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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021374/reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-the-inflammatory-function-of-nkt-cells-through-promyelocytic-leukemia-zinc-finger
#1
Yeung-Hyen Kim, Ajay Kumar, Cheong-Hee Chang, Kalyani Pyaram
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic metabolism and contribute to both physiological and pathological conditions as second messengers. ROS are essential for activation of T cells, but how ROS influence NKT cells is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in NKT cell function. We found that NKT cells, but not CD4 or CD8 T cells, have dramatically high ROS in the spleen and liver of mice but not in the thymus or adipose tissues. Accordingly, ROS-high NKT cells exhibited increased susceptibility and apoptotic cell death with oxidative stress...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018445/natural-killer-t-cells-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Shiny Nair, Madhav V Dhodapkar
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Following stimulation, NKT cells lead to downstream activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. This has impelled the development of NKT cell-targeted immunotherapies for treating cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the stimulatory and regulatory functions of NKT cells in tumor immunity as well as highlight preclinical and clinical studies based on NKT cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993781/natural-killer-t-cell-targeted-immunotherapy-mediating-long-term-memory-responses-and-strong-antitumor-activity
#3
Nyambayar Dashtsoodol, Tomokuni Shigeura, Takuya Tashiro, Minako Aihara, Toshihiro Chikanishi, Hiromi Okada, Keigo Hanada, Hirokazu Sano, Akihiko Kurogi, Masaru Taniguchi
Current tumor therapies, including immunotherapies, focus on passive eradication or at least reduction of the tumor mass. However, cancer patients quite often suffer from tumor relapse or metastasis after such treatments. To overcome these problems, we have developed a natural killer T (NKT) cell-targeted immunotherapy focusing on active engagement of the patient's immune system, but not directly targeting the tumor cells themselves. NKT cells express an invariant antigen receptor α chain encoded by Trav11 (Vα14)-Traj18 (Jα18) gene segments in mice and TRAV10 (Vα24)-TRAJ18 (Jα18) in humans and recognize glycolipid ligand in conjunction with a monomorphic CD1d molecule...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977824/changes-of-peripheral-lymphocyte-subsets-and-cytokine-environment-during-aging-and-deteriorating-gastrointestinal-tract-health-status
#4
Jing Wang, Guodong Yang, Dongfang Wang, Kuiliang Liu, Yongchao Ma, Hong Liu, Jing Wu, Min Fang
Human immune senescence accompanies with the physical and physiological frailty. The functional change and shift of NK, NKT and T cell subsets by aging have been widely studied. However, it remains largely unclear how the aging and disease conditions affect the distribution of lymphocytes. In the present study, 233 subjects with age range from 20 to 87 year old, including healthy people, people with chronic gastrointestinal tract disease or cancers were investigated. We found that the proportion of NK cells, CD8(+) T cells and NKT cells remained relatively unchanged with aging...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974109/clinical-significance-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-mucin-3-expression-on-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-pediatric-acute-immune-thrombocytopenia
#5
Asmaa M Zahran, Mervat A M Youssef, Khalid I Elsayh, Mustafa M Embaby, Ahmad I M Ibrahim
T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3) is a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in several autoimmune diseases. The relationship between TIM-3 and excessive immune responses in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the expression of TIM-3 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with ITP and the disease severity. The frequency of lymphocyte and monocyte subsets and their TIM-3 expression were evaluated in patients with acute ITP (n = 45) and in healthy control (n = 20) using flow cytometry...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963877/t-lymphocyte-expressing-inflammatory-cytokines-underlie-persistence-of-proteinuria-in-children-with-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#6
Fábio Tadeu Lourenço Guimarães, Gustavo Eustáquio Brito Alvim de Melo, Thiago Macedo Cordeiro, Victor Feracin, Etel Rocha Vieira, Wagner de Fátima Pereira, Sérgio Veloso Brant Pinheiro, Aline Silva Miranda, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of an important role of immune system changes in the triggering and maintenance of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cytokines in lymphocyte populations of patients with INS in comparison to healthy individuals, according to proteinuria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 44 patients with INS and eight healthy children, matched for age and sex (controls). Patients were subdivided according to proteinuria: persistent proteinuria or partial remission (PP≥300mg/24h, n=17) and low proteinuria or complete remission (LP<300mg/24h, n=27)...
