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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346668/rad51-and-rtel1-compensate-telomere-loss-in-the-absence-of-telomerase
#1
Margaux Olivier, Cyril Charbonnel, Simon Amiard, Charles I White, Maria E Gallego
Replicative erosion of telomeres is naturally compensated by telomerase and studies in yeast and vertebrates show that homologous recombination can compensate for the absence of telomerase. We show that RAD51 protein, which catalyzes the key strand-invasion step of homologous recombination, is localized at Arabidopsis telomeres in absence of telomerase. Blocking the strand-transfer activity of the RAD51 in telomerase mutant plants results in a strikingly earlier onset of developmental defects, accompanied by increased numbers of end-to-end chromosome fusions...
January 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346616/racial-differences-in-family-health-history-knowledge-of-type-2-diabetes-exploring-the-role-of-interpersonal-mechanisms
#2
Jielu Lin, Christopher S Marcum, Melanie F Myers, Laura M Koehly
Collecting complete and accurate family health history is critical to preventing type 2 diabetes. Whether there are any racial difference in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes and whether such differences are related to interpersonal mechanisms remain unclear. We seek to identify the interpersonal mechanisms that give rise to discrepancies in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes in families of different racial backgrounds. We analyze informant-dyad consensus with respect to shared family history of type 2 diabetes in 127 informants of 45 families in the greater Cincinnati area (white: 28 families, 78 informants; black/African-American: 17 families, 49 informants)...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346606/characteristics-of-cases-with-repeated-sexually-transmitted-infections-massachusetts-2014-2016
#3
Katherine K Hsu, Lauren E Molotnikov, Kathleen A Roosevelt, Heather R Elder, R Monina Klevens, Alfred DeMaria, Sevgi O Aral
Background: Persons with prior sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at high risk for re-infection. No recent studies have examined the frequency with which persons within a geographic area are diagnosed and reported with multiple bacterial STIs over time. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study of confirmed syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infections reported to the Massachusetts state surveillance system within a two-year period, July 28, 2014 - July 27, 2016...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346516/deletion-of-nrip1-extends-female-mice-longevity-increases-autophagy-and-delays-cell-senescence
#4
Jinyu Wang, Xundi Chen, Jared Osland, D Skyler Gerber, Chao Luan, Kristin Delfino, Leslie Goodwin, Rong Yuan
Using age of female sexual maturation as a biomarker, we previously identified nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (Nrip1) as a candidate gene that may regulate aging and longevity. In the current report, we found that the deletion of Nrip1 can significantly extend longevity of female mice (log rank test, P=0.0004). We also found that Nrip1 expression is altered differently in various tissues during aging and under diet restriction. Remarkably, Nrip1 expression is elevated with aging in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), but significantly reduced after four months of diet restriction...
January 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346467/modification-of-the-associations-between-duration-of-oral-contraceptive-use-and-ovarian-endometrial-breast-and-colorectal-cancers
#5
Kara A Michels, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Louise A Brinton, Britton Trabert
Importance: Although oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, the influence of OC use on carcinogenesis is not fully understood. A recent Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of OC use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. Objective: To determine whether associations between duration of OC use and risk of specific cancers were modified by lifestyle characteristics...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346340/disparities-in-preconception-health-indicators-%C3%A2-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-2013-2015-and-pregnancy-risk-assessment-monitoring-system-2013-2014
#6
Cheryl Robbins, Sheree L Boulet, Isabel Morgan, Denise V D'Angelo, Lauren B Zapata, Brian Morrow, Andrea Sharma, Charlan D Kroelinger
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Preconception health is a broad term that encompasses the overall health of nonpregnant women during their reproductive years (defined here as aged 18-44 years). Improvement of both birth outcomes and the woman's health occurs when preconception health is optimized. Improving preconception health before and between pregnancies is critical for reducing maternal and infant mortality and pregnancy-related complications. The National Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative's Surveillance and Research work group suggests ten prioritized indicators that states can use to monitor programs or activities for improving the preconception health status of women of reproductive age...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346260/race-risk-and-willingness-of-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-without-hepatitis-c-hcv-to-accept-an-hcv-infected-kidney-transplant
#8
Maureen McCauley, Adam Mussell, David Goldberg, Deirdre Sawinski, Rodolfo N Molina, Ricarda Tomlin, Sahil D Doshi, Peter Abt, Roy Bloom, Emily Blumberg, Sanjay Kulkarni, Gabriela Esnaola, Justine Shults, Carrie Thiessen, Peter P Reese
BACKGROUND: Despite effective antiviral treatment, hundreds of kidneys from deceased donors with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are discarded annually. Little is known about the determinants of willingness to accept HCV-infected kidneys among HCV-negative patients. METHODS: At 2 centers, 189 patients undergoing initial or reevaluation for transplant made 12 hypothetical decisions about accepting HCV-infected kidneys in which we systematically varied expected HCV cure rate, allograft quality and wait-time for an uninfected kidney...
