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Mathieu Marella, Laurence Jadin, Gilbert A Keller, Barry J Sugarman, Gregory I Frost, H Michael Shepard
Objective: Modification of hyaluronan (HA) accumulation has been shown to play a key role in regulating inflammatory processes linked to the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to characterize the enzymatic activity involved in HA degradation observed within focal demyelinating lesions in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. Methods: EAE was induced in 3-month-old female C57BL/6J mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 33-35 (MOG33-35) peptide...
July 7, 2018: Glycobiology
Gabriella Roda, Sebastiano Arnoldi, Michele Dei Cas, Valeria Ottaviano, Eleonora Casagni, Fausto Tregambe, Giacomo Luca Visconti, Fiorenza Farè, Rino Froldi, Veniero Gambaro
A man was found dead in a hotel located near Rome (Italy). The man was still holding a syringe attached to a butterfly needle inserted in his left forearm vein. The syringe contained a cloudy pinkish fluid. In the hotel room the Police found a broken propofol glass vial plus four sealed ones, an opened NaCl plastic vial and six more still sealed, and a number of packed smaller disposable syringes and needles. An opened plastic bottle containing a white crystalline powder labeled as potassium cyanide was also found...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Francesca Mallamaci, Charalampos Loutradis, Robert Ekart, Claudia Torino, Antonios Karpetas, Vasileios Raptis, Athanasios Bikos, Aikaterini Papagianni, Olga Balafa, Konstantinos Siamopoulos, Giovanni Pisani, Massimo Morosetti, Antonio Del Giudice, Fillipo Aucella, Luca Di Lullo, Rocco Tripepi, Giovanni Tripepi, Kitty Jager, Friedo Dekker, Gerard London, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Population-specific consensus documents recommend that the diagnosis of hypertension in haemodialysis patients be based on 48-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. However, until now there is just one study in the USA on the prevalence of hypertension in haemodialysis patients by 44-h recordings. Since there is a knowledge gap on the problem in European countries, we reassessed the problem in the European Cardiovascular and Renal Medicine working group Registry of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association...
July 10, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Achilleas Attilakos, Argirios Dinopoulos, Maria Paschalidou, Maria Tsirouda, Maria Karalexi, Alexia Prasouli, Anastasia Garoufi
Studies evaluating the effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on haematological parameters in patients with epilepsy are very limited. Short-term effects on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy, at 2 and 6 months of LEV treatment, have been previously reported in the literature. Purpose of the current study was to further investigate the long-term changes on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy during LEV monotherapy. White blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and platelets were measured in 20 children (11 females, mean age 6,5 ± 4,4 years, range 2-15 years) with epilepsy, before and after 12 months of LEV monotherapy...
July 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Carmela Garofalo, Carmen Berbegal, Francesco Grieco, Maria Tufariello, Giuseppe Spano, Vittorio Capozzi
We report the first polyphasic characterization of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to select candidate strains for the design of starter cultures tailored for Apulian sparkling wines obtained from local grape variety. In addition, it is the first survey in our region that propose the selection of autochthonous starter cultures for sparkling wine i) including a preliminary tailored genotypic and technological screening, and ii) monitoring analytical contribution during secondary fermentation in terms of volatile compounds (VOCs)...
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yanni Zhang, Ying Chen, Hongchao Kou, Pengfei Yang, Yanen Wang, Tingli Lu
To improve the bone healing efficiency of porous titanium implants, desired biological properties of implants are mandatory, involving bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity and a stable environment. In this study, bare porous titanium (abbr. pTi) with the porosity of 70% was fabricated by vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium meshes. Hydroxyapatite-coated pTi (abbr. Hap-pTi) was obtained by successively subjecting pTi to alkali heat treatment, pre-calcification and simulated body fluid. Both pTi and Hap-pTi were respectively implanted into the tibia defect model (ϕ10 mm × 6 mm) in New Zealand white rabbits, then subjected to non-invasively axial compressive loads at high-magnitude low-frequency (HMLF), which were denoted as F-pTi and F-Hap-pTi, respectively...