September 27, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962035/immune-cell-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-human-decidua-in-term-and-preterm-parturition
#7
S F Rinaldi, S Makieva, P T Saunders, A G Rossi, J E Norman
STUDY QUESTION: Is labour, both at term and preterm, associated with alterations in decidual lymphocyte densities and widespread changes to the decidual transcriptome? SUMMARY ANSWER: The onset of parturition, both at term and preterm, is associated with widespread gene expression changes in the decidua, many of which are related to inflammatory signalling, but is not associated with changes in the number of any of the decidual lymphocyte populations examined. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Given its location, directly at the maternal-foetal interface, the decidua is likely to play a pivotal role in the onset of parturition, however, the molecular events occurring in the decidua in association with the onset of labour, both at term and preterm, remain relatively poorly defined...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945950/complexity-and-function-of-nkt-cells-with-potential-application-to-hepatic-transplant-survival
#8
REVIEW
Randle Ware, Vipin Kumar
One of the major innate-like lymphocyte populations enriched in liver consists of Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, which recognize self and foreign lipid antigens presented by the non-polymorphic class I MHC-like molecule CD1d. NKT cells express NK cell markers as well as T cell receptors (TCR) and can be classified into 2 categories: type I NKT cells use a semi-invariant TCR whereas type II NKT cells express diverse but still limited TCRs. An emerging body of evidence points to their opposing roles in inflammation, including ischemic reperfusion injury...
September 25, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940971/invariant-nkt-cells-promote-skin-wound-healing-by-preventing-a-prolonged-neutrophilic-inflammatory-response
#9
Hiromasa Tanno, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Emi Kanno, Aiko Suzuki, Naoyuki Takagi, Hideki Yamamoto, Keiko Ishii, Yoshimichi Imai, Ryoko Maruyama, Masahiro Tachi
The wound-healing process consists of the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases. In chronic wounds, the inflammation phase is prolonged with persistent neutrophil infiltration. The inflammatory response is critically regulated by cytokines and chemokines that are secreted from various immune cells. Recently, we showed that skin wound healing was delayed and the healing process was impaired under conditions lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, an innate immune lymphocyte with potent immuno-regulatory activity...
September 23, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938530/cd3xpdl1-bi-specific-t-cell-engager-bite-simultaneously-activates-t-cells-and-nkt-cells-kills-pdl1-tumor-cells-and-extends-the-survival-of-tumor-bearing-humanized-mice
#10
Lucas A Horn, Nicholas G Ciavattone, Ryan Atkinson, Netsanet Woldergerima, Julia Wolf, Virginia K Clements, Pratima Sinha, Munanchu Poudel, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Bi-specific T cell engagers (BiTEs) activate T cells through CD3 and target activated T cells to tumor-expressed antigens. BiTEs have shown therapeutic efficacy in patients with liquid tumors; however, they do not benefit all patients. Anti-tumor immunity is limited by Programmed Death 1 (PD1) pathway-mediated immune suppression, and patients who do not benefit from existing BiTES may be non-responders because their T cells are anergized via the PD1 pathway. We have designed a BiTE that activates and targets both T cells and NKT cells to PDL1(+) cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934678/establishment-of-cell-line-with-nk-nkt-phenotype-from-myeloid-nk-cell-acute-leukemia
#11
A Darji, N Desai, R Modi, B Khamar, S Rajkumar
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the most common malignancy in adults with a 5-year survival rate of 27% of the total affected population. For effective treatment and new drug discovery, cell lines are considered as a very important tool. Here we report an establishment of a continuous human cell line AML-004 with a hypo-diploid chromosome 44 and presence of both NK/NKT phenotypes. The cell line was isolated from the blood sample of myeloid NK cell acute leukemia patients and extensively characterized by flow cytometery, morphology, and cytogentic analysis...
September 13, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933361/lysosomal-storage-disorders-and-malignancy
#12
REVIEW
Gregory M Pastores, Derralynn A Hughes
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are infrequent to rare conditions caused by mutations that lead to a disruption in the usual sequential degradation of macromolecules or their transit within the cell. Gaucher disease (GD), a lipidosis, is among the most common LSD, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 40,000 among the Caucasian, non-Jewish population. Studies have indicated an increased frequency of polyclonal and monoclonal gammopathy among patients with GD. It has been shown that two major sphingolipids that accumulate in GD, namely, β-glucosylceramide 22:0 (βGL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells...
