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VDJ Recombination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871274/chemotherapy-curable-malignancies-and-cancer-stem-cells-a-biological-review-and-hypothesis
#1
Philip Savage
BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic chemotherapy brings routine cures to only a small select group of metastatic malignancies comprising gestational trophoblast tumours, germ cell tumours, acute leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, high grade lymphomas and some of the rare childhood malignancies. We have previously postulated that the extreme sensitivity to chemotherapy for these malignancies is linked to the on-going high levels of apoptotic sensitivity that is naturally linked with the unique genetic events of nuclear fusion, meiosis, VDJ recombination, somatic hypermutation, and gastrulation that have occurred within the cells of origin of these malignancies...
November 21, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686811/proteogenomics-for-the-comprehensive-analysis-of-human-cellular-and-serum-antibody-repertoires
#2
Paula Díez, Manuel Fuentes
The vast repertoire of immunoglobulins produced by the immune system is a consequence of the huge amount of antigens to which we are exposed every day. The diversity of these immunoglobulins is due to different mechanisms (including VDJ recombination, somatic hypermutation, and antigen selection). Understanding how the immune system is capable of generating this diversity and which are the molecular bases of the composition of immunoglobulins are key challenges in the immunological field. During the last decades, several techniques have emerged as promising strategies to achieve these goals, but it is their combination which appears to be the fruitful solution for increasing the knowledge about human cellular and serum antibody repertoires...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472868/high-resolution-analysis-of-the-b-cell-repertoire-before-and-after-polyethylene-glycol-fusion-reveals-preferential-fusion-of-rare-antigen-specific-b-cells
#3
Axel R S X Dubois, Jean-Philippe Buerckert, Regina Sinner, William J Faison, Anne M Molitor, Claude P Muller
OBJECTIVE: The hybridoma technology is one of the most important advances in clinical immunology. Little is known about the differences between the antibodies produced during the in vivo immune response and those recovered in hybridoma libraries. Here, we investigate a potential fusion bias inherent to the hybridoma production process. METHODS: Transgenic rats carrying human Ig heavy and light chain loci were immunized with measles virus (MV) to generate human mAbs...
June 8, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301862/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-a-profile-that-corresponds-to-genomic-variants-in-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia
#4
Zachary R Hunter, Lian Xu, Guang Yang, Nicholas Tsakmaklis, Josephine M Vos, Xia Liu, Jie Chen, Robert J Manning, Jiaji G Chen, Philip Brodsky, Christopher J Patterson, Joshua Gustine, Toni Dubeau, Jorge J Castillo, Kenneth C Anderson, Nikhil M Munshi, Steven P Treon
Whole-genome sequencing has identified highly prevalent somatic mutations including MYD88, CXCR4, and ARID1A in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). The impact of these and other somatic mutations on transcriptional regulation in WM remains to be clarified. We performed next-generation transcriptional profiling in 57 WM patients and compared findings to healthy donor B cells. Compared with healthy donors, WM patient samples showed greatly enhanced expression of the VDJ recombination genes DNTT, RAG1, and RAG2, but not AICDA Genes related to CXCR4 signaling were also upregulated and included CXCR4, CXCL12, and VCAM1 regardless of CXCR4 mutation status, indicating a potential role for CXCR4 signaling in all WM patients...
August 11, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264181/two-mutually-exclusive-local-chromatin-states-drive-efficient-v-d-j-recombination
#5
Daniel J Bolland, Hashem Koohy, Andrew L Wood, Louise S Matheson, Felix Krueger, Michael J T Stubbington, Amanda Baizan-Edge, Peter Chovanec, Bryony A Stubbs, Kristina Tabbada, Simon R Andrews, Mikhail Spivakov, Anne E Corcoran
Variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) (V(D)J) recombination is the first determinant of antigen receptor diversity. Understanding how recombination is regulated requires a comprehensive, unbiased readout of V gene usage. We have developed VDJ sequencing (VDJ-seq), a DNA-based next-generation-sequencing technique that quantitatively profiles recombination products. We reveal a 200-fold range of recombination efficiency among recombining V genes in the primary mouse Igh repertoire. We used machine learning to integrate these data with local chromatin profiles to identify combinatorial patterns of epigenetic features that associate with active VH gene recombination...
June 14, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149636/immunoglobulin-classification-using-the-colored-antibody-graph
#6
Stefano R Bonissone, Pavel A Pevzner
The somatic recombination of V, D, and J gene segments in B-cells introduces a great deal of diversity, and divergence from reference segments. Many recent studies of antibodies focus on the population of antibody transcripts that show which V, D, and J gene segments have been favored for a particular antigen, a repertoire. To properly describe the antibody repertoire, each antibody must be labeled by its constituting V, D, and J gene segment, a task made difficult by somatic recombination and hypermutation events...
