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Hiu-Fai Fong, Margarita Alegria, Megan H Bair-Merritt, William Beardslee
Although child welfare caseworkers are responsible for facilitating mental health services access for maltreated children, little is known about caseworkers' decisions to refer children to services. We aimed to identify factors associated with caseworker referral of children to mental health services after a maltreatment investigation. We analyzed data from 1956 children 2-17 years old from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. We examined associations of children's predisposing, enabling, and need-related factors and caseworkers' work environment characteristics with referral to mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kai Fang, Qifeng Zhang, Huajun Yu, Yutao Wang, Liang Dong, Lei Shi
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are limited in their ability to measure progress towards environmental sustainability especially at the city level. The aim of this paper is to provide insights into an integrated assessment of urban sustainability, with emphasis on the significance of the maintenance of natural capital stocks. The use of water and land as critical natural capital in Guiyang, a southeast city in China was investigated by bringing together the ecological footprint (EF), water footprint (WF) and corresponding capacity indicators into an improved three-dimensional (i3D) model...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M P Keane, M McGee, E G O'Riordan, A K Kelly, B Earley
The objectives of the study were to determine whether allometric equations are suitable for estimating the space requirements of finishing beef cattle housed on concrete slatted floors (CSF) and to examine the effect of fixed and dynamic space allowances on the performance and welfare of these cattle. Continental crossbred steers (n=120: mean initial live weight, 590 (SD 29.8) kg) were blocked by breed, weight and age and assigned to one of five space allowance treatments (three fixed and two dynamic) on CSF: i) 2...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S A Barwick, A L Henzell, B J Walmsley, D J Johnston, R G Banks
Methods are presented for including feed intake and efficiency in genetic selection for multiple-trait merit when commercial production is from any combination of pasture or concentrates. Consequences for the production system and for individual animals are illustrated with a beef cattle example. Residual feed intake at pasture (RFI-p), residual feed intake in the feedlot (RFI-f), and cow condition score are additional traits of the breeding objective. Feed requirement change is costed in the economic values of other objective traits...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jesse Robbins, Becca Franks, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
Many scientists studying animal welfare appear to hold a hedonistic concept of welfare -whereby welfare is ultimately reducible to an animal's subjective experience. The substantial advances in assessing animal's subjective experience have enabled us to take a step back to consider whether such indicators are all one needs to know if one is interested in the welfare of an individual. To investigate this claim, we randomly assigned participants (n = 502) to read one of four vignettes describing a hypothetical chimpanzee and asked them to make judgments about the animal's welfare...
2018: PloS One
Peta S Taylor, Paul H Hemsworth, Peter J Groves, Sabine G Gebhardt-Henrich, Jean-Loup Rault
Little is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition...
March 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Jonathan D Leipoldt, Nanna S Kayed, Annemiek T Harder, Hans Grietens, Tormod Rimehaug
Background: Previous studies have shown that social climate in therapeutic residential youth care (TRC) is important to the welfare of residents, staff, and assessing treatment outcomes. The most influential theory on social climate in residential settings is the theory of Moos. The measurement of the concepts and aspects of this theory using the Community Oriented Programs Environment Scale (COPES) has repeatedly been criticized regarding usability, validity, and reliability, especially for TRC...
2018: Child & Youth Care Forum
Ashish Srivastava, Bramhanand Cuncoliencar, Yvonne Da Silva Pereira
Organized delivery of mental health services in Goa had its origin during the Portuguese regime. From the inception of a mental asylum in the 1500s, mental health services have come a long way. In post liberation period, after 1961, under the guidance of a WHO Consultant, Dr. Govindaswamy, a new mental hospital was built at Panaji, Goa and it was named as the Abbe de Faria Institute. The Department of Psychiatry in Goa Medical College was established in 1968, and unlike in most parts of the country, where Psychiatry was a part of Medicine; here in Goa, it enjoyed an independent departmental status...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
T R Dunn, T L Ollivett, D L Renaud, K E Leslie, S J LeBlanc, T F Duffield, D F Kelton
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a complex disease process and many reports emphasize the negative implications of clinical BRD in dairy calves. Early diagnosis can be difficult because of inconsistent or absent clinical signs; however, the use thoracic ultrasonography has the potential to improve detection of respiratory disease. Earlier detection of BRD may result in actions to improve calf welfare and production. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine if lung consolidation (LC) in young dairy calves influenced age at first calving (AFC), first-lactation milk production, and survival to the end of first lactation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Anne-Marie Laslett, Heng Jiang, Tanya Chikritzhs
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to quantify the population-level associations between child injury deaths and adult (aged 15+ years) per capita alcohol consumption (PCC) and between child injury deaths and the impact of major alcohol and safety policy changes in Australia. METHODS: All child deaths due to external causes during 1910-2013, and child deaths due specifically to road crashes, assaults, suicide and other external causes, were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare...
