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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164506/enzymatic-production-of-glutathione-coupling-with-an-atp-regeneration-system-based-on-polyphosphate-kinase
#1
Hao Cao, Chengcheng Li, Jing Zhao, Fang Wang, Tianwei Tan, Luo Liu
Glutathione (GSH) is an important reducing agent in the living cells. It is synthesized by a two-step reaction and requires two molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for one molecule GSH. The enzymatic cascade reaction in vitro is a promising approach to achieve a high titer and limit side reactions; although, a cost-effective phosphate donor for ATP regeneration is required. Triphosphate (PolyP(3)), tetraphosphate (PolyP(4)), and hexametaphosphate (PolyP(6)) were investigated in this study. Triphosphate inhibited the bifunctional GSH synthetase (GshF) from Streptococcus agalactiae, while no significant inhibition was observed by adding hexametaphosphate...
November 21, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164415/decrease-of-insoluble-glucan-formation-in-streptococcus-mutans-by-co-cultivation-with-enterococcus-faecium-t7-and-glucanase-addition
#2
Shin-Hye Yu, So-Hyung Kwak, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Ye-Seul Seo, Chaeri Song, Il Kyoon Mok, Doman Kim
OBJECTIVES: To develop preventive canine oral health bio-materials consisting of probiotics and glucanase to reduce insoluble glucan and volatile sulfur compound formation. RESULTS: Co-cultivation of Enterococcus faecium T7 with Streptococcus mutans at inoculation ratio of 3:1 (v/v) resulted in 25% reduction in the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Amounts of soluble and insoluble glucans produced by S. mutans were decreased to 70 and 55%, respectively. Insoluble glucan was decreased from 0...
November 21, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164404/size-selectivity-in-antibiofilm-activity-of-3-diphenylphosphino-propanoic-acid-coated-gold-nanomaterials-against-gram-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-mutans
#3
Dania Ahmed, Ayaz Anwar, Anum Khalid Khan, Ayaz Ahmed, Muhammad Raza Shah, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is one of the major threats in hospital related infections, hence inhibiting and eradicating biofilms has become a primary target for developing new anti-infection approaches. The present study was aimed to develop novel antibiofilm agents against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300) and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) using gold nanomaterials conjugated with 3-(diphenylphosphino)propionic acid (Au-LPa). Gold nanomaterials with different sizes as 2-3 nm small and 9-90 nm (50 nm average size) large were stabilized by LPa via different chemical synthetic strategies...
November 21, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164073/streptococcus-equi-subsp-zooepidemicus-invades-and-survives-in-epithelial-cells
#4
Bolette Skive, Manfred Rohde, Gabriella Molinari, Thomas Hartig Braunstein, Anders M Bojesen
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an opportunistic pathogen of several species including humans. S. zooepidemicus is found on mucus membranes of healthy horses, but can cause acute and chronic endometritis. Recently S. zooepidemicus was found able to reside in the endometrium for prolonged periods of time. Thus, we hypothesized that an intracellular phase may be part of the S. zooepidemicus pathogenesis and investigated if S. zooepidemicus was able to invade and survive inside epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163998/multifocal-pulmonary-granular-cell-tumor-presenting-with-postobstructive-pneumonia
#5
Samid M Farooqui, Muhammad S Khan, Laura Adhikari, Viral Doshi
Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm of Schwann cell origin. Its presence in the aerodigestive tract is uncommon and becomes a diagnostic challenge on initial presentation. Our case is of a 59-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a history of productive cough and dyspnea associated with fever and chest pain. An initial chest X-ray (CXR) showed a right middle lobe consolidation with follow-up Computed Tomography (CT) scan showing a mass in the right bronchus. Bronchoscopy revealed a polypoid, sessile granular mass in the right bronchus intermedius with multiple white lesions in trachea, left main bronchus, and right upper bronchi...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163538/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-multistrain-probiotic-formulation-depends-from-manufacturing
#6
Vito Trinchieri, Luca Laghi, Beatrice Vitali, Carola Parolin, Ilaria Giusti, Daniela Capobianco, Paola Mastromarino, Claudio De Simone
Background: Variability in probiotics manufacturing may affect their properties, with potential implications for their efficacy and safety. This is of particular concern with probiotic products destined for use in patients with serious medical conditions, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to carry out a series of experiments comparing the properties of the US-made probiotic formulation originally commercialized under the brand name VSL#3(®), with those of the Italian-made formulation now commercialized under the same name...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163197/variation-in-enamel-formation-genes-influences-enamel-demineralization-in-vitro-in-a-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-model
#7
Liangyue Pang, Qinghui Zhi, Peilin Zhuang, Lixia Yu, Ye Tao, Huancai Lin
Genetic studies have shown that variations in enamel formation genes are associated with caries susceptibility. The aim of this study was to test in vitro whether variants in these genes are associated with dental enamel demineralization in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. DNA and enamel samples were obtained from 213 individuals. DNA was extracted from saliva, and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed. The physical and chemical properties of sound enamel samples and the mineral loss and the lesion depth of the demineralized enamel samples under cariogenic challenge were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162546/evaluation-of-probiotic-bacillus-aerius-b81e-isolated-from-healthy-hybrid-catfish-on-growth-disease-resistance-and-innate-immunity-of-pla-mong-pangasius-bocourti
#8
Ratchanu Meidong, Kulwadee Khotchanalekha, Sompong Doolgindachbaporn, Takahiro Nagasawa, Miki Nakao, Kenji Sakai, Saowanit Tongpim
Infectious diseases have been found to be a major cause of mortality in fish hatcheries. Probiotics have been introduced to replace antibiotics commonly used for treatment of bacterial infection in aquaculture. This study was conducted to isolate, screen, and evaluate the probiotic Bacillus spp. for potential use as a feed supplement to enhance fish growth, disease resistance and innate immunity of Pla-mong Pangasius bocourti. Bacillus aerius strain B81e was selectively isolated from the intestine of healthy catfish and chosen based on its probiotic properties both in vitro and in vivo...