January 18, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346246/comparison-of-diagnostic-potential-of-narrow-band-imaging-bronchoscopy-over-white-light-bronchoscopy-in-lung-cancer
#9
Manish Advani, Gopal Purohit, Sunil Vyas, Jyoti Kumari
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, lung cancer is the largest contributor to new cancer diagnoses and to death from cancer. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel bronchoscopic technique which enables detailed examination of submucosal microcapillary grid and showed great potential in early detection of malignant lesions of the bronchial mucosa. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic potential of NBI bronchoscopy over white light (WL) bronchoscopy in lung cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 187 patients having clinical and radiologic findings highly suspicious of lung cancer...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346231/the-complex-association-of-race-ethnicity-with-pain-treatment-quality-in-an-urban-medical-center-with-2-pediatric-emergency-departments
#10
Erika M Kipping, James M Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore racial differences in analgesia quality. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 24,733 visits by individuals 21 years or younger with pain scores of 4 to 10 was performed using electronic medical records. We compared 2 process metrics, treatment with any analgesics within 60 minutes and treatment with opioids within 60 minutes, and one outcome metric, a reduction in pain score by 2 or more points within 90 minutes...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346191/the-four-corners-sign-a-specific-imaging-feature-in-differentiating-systemic-sclerosis-related-interstitial-lung-disease-from-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#11
Lara Walkoff, Darin B White, Jonathan H Chung, Dennis Asante, Christian W Cox
PURPOSE: Differentiating between systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is important because of the differences in workup, prognosis, and treatment. However, there is much overlap in the appearance of these 2 entities on high-resolution computed tomography. We propose that inflammation and/or fibrosis focally or disproportionately involving the bilateral anterolateral upper lobes and posterosuperior lower lobes ["Four Corners" Sign (FCS)] is specific for SSc-ILD...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346131/toxicological-profile-and-safety-pharmacology-of-a-single-dose-of-fibroblast-activation-protein-%C3%AE-based-doxorubicin-prodrug-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#12
Sichao Huang, Yuchen Zhang, Jinsong Zhong, Ying Pan, Shaohui Cai, Jun Xu
Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAPα) is a promising tumor-associated target expressed by reactive stromal fibroblasts in tumor tissue. FAPα has a postprolyl peptidase activity and can specifically cleave N-terminal benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-blocked peptides, such as the substrate Z-Gly-Pro-AMC. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antitumor drug, but its application is greatly limited by toxic adverse effects owing to poor tumor selectivity. Based on these facts, we previously designed a FAPα-targeting prodrug of doxorubicin (FTPD) which can be selectively hydrolyzed by FAPα...
January 17, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346121/reducing-disparities-in-severe-maternal-morbidity-and-mortality
#13
Elizabeth A Howell
Significant racial and ethnic disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality exist in the United States. Black women are 3 to 4 times more likely to die a pregnancy-related death as compared with white women. Growing research indicates that quality of health care, from preconception through postpartum care, may be a critical lever for improving outcomes for racial and ethnic minority women. This article reviews racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidities and mortality, underlying drivers of these disparities, and potential levers to reduce their occurrence...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346065/accuracy-of-principal-and-teacher-knowledge-of-school-district-policies-on-sun-protection-in-california-elementary-schools
#14
David B Buller, Kim D Reynolds, Julia Berteletti, Kim Massie, Jeff Ashley, Mary Klein Buller, Richard T Meenan
INTRODUCTION: Policy is a key aspect of school-based efforts to prevent skin cancer. We explored the extent and accuracy of knowledge among principals and teachers in California public school districts about the elements specified in their district's written sun safety policy. METHODS: The sample consisted of California public school districts that subscribed to the California School Boards Association, had an elementary school, adopted Board Policy 5141.7 for sun safety, and posted it online...