June 2016: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102804/using-expected-sequence-features-to-improve-basecalling-accuracy-of-amplicon-pyrosequencing-data
#7
Thomas S Rask, Bent Petersen, Donald S Chen, Karen P Day, Anders Gorm Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Amplicon pyrosequencing targets a known genetic region and thus inherently produces reads highly anticipated to have certain features, such as conserved nucleotide sequence, and in the case of protein coding DNA, an open reading frame. Pyrosequencing errors, consisting mainly of nucleotide insertions and deletions, are on the other hand likely to disrupt open reading frames. Such an inverse relationship between errors and expectation based on prior knowledge can be used advantageously to guide the process known as basecalling, i...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102483/rna-binding-proteins-zfp36l1-and-zfp36l2-promote-cell-quiescence
#8
Alison Galloway, Alexander Saveliev, Sebastian Łukasiak, Daniel J Hodson, Daniel Bolland, Kathryn Balmanno, Helena Ahlfors, Elisa Monzón-Casanova, Sara Ciullini Mannurita, Lewis S Bell, Simon Andrews, Manuel D Díaz-Muñoz, Simon J Cook, Anne Corcoran, Martin Turner
Progression through the stages of lymphocyte development requires coordination of the cell cycle. Such coordination ensures genomic integrity while cells somatically rearrange their antigen receptor genes [in a process called variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) recombination] and, upon successful rearrangement, expands the pools of progenitor lymphocytes. Here we show that in developing B lymphocytes, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 are critical for maintaining quiescence before precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression and for reestablishing quiescence after pre-BCR-induced expansion...
April 22, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053761/internal-duplications-of-dh-jh-and-c-region-genes-create-an-unusual-igh-gene-locus-in-cattle
#9
Li Ma, Tong Qin, Dan Chu, Xueqian Cheng, Jing Wang, Xifeng Wang, Peng Wang, Haitang Han, Liming Ren, Robert Aitken, Lennart Hammarström, Ning Li, Yaofeng Zhao
It has been suspected for many years that cattle possess two functional IgH gene loci, located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 21 and BTA11, respectively. In this study, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and additional experiments, we showed that all functional bovine IgH genes were located on BTA21, and only a truncated μCH2 exon was present on BTA11. By sequencing of seven bacterial artificial chromosome clones screened from a Hostein cow bacterial artificial chromosome library, we generated a 678-kb continuous genomic sequence covering the bovine IGHV, IGHD, IGHJ, and IGHC genes, which are organized as IGHVn-IGHDn-IGHJn-IGHM1-(IGHDP-IGHV3-IGHDn)3-IGHJn-IGHM2-IGHD-IGHG3-IGHG1-IGHG2-IGHE-IGHA...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047738/double-strand-break-repair-based-on-short-homology-regions-is-suppressed-under-terminal-deoxynucleotidyltransferase-expression-as-revealed-by-a-novel-vector-system-for-analysing-dna-repair-by-nonhomologous-end-joining
#10
So Maezawa, Saori Nakano, Takaaki Kuniya, Osamu Koiwai, Kotaro Koiwai
We have constructed a novel, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) assay vector (NAV), containing mKate2, Venus and ccdB genes. Cotransfection of NAV with a construct expressing the restriction enzyme I-SceI generated a double-strand break (DSB) in NAV that excised mKate2 and ccdB. Repair of this DSB produced an intact vector that expressed Venus, a green fluorescent protein. Because cells bearing the repaired NAV lacked the ccdB gene which slows cell proliferation, the cultures were enriched in cells containing repaired DSBs...
January 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941803/t-cell-receptor-phenotype-pattern-in-atopic-children-using-commercial-fluorescently-labeled-antibodies-against-21-human-class-specific-v-segments-for-the-tcr%C3%AE-chain-v%C3%AE-of-peripheral-blood-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Gassem Gohal, Christine McCusker, Bruce Mazer, Reza Alizadehfar, Duncan Lejtenyi, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
BACKGROUND: T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire development is an integral part of the adaptive immune response. T-cell activation requires recognition of appropriately processed antigens by the TCR. Development of a diverse repertoire of TCRs is therefore essential to ensure adequate protection from potential threats. The majority of T-cells in peripheral blood have TCRs composed of an alpha and a beta chain. At the DNA level, the TCR genes are formed through directed recombination from germline sequences-the so-called VDJ recombination [variable (V) joining (J) diversity (D) gene segments] which results in variations in the repertoire...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921311/restoration-of-atm-expression-in-dna-pkcs-deficient-cells-inhibits-signal-end-joining
#12
Jessica A Neal, Yao Xu, Masumi Abe, Eric Hendrickson, Katheryn Meek
Unlike most DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)-deficient mouse cell strains, we show in the present study that targeted deletion of DNA-PKcs in two different human cell lines abrogates VDJ signal end joining in episomal assays. Although the mechanism is not well defined, DNA-PKcs deficiency results in spontaneous reduction of ATM expression in many cultured cell lines (including those examined in this study) and in DNA-PKcs-deficient mice. We considered that varying loss of ATM expression might explain differences in signal end joining in different cell strains and animal models, and we investigated the impact of ATM and/or DNA-PKcs loss on VDJ recombination in cultured human and rodent cell strains...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873538/distinct-patterns-of-colocalization-of-the-ccnd1-and-cmyc-genes-with-their-potential-translocation-partner-igh-at-successive-stages-of-b-cell-differentiation
#13
Ilya Sklyar, Olga V Iarovaia, Alexey A Gavrilov, Andrey Pichugin, Diego Germini, Tatiana Tsfasman, Gersende Caron, Thierry Fest, Marc Lipinski, Sergey V Razin, Yegor S Vassetzky
The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus is submitted to intra-chromosomal DNA breakages and rearrangements during normal B cell differentiation that create a risk for illegitimate inter-chromosomal translocations leading to a variety of B-cell malignancies. In most Burkitt's and Mantle Cell lymphomas, specific chromosomal translocations juxtapose the IGH locus with a CMYC or Cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene, respectively. 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on normal peripheral B lymphocytes induced to mature in vitro from a naive state to the stage where they undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR)...