November 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162463/bioactivity-of-glycolipopeptide-cell-bound-biosurfactants-against-skin-pathogens
#9
X Vecino, L Rodríguez-López, D Ferreira, J M Cruz, A B Moldes, L R Rodrigues
The antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of the cell-bound biosurfactants, produced by Lactobacillus pentosus (PEB), characterized as glycolipopeptide macromolecules, were evaluated against several microorganisms present in the skin microflora, envisaging its potential use as a "natural" ingredient in cosmetic and personal care formulations. Their performance was compared with another cell-bound biosurfactants also characterized as glycolipopeptides produced by Lactobacillus paracasei (PAB). At concentrations of 50mg/mL, the PEB showed an important antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85% when extracted with phosphate buffer (PB) and 100% when extracted with phosphate buffer saline (PBS)), Streptococcus agalactiae (100% for both extracts), Staphylococcus aureus (67% when extracted with PBS and 100% when extracted with PB), Escherichia coli (72% when extracted with PB and 89% when extracted with PBS), Streptococcus pyogenes (about 85% for both extracts) and Candida albicans (around 70% for both extracts), comparable with that obtained for the PAB...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162393/pcr-based-discrimination-of-emerging-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-22f-and-33f
#10
Hayley D Gillis, Walter H B Demczuk, Averil Griffith, Irene Martin, Michelle Warhuus, Amanda L S Lang, May ElSherif, Shelly A McNeil, Jason J LeBlanc
Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae is important to monitor disease epidemiology and assess the impact of pneumococcal vaccines. Traditionally, the Quellung reaction used serotype-specific antibodies to classify S. pneumoniae based on differences in capsular antigens. More recently, PCR-based serotype deduction relying on serotype-specific capsule biosynthesis genes has been broadly applied for pneumococcal surveillance. However, PCR-based serotyping lacks discrimination for certain S. pneumoniae serotypes, including the differentiation of serotype 22F from 22A, and serotype 33F from 33A and 37...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162118/multilevel-lumbar-spine-infection-due-to-poor-dentition-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-a-case-report
#11
Michaela B Quast, Carrie M Carr, W Michael Hooten
BACKGROUND: Although spinal infections have been reported following dental procedures, development of a spinal infection attributed to poor dentition without a history of a dental procedure in an immunocompetent adult has not been previously reported. Here we provide a case report of a multilevel lumbar spine infection that developed in an immunocompetent adult with poor dentition. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old white male man with past medical history of hypertension presented to a hospital emergency department with a 4-month history of progressively worsening low back pain...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161464/increased-efficiency-of-targeted-mutagenesis-by-crispr-cas9-in-plants-using-heat-stress
#12
Chantal Le Blanc, Fei Zhang, Josefina Mendez, Yamile Lozano, Krishna Chatpar, Vivian Irish, Yannick Jacob
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has greatly improved our ability to engineer targeted mutations in eukaryotic genomes. While CRISPR/Cas9 appears to work universally, the efficiency of targeted mutagenesis and the adverse generation of off-target mutations vary greatly between different organisms. In this study, we report that Arabidopsis plants subjected to heat stress at 37°C show much higher frequencies of CRISPR-induced mutations compared to plants grown continuously at the standard temperature (22°C). Using quantitative assays relying on GFP reporter genes, we found that targeted mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis is increased by ~5-fold in somatic tissues and up to 100-fold in the germline upon heat treatment...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160540/aqueous-humor-concentrations-of-topical-fluoroquinolones-alone-or-in-combination-with-a-steroid
#13
Rachel Lopes Rodrigues Gomes, Rodrigo Galvão Viana, Luiz Alberto Soares Melo, Alessandro Carvalho Cruz, Acácio Alves de Souza Lima, Eunice Mayumi Suenaga, Mauro Campos
PURPOSE: To compare the aqueous humor (AH) concentrations of moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% solutions alone or when treatment was combined with steroids, and to correlate these concentrations with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the most common endophthalmitis-causing organisms. METHODS: Patients undergoing phacoemulsification were enrolled to receive one drop of one of the following solutions: moxifloxacin (G1), moxifloxacin + dexamethasone (G2), gatifloxacin (G3), or gatifloxacin + c (G4), every 15 min, 1h before surgery...
