potentially lethal in absence of previous immunization or in case of "aggressive" systemic antibiotic therapy. Immunization efficacy, however, can be reduced in such patients with the use of the various immunosuppressive therapeutic regimens. In particular, the use of novel monoclonal antibodies against B lymphocytes raises concerns over the potential interference with antipneumococcal vaccination...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335876/hydrogen-metabolic-patterns-driven-by-clostridium-streptococcus-community-shifts-in-a-continuous-stirred-tank-reactor
#13
Rodolfo Palomo-Briones, Eric Trably, Nguyen Esmeralda López-Lozano, Lourdes B Celis, Hugo Oscar Méndez-Acosta, Nicolas Bernet, Elías Razo-Flores
The hydrogen (H2) production efficiency in dark fermentation systems is strongly dependent on the occurrence of metabolic pathways derived from the selection of microbial species that either consume molecular H2 or outcompete hydrogenogenic bacteria for the organic substrate. In this study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the H2 production performance, the metabolic pathways, and the microbial community composition in a continuous system was evaluated. Two bacterial genera, Clostridium and Streptococcus, were dominant in the microbial community depending on the OLR applied...
January 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335683/sex-differences-in-salivary-parameters-of-caries-susceptibility-in-healthy-individuals
#14
Leonardo Victor Galvão-Moreira, Cláudia Monteiro de Andrade, Jéssica Francisca Fernandes de Oliveira, Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim, Patricia de Maria Silva Figueiredo, Luciana Salles Branco-de-Almeida
PURPOSE: To investigate salivary parameters of caries susceptibility in men and women in order to identify potential variations due to sexual dimorphism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 female and 24 male patients, aged 18-40 years, participated in this study. Unstimulated saliva was collected for the evaluation of flow rate, pH, secretory IgA, Snyder test scores, and Streptococcus mutans counts (confirmed by PCR assay). Statistical analysis included the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests, one-way ANOVA, and the Spearman correlation at a 5% significance level, followed by a general linear model and multiple linear regressions...
January 15, 2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335499/structure-of-a-macab-like-efflux-pump-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#15
Hong-Bo Yang, Wen-Tao Hou, Meng-Ting Cheng, Yong-Liang Jiang, Yuxing Chen, Cong-Zhao Zhou
The spr0693-spr0694-spr0695 operon of Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type efflux pump involved in the resistance of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. Here we report the crystal structures of Spr0694-0695 at 3.3 Å and Spr0693 at 3.0 Å resolution, revealing a MacAB-like efflux pump. The dimeric Spr0694-0695 adopts a non-canonical fold of ABC transporter, the transmembrane domain of which consists of eight tightly packed transmembrane helices with an insertion of extracellular domain between the first and second helices, whereas Spr0693 forms a nanotube channel docked onto the ABC transporter...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334369/dual-gene-activation-and-knockout-screen-reveals-directional-dependencies-in-genetic-networks
#16
Michael Boettcher, Ruilin Tian, James A Blau, Evan Markegard, Ryan T Wagner, David Wu, Xiulei Mo, Anne Biton, Noah Zaitlen, Haian Fu, Frank McCormick, Martin Kampmann, Michael T McManus
Understanding the direction of information flow is essential for characterizing how genetic networks affect phenotypes. However, methods to find genetic interactions largely fail to reveal directional dependencies. We combine two orthogonal Cas9 proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus to carry out a dual screen in which one gene is activated while a second gene is deleted in the same cell. We analyze the quantitative effects of activation and knockout to calculate genetic interaction and directionality scores for each gene pair...
January 15, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333770/-construction-of-srta-deletion-mutant-of-streptococcus-mutans-by-an-in-frame-deletion-system
#17
Chen Xuan, Liu Haixia, Peng Xian, Zou Ling
OBJECTIVE: To construct srtA-gene deletion mutant of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) UA159 with IFDC2 cassette through overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and allelic homologous recombination. METHODS: First, the upstream and downstream fragments surrounding the srtA and IFDC2 cassette were PCR amplified and ligated through overlapping PCR. The resulting amplicon was transformed into UA159, and positive transformants were selected on BHI plates containing erythromycin...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333751/identification-of-the-minimal-glycotope-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-7f-capsular-polysaccharide-using-synthetic-oligosaccharides
#18
Petra Menova, Mauro Sella, Katrin Sellrie, Claney Pereira, Peter H Seeberger
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes life-threatening diseases including meningitis, pneumonia and sepsis. Existing glycoconjugate vaccines based on purified capsular polysaccharides are widely used and help to prevent millions of deaths every year. Here, we report total synthesis of oligosaccharides resembling portions of the S. pneumoniae serotype 7F (ST7F) capsular polysaccharide repeating unit. To define minimal glycan epitopes, glycan microarrays containing the synthetic oligosaccharides were used to screen human reference serum and revealed that both side chains of the ST7F play a key role in antigen recognition...
January 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331510/effects-of-sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-lemon-essential-oil-on-the-acid-tolerance-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-mutans
#19
Yanwei Sun, Sijia Chen, Chen Zhang, Yali Liu, Li Ma, Xiangyu Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Lemon essential oil (LEO) is a kind of secondary metabolite from lemon peels and has been found to inhibit cariogenic bacteria for decades. However, its effects on main cariogenic virulence factors are rarely reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of LEO on the acid tolerance and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and preliminarily reveal the possible underlying mechanisms. DESIGNS: Effects of LEO on the acid tolerance and biofilm formation of S...
December 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331467/canadian-national-dairy-study-herd-level-milk-quality
#20
C A Bauman, H W Barkema, J Dubuc, G P Keefe, D F Kelton
The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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