June 28, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Sabrina Elisa Oliveira, Pauliane Melo Costa, Sara Batista Nascimento, Whocely Victor Castro, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro, Hélio Batista Santos, Ralph Gruppi Thomé
Atrazine is a herbicide that is banned in Europe but remains widely used on different types of crops in several countries in the American continent. Atrazine is known to be an endocrine disruptor and its effects on gonads have been extensively reported, but the toxic action on other organs is poorly documented. In this paper, we investigated the toxicity of atrazine on the gills and spleens of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The median lethal concentration (LC50 ), capable of killing one-half of the test animals was calculated, and sublethal concentrations of atrazine were used in a semistatic and subchronic assay...
July 2, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Charles Jardin, Daniel J Paulus, Lorra Garey, Brooke Kauffman, Jafar Bakhshaie, Kara Manning, Nubia A Mayorga, Michael J Zvolensky
The present study examined the factor structure, invariance properties, reliability, and validity of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3, Taylor et al., 2007). Participants were recruited from a large, ethnically diverse southwestern university (n = 3651; 77.8% female; Mage  = 22.06 years; 28% non-Hispanic White). Findings supported a bifactor structure for the ASI-3, which demonstrated measurement invariance across sex, race/ethnicity, age, and sexual minority status. Furthermore, the ASI-3 demonstrated strong reliability and validity, with the anxiety sensitivity general and specific factors (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) evidencing unique patterns of relations with symptoms of depression, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety...
July 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Hannah J White, W Ian Montgomery, Jack J Lennon
1.Changes in species distributions through local extinction and colonisation events are a major consequence of climate change. The mechanisms underlying these processes, however, are yet to be fully understood. 2.We investigate the effects of climatic suitability and local rarity on local extinction and colonisation of British birds. We test the hypothesis that local extinction and colonisation on decadal scales are driven by both climatic suitability and the prevalence of the species within an area, and that the balance between these two is affected by species traits...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jordan T Glicksman, Arjun K Parasher, Laurel Doghramji, David Brauer, Jeremy Waldram, Kristen Walters, Jeff Bulva, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Andrew A White, John V Bosso
BACKGROUND: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, asthma, and respiratory sensitivity to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In addition to sensitivity to aspirin and NSAIDs, the majority of patients with AERD have been reported to have respiratory intolerance associated with the consumption of alcohol. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study was performed...
July 10, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Sean McKee, Anthony Yang, Sarah Kidwai, Satish Govindaraj, Raj Shrivastava, Alfred Iloreta
BACKGROUND: Prolonged length of stay (pLOS), disease-related complications, and 30-day readmissions are important quality metrics under the Affordable Care Act. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of patient-level and hospital-level factors on these outcomes for patients admitted for transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database was queried to investigate 30-day readmissions and pLOS for transsphenoidal pituitary surgery in New York from 1995 to 2015...
July 14, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Kurt G Schilling, Yurui Gao, Matthew Christian, Vaibhav Janve, Iwona Stepniewska, Bennett A Landman, Adam W Anderson
The squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) is a commonly-used surrogate for humans in biomedical research. In the neuroimaging community, MRI and histological atlases serve as valuable resources for anatomical, physiological, and functional studies of the brain; however, no digital MRI/histology atlas is currently available for the squirrel monkey. This paper describes the construction of a web-based multi-modal atlas of the squirrel monkey brain. The MRI-derived information includes anatomical MRI contrast (i...
July 13, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Igor Petrušić, Marko Daković, Katarina Kačar, Olivera Mićić, Jasna Zidverc-Trajković
We aimed to explore whether a migraine with aura (MA) is associated with structural changes in tracts of a white matter and to compare parameters of diffusivity between subgroups in migraineurs. Forty-three MA and 20 healthy subjects (HS), balanced by sex and age, were selected for this study. Analysis of diffusion tensor parameters was used to identify differences between MA patients and HS, and then between MA subgroups. A diffusion tensor probabilistic tractography analysis showed that there is no difference between MA patients and HS...
