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Paleolithic diet

Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, D A Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, Frits A J Muskiet
The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The "lipid hypothesis" coined the concept that fat, especially SFA, raises blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and thereby CVD risk. In view of current controversies regarding their adequate intakes and effects, this review aims to summarize research regarding this heterogenic group of fatty acids and the mechanisms relating them to (chronic) systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and notably CVD...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Richard Hoffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Maturitas
Angela Genoni, Johnny Lo, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Amanda Devine
(1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks...
2016: Nutrients
J Godos, F Bella, A Torrisi, S Sciacca, F Galvano, G Grosso
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that dietary patterns may play an important role in colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies exploring the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas (a precancerous condition). METHODS: Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched to retrieve eligible studies. Only studies exploring the risk or association with colorectal adenomas for the highest versus lowest category of exposure to a posteriori dietary patterns were included in the quantitative analysis...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Frank M Ruemmele
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily in the rise in Western as well as in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. An interesting hypothesis is that environmental (food-) triggered changes of the intestinal microbiome might cause a proinflammatory state preceding the development of IBD. Indeed, an intact intestinal epithelial barrier assuring a normal bacterial clearance of the intestinal surface is crucial to guarantee intestinal homeostasis...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Julia Otten, Andreas Stomby, Maria Waling, Andreas Isaksson, Anna Tellström, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson, Søren Brage, Mats Ryberg, Michael Svensson, Tommy Olsson
BACKGROUND: Means to reduce future risk for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes are urgently needed. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes (age 59 ± 8 years) followed a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks. Participants were randomized to either standard care exercise recommendations (PD) or 1-h supervised exercise sessions (aerobic exercise and resistance training) three times per week (PD-EX). RESULTS: For the within group analyses, fat mass decreased by 5...
May 27, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Angela Genoni, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Johnny Lo, Amanda Devine
(1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks...
2016: Nutrients
Sireen El Zaatari, Frederick E Grine, Peter S Ungar, Jean-Jacques Hublin
The Neandertal lineage developed successfully throughout western Eurasia and effectively survived the harsh and severely changing environments of the alternating glacial/interglacial cycles from the middle of the Pleistocene until Marine Isotope Stage 3. Yet, towards the end of this stage, at the time of deteriorating climatic conditions that eventually led to the Last Glacial Maximum, and soon after modern humans entered western Eurasia, the Neandertals disappeared. Western Eurasia was by then exclusively occupied by modern humans...
2016: PloS One
Karina Knight-Sepulveda, Susan Kais, Rebeca Santaolalla, Maria T Abreu
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular...
August 2015: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kristine A Whalen, Marjorie L McCullough, W Dana Flanders, Terryl J Hartman, Suzanne Judd, Roberd M Bostick
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and oxidative balance are associated with poor diet quality and risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. A diet-inflammation/oxidative balance association may relate to evolutionary discordance. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, and circulating concentrations of 2 related biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an acute inflammatory protein, and F2-isoprostane, a reliable marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation...
June 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Patrick B Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To describe the nutrition behaviors, perceptions, and beliefs of marathoners. METHODS: A survey-based study was conducted with 422 recent marathon finishers (199 men, 223 women). Participants reported their running background, demographics, diets followed, supplements used, and food/fluid intake during their most recent marathon (median 7 days prior), as well as beliefs about hydration, fueling, and sources of nutrition information. RESULTS: Median finishing times were 3:53 (3:26-4:35) and 4:25 (3:50-4:59) h:min for men and women during their most recent marathon...
September 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
The average US dietary intake of K(+) is well below the current recommended nutritional requirements. This deficiency is even more striking when comparing our current intake with that of our ancestors, who consumed large amounts of dietary K(+). K(+) deficiency has been implicated in many diseases including cardiovascular disease, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. Importantly, dietary supplementation of K(+) has favorable effects on reducing blood pressure, decreasing the risk of stroke, improving bone health, and reducing the risk of nephrolithiasis...
April 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores...
August 2016: Amino Acids
J Otten, C Mellberg, M Ryberg, S Sandberg, J Kullberg, B Lindahl, C Larsson, J Hauksson, T Olsson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate changes in liver fat and insulin sensitivity during a 2-year diet intervention. An ad libitum Paleolithic diet (PD) was compared with a conventional low-fat diet (LFD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy healthy, obese, postmenopausal women were randomized to either a PD or a conventional LFD. Diet intakes were ad libitum. Liver fat was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and calculated as homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)/liver insulin resistance (Liver IR) index for hepatic insulin sensitivity and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)/Matsuda for peripheral insulin sensitivity...
May 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
L A Frassetto, M Schloetter, M Mietus-Synder, R C Morris, A Sebastian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Chiara Pontremoli, Alessandra Mozzi, Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Giorgia Menozzi, Jacopo Vertemara, Nereo Bresolin, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase)...
September 2015: Genome Biology and Evolution
Eric W Manheimer, Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Hanno Pijl
BACKGROUND: Paleolithic nutrition, which has attracted substantial public attention lately because of its putative health benefits, differs radically from dietary patterns currently recommended in guidelines, particularly in terms of its recommendation to exclude grains, dairy, and nutritional products of industry. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether a Paleolithic nutritional pattern improves risk factors for chronic disease more than do other dietary interventions...
October 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bodo C Melnik
Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis...
2015: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Carl-Johan Boraxbekk, Andreas Stomby, Mats Ryberg, Bernt Lindahl, Christel Larsson, Lars Nyberg, Tommy Olsson
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. METHODS: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months...
2015: Obesity Facts
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