July 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700767/dj-pairing-during-vdj-recombination-shows-positional-biases-that-vary-among-individuals-with-differing-ighd-locus-immunogenotypes
#14
Marie J Kidd, Katherine J L Jackson, Scott D Boyd, Andrew M Collins
Human IgH diversity is influenced by biases in the pairing of IGHD and IGHJ genes, but these biases have not been described in detail. We used high-throughput sequencing of VDJ rearrangements to explore DJ pairing biases in 29 individuals. It was possible to infer three contrasting IGHD-IGHJ haplotypes in nine of these individuals, and two of these haplotypes include deletion polymorphisms involving multiple contiguous IGHD genes. Therefore, we were able to explore how the underlying genetic makeup of the H chain locus influences the formation of particular DJ pairs...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689875/three-faces-of-recombination-activating-gene-1-rag1-mutations
#15
Turkan Patiroglu, Himmet Haluk Akar, Mirjam Van Der Burg
Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a group of genetic disorder associated with development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. Recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) play a critical role on VDJ recombination process that leads to the production of a broad T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in the development of T and B cells. RAG1/2 genes mutations result in various forms of primary immunodeficiency, ranging from classic SCID to Omenn syndrome (OS) to atypical SCID with such as granuloma formation and autoimmunity...
December 2015: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240285/influence-of-a-ctcf-dependent-insulator-on-multiple-aspects-of-enhancer-mediated-chromatin-organization
#16
Garima Varma, Pratishtha Rawat, Manisha Jalan, Manjula Vinayak, Madhulika Srivastava
Developmental stage-specific enhancer-promoter-insulator interactions regulate the chromatin configuration necessary for transcription at various loci and additionally for VDJ recombination at antigen receptor loci that encode immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. To investigate these regulatory interactions, we analyzed the epigenetic landscape of the murine T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) locus in the presence and absence of an ectopic CTCF-dependent enhancer-blocking insulator, H19-ICR, in genetically manipulated mice...
October 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26194757/inferring-processes-underlying-b-cell-repertoire-diversity
#17
Yuval Elhanati, Zachary Sethna, Quentin Marcou, Curtis G Callan, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
We quantify the VDJ recombination and somatic hypermutation processes in human B cells using probabilistic inference methods on high-throughput DNA sequence repertoires of human B-cell receptor heavy chains. Our analysis captures the statistical properties of the naive repertoire, first after its initial generation via VDJ recombination and then after selection for functionality. We also infer statistical properties of the somatic hypermutation machinery (exclusive of subsequent effects of selection). Our main results are the following: the B-cell repertoire is substantially more diverse than T-cell repertoires, owing to longer junctional insertions; sequences that pass initial selection are distinguished by having a higher probability of being generated in a VDJ recombination event; somatic hypermutations have a non-uniform distribution along the V gene that is well explained by an independent site model for the sequence context around the hypermutation site...
September 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186701/leaky-rag-deficiency-in-adult-patients-with-impaired-antibody-production-against-bacterial-polysaccharide-antigens
#18
Christoph B Geier, Alexander Piller, Angela Linder, Kai M T Sauerwein, Martha M Eibl, Hermann M Wolf
Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25996166/the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#19
REVIEW
Piers A Blombery, Meaghan Wall, John F Seymour
The B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) are a diverse group of haematological malignancies which arise from the mature B-lymphocyte compartment. Recently, our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders has greatly increased due to technological advances such as high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques. A paradigm of B-NHL pathogenesis has emerged where the normal genetic processes that are central to generating B-cell receptor diversity (somatic hypermutation and class switch/VDJ recombination) also drive the genesis of large-scale, chromosomal-level genetic lesions and smaller-scale gene-level mutations to produce the malignant phenotypes observed...
October 2015: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25976210/invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-and-their-ligands-focus-on-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Joan O'Keeffe, Maria Podbielska, Edward L Hogan
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an innate population of T cells identified by the expression of an invariant T-cell receptor and reactivity to lipid-based antigens complexed with CD1d. They account for a small percentage of lymphocytes, but are extremely potent and play central roles in immunity to infection, in some cancers, and in autoimmunity. The list of relevant stimulatory lipids and glycolipid antigens now includes a range of endogenous self-antigens including the myelin-derived acetylated galactosylceramides...
August 2015: Immunology
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