January 18, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346000/preventable-emergency-department-visits-for-nontraumatic-dental-conditions-trends-and-disparities-in-nevada-2009-2015
#15
Wenlian Zhou, Pearl Kim, Jay J Shen, Joseph Greenway, Marcia Ditmyer
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends and socioeconomic disparities for preventable dental-related emergency department (ED) visits in Nevada. METHODS: We pooled retrospective data containing 66 267 ED visits involving dental conditions from Nevada hospital ED databases from 2009 to 2015. The dependent variable was nontraumatic dental conditions identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes; 3 independent variables included treatment year, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345894/a-high-bandwidth-white-light-system-combining-a-micro-led-with-perovskite-quantum-dots-for-visible-light-communication
#16
Shiliang Mei, Xiaoyan Liu, Wanlu Zhang, Ran Liu, Lirong Zheng, Ruiqian Guo, Pengfei Tian
This work proposes a high-bandwidth white-light system consisting of a blue gallium nitride (GaN) micro-LED (μLED) exciting yellow-emitting CsPbBr1.8I1.2 perovskite quantum dots (YQDs) for high-speed real-time visible light communication (VLC). The packaged 80 μm × 80 μm blue-emitting μLED has a modulation bandwidth of ~160 MHz and a peak emission wavelength of ~445 nm. The achievable bandwidth of the white-light system is up to 85 MHz in the absence of filters and equalization technology. Meanwhile, the bandwidth of the YQDs as a color-converter is as high as 73 MHz with the blue GaN μLED as the pump source...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345776/allyl-isothiocyanate-ameliorates-obesity-by-inhibiting-galectin-12
#17
Chia-Wen Lo, Chih-Sheng Chen, Ying-Chi Chen, Yu-An Hsu, Chi-Chun Huang, Ching-Yao Chang, Chao-Jen Lin, Cheng-Wen Lin, Hui-Ju Lin, Fu-Tong Liu, Lei Wan
SCOPE: The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways by which allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) reduces adipocyte differentiation and the efficacy of AITC in suppressing galectin-12 levels as a therapeutic for high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: AITC presents anti-adipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells by decreasing lipid droplet accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. AITC suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes by decreasing galectin-12 expression and by down-regulating key adipogenic transcription factors...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345750/mobility-trajectories-at-the-end-of-life-comparing-clinical-condition-and-latent-class-approaches
#18
June R Lunney, Steven M Albert, Robert Boudreau, Diane Ives, Suzanne Satterfield, Anne B Newman, Tamara Harris
OBJECTIVES: To assess mobility disability trajectories before death in a large sample of very old adults using two analytical approaches to determine how well they corresponded. DESIGN: Decedent sample from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Data were collected between 1997 and 2015. SETTING: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals randomly selected from well-functioning white Medicare beneficiaries and all black community residents meeting age criteria (70-79) (N = 3,075)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345743/refining-mortality-estimates-in-shark-demographic-analyses-a-bayesian-inverse-matrix-approach
#19
Jonathan J Smart, André E Punt, William T White, Colin A Simpfendorfer
Leslie matrix models are an important analysis tool in conservation biology that are applied to a diversity of taxa. The standard approach estimates the finite rate of population growth (λ) from a set of vital rates. In some instances, an estimate of λ is available, but the vital rates are poorly understood and can be solved for using an inverse matrix approach. However, these approaches are rarely attempted due to pre-requisites of information on the structure of age or stage-classes. This study addressed this issue by using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and the sample-importance-resampling (SIR) algorithm to solve the inverse matrix problem without data on population structure...
January 18, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345730/regional-pattern-of-microgliosis-in-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-relation-to-phenotypic-variants-and-disease-progression
#20
Alessia Franceschini, Rosaria Strammiello, Sabina Capellari, Armin Giese, Piero Parchi
AIMS: To describe the regional profiles of microglial activation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtypes and analyse the influence of prion strain, disease duration and codon 129 genotype. METHODS: We studied the amount/severity and distribution of activated microglia, protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc ) spongiform change, and astrogliosis in 8 regions of 57 brains representative of the entire spectrum of sCJD subtypes. RESULTS: In each individual subtype, the regional extent and distribution of microgliosis significantly correlated with PrPSc deposition and spongiform change, leading to subtype-specific "lesion profiles"...
January 18, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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