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Renal failure

Rita C F Tavares, Ana C C A Feldner, João R R Pinho, Silvia N O Uehara, Christini T Emori, Roberto J Carvalho-Filho, Ivonete S S Silva, Rúbia A F Santana, Vanessa F D de Castro, Gregório T F Castoli, Charliana U Cristovão, Maria L C G Ferraz
Background NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs) were the first direct antiviral agents used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus. The combination of second-wave PIs with other direct antiviral agents enabled the use of interferon-free regimens for chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis and renal transplant (RTx) recipients, populations in which the use of interferon and ribavirin is limited. However, the occurrence of PI resistance-associated variants (RAVs), both baseline and induced by therapy, has resulted in the failure of many treatment strategies...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kimberly M Ramonell, Shuyang Fang, Sebastian D Perez, Jahnavi K Srinivasan, Patrick S Sullivan, John R Galloway, Charles A Staley, Edward Lin, Jyotirmay Sharma, John F Sweeney, Virginia O Shaffer
Postoperative acute renal failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in colon and rectal surgery. Our objective was to identify preoperative risk factors that predispose patients to postoperative renal failure and renal insufficiency, and subsequently develop a risk calculator. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files database, all patients who underwent colorectal surgery in 2009 were selected (n = 21,720). We identified renal complications during the 30-day period after surgery...
December 1, 2016: American Surgeon
Stephen Ip, Trana Hussaini, Aliya Daulat, Nilufar Partovi, Siegfried Erb, Eric Yoshida, Vladimir Marquez
BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in post-liver transplantation (LT) recipients. The risk factors associated with the development of renal dysfunction are not clearly elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk factors in the development of CRF in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective case-cohort of liver transplant patients without baseline kidney dysfunction who developed chronic renal failure during their follow-up...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
Ettore Bartoli, Luca Rossi, Daniele Sola, Luigi Castello, Pier Paolo Sainaghi, Carlo Smirne
Resolution of edema requires a correct interpretation of body fluids-related renal function, to excrete the excess volume while restoring systemic hemodynamics and avoiding renal failure. In heart failure, the intensive diuresis should be matched by continuous fluids refeeding from interstitium to plasma, avoiding central volume depletion. The slowly reabsorbed ascites cannot refeed this contracted volume in cirrhosis: the ensuing activation of intrathoracic receptors, attended by increased adrenergic and Renin release, causes more avid sodium retention, producing a positive fluid and Na balance in the face of continuous treatment...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Mary B Abraham, Nicholas Larkins, Catherine S Choong, Vinutha B Shetty
AIM: Hyponatraemia with hyperkalaemia in infancy is a typical presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In the presence of pyelonephritis, the same biochemical picture can occur with transient type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA-1) also termed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Recognition of PHA-1 enables appropriate management thus avoiding unnecessary investigations and treatment. To improve awareness of this condition, we present a case series to highlight the clinical and biochemical features of PHA-1...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Youn-Hyun Kim, Petra Nijst, Kathryn Kiefer, W H Wilson Tang
INTRODUCTION: The endothelial surface layer is covered with abundant proteoglycans, of which syndecans and glycosaminoglycans are major constituents. RECENT FINDINGS: Among the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) constituents, syndecan-1 (sdc1) is a main component, and an elevated serum level of sdc1 may indicate the degradation of eGC. In patients with ischemic heart disease or heart failure, elevation of serum sdc1 has been associated with worsening cardiac and renal function; however, the causal relationship between degradation of eGC and clinical outcomes is unclear...
February 24, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
S Schlee, L C Bollheimer, T Bertsch, C C Sieber, P Härle
Gout develops in four stages beginning with an asymptomatic increase in blood levels of uric acid. An acute gout attack is an expression of an underlying inflammatory process, which in the course of time is self-limiting. Without therapy monosodium urate crystals remain in the synovial fluid and synovial membrane and trigger more acute attacks. In the course of the disease monosodium urate crystals form deposits (tophi) leading in severe forms to irreversible joint deformities with loss of functionality. In 20% of cases gout leads to involvement of the kidneys...
February 23, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
D Müller-Wieland, N Marx
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing chronic disease with a complex pathophysiology and multiple therapeutic options. Clinical prognosis is determined by multimorbidity and cardiovascular complications. For example, the prognosis of patients with diabetes hospitalized for heart failure is very poor with up to 50% mortality rate over the 3 years thereafter. Therefore, three levels have to be addressed in our approach to interdisciplinary diabetes care: screening and prevention, efficient patient-centered drug therapy, and a strategy for care including social environment of the patient suffering from complex diseases...
February 23, 2017: Der Internist
Claudio Ronco, Luca Di Lullo
BACKGROUND: It is well established that a large number of hospitalized patients present various degrees of heart and kidney dysfunction; primary disease of the heart or kidney often involves dysfunction or injury to the other. SUMMARY: Based on above-cited organ cross-talk, the term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) was proposed. Although CRS was usually referred to as abruption of kidney function following heart injury, it is now clearly established that it can describe negative effects of an impaired renal function on the heart and circulation...