February 27, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932640/co-delivery-of-the-nkt-agonist-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-and-tumor-antigens-to-cross-priming-dendritic-cells-breaks-tolerance-to-self-antigens-and-promotes-antitumor-responses
#13
Reem Ghinnagow, Julie De Meester, Luis Javier Cruz, Caroline Aspord, Stéphanie Corgnac, Elodie Macho-Fernandez, Daphnée Soulard, Josette Fontaine, Laurence Chaperot, Julie Charles, Fabrice Soncin, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Joel Plumas, Christelle Faveeuw, François Trottein
Vaccines designed to abrogate the tolerance of tumor self-antigens and amplify cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells (CTLs) have promise for the treatment of cancer. Type I natural killer (NKT) cells have attracted considerable interest in the cancer therapy field. In the current study, we have exploited the unique ability of NKT cells to serve as T-helper cells to license dendritic cells (DCs) for cross priming with the aim to generate efficient CTL antitumor responses. To this end, we designed a nanoparticle-based vaccine to target cross-priming DCs via the Clec9a endocytic pathway...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926522/bos-is-associated-with-increased-cytotoxic-proinflammatory-cd8-t-nkt-like-and-nk-cells-in-the-small-airways
#14
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Aeneas Yeo, Phan Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression therapy after lung transplantation fails to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in many patients, primarily a disease of the small airways. We have reported that BOS is associated with a lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines, in peripheral blood T, NKT-like (particularly CD8+) and NK cells. We also showed a loss of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in proinflammatory lymphocytes after transplant. It is unknown whether these proinflammatory lymphocytes target the small and/or large airways in BOS...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888485/immunobiology-of-the-il-15-il-15r%C3%AE-complex-as-an-antitumor-and-antiviral-agent
#15
REVIEW
Yin Guo, Liming Luan, Naeem K Patil, Edward R Sherwood
Interleukin (IL)-15 is essential for natural killer (NK), NKT and memory (m) CD8(+) T cell development and function, and is currently under investigation as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. Recently, the creation of IL-15 superagonist by complexing IL-15 and its high affinity receptor alpha (IL-15 Rα) in solution, inspired by the natural trans-presentation of IL-15, advances the potential of IL-15-based tumor immunotherapy. IL-15 superagonist shows promising advantages over monomeric IL-15 such as sustaining high circulating concentrations due to prolonged half-life and more potently stimulating NK and CD8(+) T effector lymphocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882560/plan-b-cell-in-atherosclerosis
#16
Meritxell Nus, Dimitrios Tsiantoulas, Ziad Mallat
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is a complex chronic inflammatory disease involving interactions between vascular, circulating and immune cells. B cells play an important role in chronic inflammation producing antibodies and regulating T and natural killer (NKT) cell activation. The role of B cells in atherosclerosis is complex, with atherogenic and protective roles assigned for distinct B cell subsets. Drugs that deplete B cells or modulate their functions are now used in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases in humans...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878768/natural-igm-and-tlr-agonists-switch-murine-splenic-pan-b-to-regulatory-cells-that-suppress-ischemia-induced-innate-inflammation-via-regulating-nkt-1-cells
#17
Peter I Lobo, Kailo H Schlegel, Amandeep Bajwa, Liping Huang, Mark D Okusa
Natural IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALAs) inhibit inflammation by several mechanisms. Here, we show that pan-B cells and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) are switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with IgM. B cells are also switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with CpG but not with LPS. Pre-emptive infusion of such ex vivo induced regulatory cells protects C57BL/6 mice from ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) via regulation of in vivo NKT-1 cells, which normally amplify the innate inflammatory response to DAMPS released after reperfusion of the ischemic kidney...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872688/liposomal-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-is-taken-up-by-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-and-stimulates-local-and-systemic-immune-responses
#18
Kan Kaneko, Arlene McDowell, Yasuyuki Ishii, Sarah Hook
OBJECTIVES: α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a synthetic glycosphingolipid that exhibits potent immunostimulatory effects through activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells, can be used to treat conditions such as atopy, cancer, infection and autoimmunity. Administration of therapeutics through the oral route has advantages such as patient convenience, safety and reduced cost; however, there has been little research to investigate whether oral delivery of α-GalCer is possible. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether α-GalCer formulated in either DMSO/Tween 80 or in liposomes, could access lymphoid tissue and stimulate immune activation following oral administration...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866066/the-quantitative-and-functional-changes-of-post-operative-pb-immune-cell-subsets-relate-to-sah-patients-prognosis-a-preliminary-study
#19
Yugang Jiang, Yu Zhou, Yong Peng, Mingming Zhang
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the preoperative (PRE) and postoperative (POST) immune system alteration triggered by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and surgical treatment itself may affect patients' prognosis and contribute to postoperative complications. The mechanisms maybe attributed to immune-suppression triggered infection or immune-overreaction triggered aseptic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the dynamic changes in peripheral immune cell subsets as well as the alterations of inflammatory cytokines in aneurysmal SAH patients who received craniotomy and clipping surgery...
August 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864944/induction-of-antitumor-response-to-fibrosarcoma-by-newcastle-disease-virus-infected-tumor-vaccine
#20
Mai Takamura-Ishii, Takahiro Miura, Takaaki Nakaya, Katsuro Hagiwara
Fibrosarcoma is a locally aggressive malignant tumor with a high recurrence rate, so that wide excisional surgery is necessary for treatment. However, it is often difficult to resect with a sufficient margin of excision at the site of tumor infiltration. Recombinant tumor vaccine therapy is a useful method to induce specific immunity. In this study, we have shown its utility as a candidate for therapy by applying a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) tumor vaccine (rNDV-TV). Although the therapeutic effect of similar viruses has been examined in several tumors, the vaccination efficacy against fibrosarcoma has not been demonstrated until now...
September 1, 2017: Medical Oncology
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