July 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Alia Saberi, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Samaneh Kazemi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes demyelination of white matter of central nervous system and neuro-degeneration due to inflammation. Different types of MS, as well as disease progression, come with different pathology and pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible association between different micro-organisms and the relapse or progression of MS. Studies indexed in Medline/PMC, Scopus and Web of Science published without time and language limitation until March 2017 were identified through the search terms "infection" or "infectious" and "multiple sclerosis"...
July 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Andrew Robins, Amira A Goma, Lucie Ouine, Clive J C Phillips
We report a range of lateralized coping strategies adopted by large social groups of cattle in response to mild challenges posed by humans of varying degrees of familiarity. At either 14 or 18 pens at a commercial feedlot, with 90 to 200 cattle in each, we conducted a series of video recorded 'pressure tests'. 'Frontal' pressure tests involved walking from a position perpendicular to the concrete feed bunk of a given pen, towards the geometric centre of the line of feeding cattle. 'Bunk-side' pressure tests involved experimenters walking closely past a pen of feeding cattle in one direction, before returning in the opposite direction shortly afterwards...
July 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
Mary Guo, Michelle Quensell, Ann Chang, Jill Miyamura, Tetine Sentell
Introduction Comprehension of healthcare terminology across diverse populations is critical to patient education and engagement. Methods Women in Oahu, Hawai'i with a recent delivery were interviewed about their understanding of ten common obstetric terms. Health literacy was assessed by the rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine (REALM). Multivariable models predicted total terms comprehended by demographic factors. Results Of 269 participants, self-reported primary race was 20.5% Japanese, 19.0% Native Hawaiian, 19...
July 13, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Chenyi Wang, Mark R Kotter
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory disease in the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of oligodendrocytes, myelin axons, and neurons. Remyelination is an endogenous repair mechanism, which recovers the loss of myelin and is able to preserve functional axons. The hope is that the development of new treatments aiming at promoting remyelination will halt and potentially partially reverse the progressive neurological decline in MS. The development of such drugs requires adequate models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maria Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Mari Paz Serrano, Elena Alberdi, Fernando Pérez-Cerdá, Carlos Matute
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and their loss or dysfunction is a hallmark of CNS demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), hypoxic-ischemic demyelination, or spinal cord injury. In the rodent CNS, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) arise in multiple ventral and dorsal locations of the forebrain during late embryogenesis and early postnatal periods. OPCs migrate out from these germinal zones and disperse throughout the CNS, to populate the developing white and gray matter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zinais Kontouli, Chryssoula Staikou, Nicoletta Iacovidou, Ioannis Mamais, Evaggelia Kouskouni, Apostolos Papalois, Panagiotis Papapanagiotou, Anil Gulati, Athanasios Chalkias, Theodoros Xanthos
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the combination of centhaquin and 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Twenty Landrace-Large White pigs were instrumented and subjected to hemorrhagic shock. The animals were randomly allocated in two experimental groups, the control (group CO, n = 10) and the centhaquin groups (0.015 mg/kg, n = 10, group CH). Acute hemorrhage was induced by stepwise blood withdrawal (18 mL/min) from the internal jugular vein until MAP decreased to 40-45 mmHg, whereas anesthesia remained constant...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Qiong Gong, Peng Zhu, Binhao Zhang, Chang Shu, Zeyang Ding, Jingjing Wu, Bixiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: It is reported that lipid emulsion enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs) helps us to improve postoperative recovery for surgical patients with biliary tract disease. Its role for postoperative patients with obstructive jaundice is as yet unclear. The object of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition (PN) for patients with obstructive jaundice following surgical procedures. METHODS: Data were collected from patients with obstructive jaundice who received PN, including n-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions and standard non-enriched lipid emulsions (e...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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