January 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Elizabeth D Beatriz, Carmel Salhi, John L Griffith, Beth E Molnar
Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Megan Rose Stafford, Mick Cooper, Michael Barkham, Jeni Beecham, Peter Bower, Karen Cromarty, Andrew J B Fugard, Charlie Jackson, Peter Pearce, Rebekah Ryder, Cathy Street
BACKGROUND: One in ten children in Britain have been identified as experiencing a diagnosable mental health disorder. School-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) may help young people identify, address, and overcome psychological distress. Data from four pilot trials suggest that SBHC may be clinically effective. However, a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a robust test of its effectiveness, to assess its cost-effectiveness, and to determine the process of change...
March 9, 2018: Trials
Sang Woo Jun, Suk Joong Yong, Min Jo, Young Ho Kim, Sung Hoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Electromyography and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) are among the most effective methods for evaluating spasticity; however, these are often inappropriate for clinical use, owing to the complicated procedure and subjective evaluation outcomes. METHODS: A passive stretch reflex test was performed on 10 subjects with brain lesions. Furthermore, mechanomyography and electromyography were conducted on the vastus lateralis muscle (agonist) and semitendinosus muscle (antagonist) of the subjects with brain lesions...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Paul E Rose, Darren P Croft
An appropriate social environment for species held in captivity is key for ensuring both good welfare and reproductive performance. Species with a complex social structure may suffer if their social requirements are not taken into consideration as part of management and husbandry strategies. Here we aim to understand the drivers of social structure, and the link between social structure and reproduction in a flock of 281 greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) at WWT Slimbridge Wetland Centre. Proximity-based associations between birds were measured three and four times per day (depending upon season and husbandry) from 2012 to 2016...
March 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Inge Renne, Robbert Jj Gobbens
Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between frailty and multimorbidity on the one hand and quality of life on the other in community-dwelling older people. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all people aged 70 years and older belonging to a general practice in the Netherlands; 241 persons completed the questionnaire (response rate 47.5%). For determining multimorbidity, nine chronic diseases were examined by self-report...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Michael McLaughlin
Prior research suggests that income and child maltreatment are related, but questions remain about the specific types of economic factors that affect the risk of maltreatment. The need to understand the role of economics in child welfare is critical, given the significant public health costs of child maltreatment. One factor that has been overlooked is regressive taxation. This study addresses this need by examining whether state-level changes in cigarette tax rates predict changes in state-level child maltreatment rates...
March 5, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Iris Veen, D Killian, L Vlaminck, J C M Vernooij, W Back
BACKGROUND: Debate surrounds the use of high rein tension for obtaining different head and neck positions in the training of sport horses on account of possible welfare issues. OBJECTIVES: To compare auxiliary rein tension in two methods for obtaining a standardized head and neck position on a hard and a soft surface; Draw Reins and Concord Leader. STUDY DESIGN: Intervention study. METHODS: Left and right rein tensions were measured in 11 base-level trained client-owned sport horses (mean age ± standard deviation: 10 ± 3...
March 8, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
S Goedeke, K Daniels
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore factors affecting donors' choice of recipients for their surplus embryos in the New Zealand context of conditional, known donations. BACKGROUND: Internationally, embryo donation has a low uptake in spite of large numbers of cryopreserved embryos. Possible reasons include a lack of knowledge about and concern for the future welfare of the resultant offspring. In New Zealand, donors and recipients meet prior to donation and legislation supports disclosure and access to genetic knowledge...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
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