September 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160403/quantification-of-streptococcus-mutans-in-different-types-of-ligature-wires-and-elastomeric-chains
#14
Mariana Umekita Shirozaki, José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira, Erika Calvano Küchler, Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto, Carolina Patrícia Aires, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Fábio Lourenço Romano
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that Streptococcus mutans contamination levels differ according to the type of the orthodontic ligature. Thirteen patients were selected. Each quadrant was randomly subjected to one of the following ligature-use protocols: I) elastomeric chain, II) steel ligature crossed over the archwire, III) steel ligature crossed under the archwire, and IV) steel ligature in a figure-eight pattern under the archwire. After seven days, the devices were removed and the Streptococcus mutans colony-forming unit count per mg of biofilm weight was determined...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160391/agnps-the-new-allies-against-s-mutans-biofilm-a-pilot-clinical-trial-and-microbiological-assay
#15
Priscila L L Freire, Allan J R Albuquerque, Fabio C Sampaio, André Galembeck, Miguel A P Flores, Thayza C M Stamford, Aronita Rosenblatt
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of a new formulation containing silver nanoparticles, named Nano Silver Fluoride (NSF), to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on children's dental enamel. The variations in dental biofilm pH and in the Simplified-Oral-Hygiene-Index (OHI-S) also were evaluated after the treatment with NSF. This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover and prospective pilot clinical trial study in which 12 schoolchildren, aged between 7-8 years, had their dental enamel treated with two solutions: S1 - Nano Silver Fluoride and S2 - negative control (saline solution), in different experimental moments...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160197/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-from-laboratory-long-evans-rats-rattus-norvegicus-with-and-without-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#16
Caroline Bodi Winn, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Michael Y Esmail, Yan Feng, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Lauren Richey, Scott E Perkins, Eric K Nordberg, James G Fox
PURPOSE: Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. METHODOLOGY: We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160117/determination-and-identification-of-antibiotic-resistant-oral-streptococci-isolated-from-active-dental-infections-in-adults
#17
Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodriguez, Maria Elena Ponce-Diaz, Alejandra Loyola-Leyva, Jose O Garcia-Cortes, Carlo E Medina-Solis, Azael A Contreras-Ramire, Eduardo Serena-Gomez
OBJECTIVE: To determine and identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) of oral streptococci from active dental infections in adults and its association with age and gender. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 59 subjects from 18 to 62 years old. Ninety-eighth samples obtained from the subjects were cultivated in agar plates containing antibiotics amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (A-CA), clindamycin, and moxifloxacin (concentrations of 16, 32 or 64 µg/ml)...
November 21, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160079/a-comprehensive-mass-spectrometric-survey-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-subcellular-proteomes
#18
Laura Wilk, Lotta Happonen, Johan Malmström, Heiko Herwald
Streptococcus pyogenes is a major global health burden causing a wide variety of diseases. As a vaccine against this bacterium is still lacking, vaccine candidates or antimicrobial therapies are urgently needed. Here, we use an invasive and clinical relevant streptococcal M1 serotype in order to characterise the bacterial proteome in-depth. An elaborate fractionation technique is employed to separate the different cell fractions followed by shotgun mass spectrometry analysis, allowing us to confirm the expression of nearly two thirds (1022) of the 1690 open reading frames predicted for the streptococcal M1 reference proteome...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159765/characteristic-comparison-of-meningitis-and-non-meningitis-of-streptococcus-suis-in-an-experimentally-infected-porcine-model
#19
Yingying Sun, Hongtao Liu, Rui Du, Shuguang Li, Guanggang Qu, Rining Zhu, Shuang Zhao, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Wenyu Han, Liancheng Lei
This study tested the differences of meningitis and non-meningitis of Streptococcus suis (SS). In this study, an infected pig model of streptococcal meningitis was established. Compared with the non-meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ001 group), the meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ022) exhibited neurological symptoms, such as ataxia and foaming at the mouth, and the brain showed a large area of congestion at 5 days post-infection (p.i.). Moreover, bacterial counts, white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and blood glucose in the blood reached a peak and were significantly higher than those of the JZLQ001 group at 3 days p...
November 20, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158986/comparative-analysis-of-prophages-in-streptococcus-mutans-genomes
#20
Tiwei Fu, Xiangyu Fan, Quanxin Long, Wanyan Deng, Jinlin Song, Enyi Huang
Prophages have been considered genetic units that have an intimate association with novel phenotypic properties of bacterial hosts, such as pathogenicity and genomic variation. Little is known about the genetic information of prophages in the genome of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of human dental caries. In this study, we identified 35 prophage-like elements in S. mutans genomes and performed a comparative genomic analysis. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of prophage sequences revealed that the prophages could be classified into three main large clusters: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C...
2017: PeerJ
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