January 2017: Kidney Diseases
Dong Fang Zhao, J James Edelman, Michael Seco, Paul G Bannon, Michael K Wilson, Michael J Byrom, Vinod Thourani, Andre Lamy, David P Taggart, John D Puskas, Michael P Vallely
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the standard of treatment for 3-vessel and left main coronary disease, but is associated with an increased risk of post-operative stroke compared to percutaneous coronary intervention. It has been suggested that CABG techniques that eliminate cardiopulmonary bypass and reduce aortic manipulation may reduce the incidence of post-operative stroke. OBJECTIVES: A network meta-analysis was performed to compare post-operative outcomes between all CABG techniques, including anaortic off-pump CABG (anOPCABG), off-pump with the clampless Heartstring device (OPCABG-HS), off-pump with a partial clamp (OPCABG-PC), and traditional on-pump CABG with aortic cross-clamping...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Thomas Havenith, David Burger, Maarten Visschers, Jolanda Schippers, Astrid Oude Lashof
We describe a patient with acute renal failure and irreversible kidney damage after an overdose with the fixed dose combination of efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (Atripla). The acute kidney injury was most probably caused by tenofovir. Efavirenz and emtricitabine seemed relatively safe in overdose. The pharmacokinetics in overdose of all three drugs and the effect of hemodialysis on the tenofovir clearance were studied by measuring the plasma concentrations and by the use of clinical pharmacokinetic software...
February 20, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Yan-Sheng Jin, Mao-Xiao Fan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
I Christova, M Pishmisheva, I Trifonova, N Vatev, M Stoycheva, M Tiholova, D Igova, M Baev, R Karagyaurova, U Prokopova
BACKGROUND: Hantaviruses cause two distinct human diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in America. In Europe, mainly Puumala, Dobrava and Seoul viruses cause HFRS. A total of 23 cases of HFRS were detected in Bulgaria over a 2‑year period 2013-2014. The aim of the study was to present epidemiology, clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of these patients. METHODS: Patients with HFRS were diagnosed using PCR, ELISA and immunoblotting tests...
February 22, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Rafiu Ariganjoye
Vitamin D, a secosteroid, is essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bone in both the adult and pediatric populations. Low level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-(OH)-D) is highly prevalent in children worldwide and has been linked to various adverse health outcomes including rickets, osteomalacia, osteomalacic myopathy, sarcopenia, and weakness, growth retardation, hypocalcemia, seizure and tetany, autism, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancers (prostate, colon, breast), infectious diseases (viral, tuberculosis), and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
Hitesh C Patel, Carl Hayward, Jennifer Keegan, Peter D Gatehouse, Ronak Rajani, Rajdeep S Khattar, Raad H Mohiaddin, Stuart D Rosen, Alexander R Lyon, Carlo di Mario
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of renal denervation (RDT) on micro- and macro-vascular function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). DESIGN: A prospective, randomised, open-controlled trial with blinded end-point analysis. SETTING: A single-centre London teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients with HFpEF who were recruited into the RDT-PEF trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macro-vascular: 24-h ambulatory pulse pressure, aorta distensibilty (from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), aorta pulse wave velocity (CMR), augmentation index (peripheral tonometry) and renal artery blood flow indices (renal MR)...
January 2017: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
Zubair B Mirza, Sophia Hu, Louis F Amorosa
Simvastatin induced rhabdomyolysis with renal failure is a well reported clinical entity with hyperkalemia recognized as a life threatening risk. The risk of delayed hypercalcemia during the recovery of renal function is not well appreciated as this varies in severity and can be caused by multiple mechanisms. We present a patient with high dose simvastatin induced rhabdomyolysis leading to late onset of severe hypercalcemia due to calcium phosphate deposition in muscles diagnosed by distinctive bone scintigraphy...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
Fadar Oliver Otite, Priyank Khandelwal, Amer M Malik, Seemant Chaturvedi, Ralph L Sacco, Jose G Romano
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on medical complications after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are sparse. We assessed trends in the prevalence of urinary tract infection, pneumonia, sepsis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, acute renal failure (ARF), and acute myocardial infarction after ICH in the United States. METHODS: A total of 575 211 adult ICH cases were identified from the 2004 to 2013 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Weighted complication risks were computed by sex and mechanical ventilation status...
February 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Javeed Iqbal Bhat, Hilal Ahmad Rather, Ambreen Ali Ahangar, Umar Amin Qureshi, Parvez Dar, Qazi Iqbal Ahmed, Bashir Ahmed Charoo, Syed Wajid Ali
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of thiamine administration on the resolution of pulmonary hypertension in exclusively breastfed infants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital based study of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 29 infants with 17 males (58.6%) and 12 females (41.4%) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: In addition to the management of shock, right heart failure and renal failure, patients received intravenous thiamine 100mg/kg IV followed by 10mg/day till introduction of supplementary feeds...
January 2017: Indian Heart Journal
Suresh H, Arun B S, Venkatesh Moger, Mallikarjuna Swamy
INTRODUCTION: The heart and the kidneys are tightly interlinked with each other. So, primary disorder of one of these organs often results in the secondary dysfunction of other. Such interactions play a vital role in the pathogenesis of a clinical entity called cardio-renal syndrome (CRS). CRS type 4 refers to the development of cardiac failure in the patients with CKD. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of various cardiac diseases in the patients with CKD and risk factors for it...
January 2017: Indian Heart Journal
Zhobin Moghadamyeghaneh, Mark H Hanna, Reza Fazlalizadeh, Yoshitsugu Obi, Clarence E Foster, Michael J Stamos, Hirohito Ichii
There are limited data regarding outcomes of patients underwent kidney autotransplantation. This study aims to investigate outcomes of such patients. The nationwide inpatient sample database was used to identify patients underwent kidney autotransplantation during 2002 to 2012. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression were performed to investigate morbidity predictors. A total of 817 patients underwent kidney autotransplantation from 2002 to 2012. The most common indication of surgery was renal artery pathology (22...
February 1, 2017: American Surgeon
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