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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335444/hiv-education-and-welfare-services-in-primary-care-an-empirical-model-of-integration-in-brazil-s-unified-health-system
#1
Rahbel Rahman, Rogério M Pinto, Melanie M Wall
Integration of health education and welfare services in primary care systems is a key strategy to solve the multiple determinants of chronic diseases, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, there is a scarcity of conceptual models from which to build integration strategies. We provide a model based on cross-sectional data from 168 Community Health Agents, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians in two municipalities in Brazil's Unified Health System (UHS)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335392/conscientious-objection-to-animal-experimentation-in-italian-universities
#2
Ilaria Baldelli, Alma Massaro, Susanna Penco, Anna Maria Bassi, Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies...
March 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334927/consumer-segmentation-and-time-interval-between-types-of-hospital-admission-a-clinical-linkage-database-study
#3
Umesh T Kadam, Claire A Lawson, Dawn K Moody, Lucy Teece, John Uttley, John Harvey, Z Iqbal, P W Jones
Background: Healthcare policies target unplanned hospital admissions and 30-day re-admission as key measures of efficiency, but do not focus on factors that influence trajectories of different types of admissions in the same patient over time. Objectives: To investigate the influence of consumer segmentation and patient factors on the time intervals between different types of hospital admission. Research design, subjects and measures: A cohort design was applied to an anonymised linkage database for adults aged 40 years and over (N = 58 857)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334811/causes-and-predictors-of-neonatal-post-neonatal-and-maternal-deaths-in-india-analysis-of-a-nationwide-district-level-household-survey-4-dlhs-4-2012-13
#4
Jaya P Tripathy, Sanskruti Mishra
Introduction: There is lack of reliable mortality estimates in India about maternal, neonatal and infant deaths. As we move towards achieving the targets under Sustainable Development Goals, information on cause of death is essential to prioritize our resources and planning. Therefore, the present study describes the causes and characteristics of neonatal, post-neonatal and maternal deaths in India. Methods: The study analysed nationwide District-Level Household Survey-4 conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in 2014...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334473/history-of-being-in-government-care-associated-with-younger-age-at-injection-initiation-among-a-cohort-of-street-involved-youth
#5
Brittany Barker, Thomas Kerr, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Kora DeBeck
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Compared to the general population of youth, health-related disparities experienced by youth exposed to the child welfare system are well documented. Amongst these vulnerabilities are elevated rates of substance use, including injection drug use; however, less is known about when these youth transition to this high-risk behaviour. We sought to assess whether having a history of government care is associated with initiating injection drug use before age 18. DESIGN AND METHODS: Between September 2005 and May 2014, data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333327/disclosure-of-donor-conception-age-of-disclosure-and-the-well-being-of-donor-offspring
#6
Guido Pennings
The matter of disclosure of donor conception to donor offspring is a very contentious issue. A frequently mentioned argument is that disclosure is in the best interest of the child. The objectives of this paper are 2-fold: first, to find out whether there are any measureable, stable differences in the psychological well-being of donor offspring who are informed of the mode of their conception compared to those who are not, and second, to find out what is being done with the evidence. We found that there exists no empirical evidence of differences in psychological well-being of donor offspring in disclosing or nondisclosing families...
March 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333272/family-building-using-embryo-adoption-relationships-and-contact-arrangements-between-provider-and-recipient-families-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
Lucy Frith, Eric Blyth, Steve Lui
STUDY QUESTION: What contact arrangements are established between providers and recipients of embryos using Snowflakes® Embryo Adoption Program? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contact arrangements varied considerably and were generally positively described, although some challenges were acknowledged. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Reproductive technologies create new and diverse family forms, and the ways in which families created by embryo adoption are negotiated in practice have not been extensively investigated...
March 8, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333110/stakeholder-perceptions-of-welfare-issues-and-indicators-for-extensively-managed-sheep-in-australia
#8
Amanda K Doughty, Grahame J Coleman, Geoff N Hinch, Rebecca E Doyle
An online survey was designed to form the basis of a framework for the welfare assessment of extensively managed sheep in Australia. The survey focused on welfare compromise and useful welfare indicators. A total of 952 people completed the survey in its entirety, representing four stakeholder groups: Public (53.6%), Producer (27.4%), Scientist (9.9%), and Service provider (9.1%). Animal welfare was considered to be important by all participating groups in this survey (average score of 3.78/4). Respondents felt the welfare of grazing sheep was generally adequate but improvement was desired (2...
March 23, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332947/mothers-with-substance-and-alcohol-abuse-support-through-pregnancy-and-early-infancy
#9
Monica Nordenfors, Ingrid Höjer
This article is about the support given to pregnant women and mothers, at an antenatal and child welfare team in Gothenburg (Sweden), specialised on working with mothers who abuse alcohol and/or other substances. The study consists of interviews with 17 women. The aim of the article is to account for how the women experienced the support they got and how they perceived the impact. The results show the importance for the staff of finding the balance between control and support and of creating a non-judgmental attitude in order to build trusting relationships with the women...
March 23, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332905/teaching-tip-teaching-animal-welfare-through-competitive-judging-contests
#10
Chelsey B Shivley, Franklyn B Garry, Temple Grandin
Animal welfare is an important aspect of veterinary responsibility, yet the current curriculum at many US veterinary schools provides little training in this field. The Animal Welfare Judging and Assessment Contest provides an opportunity for students to learn about general principles of animal welfare, challenging them to apply critical reasoning skills in a competitive environment. Here we provide an overview of the contest and an example of how Colorado State University educates and prepares its students...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332206/contract-care-in-dentistry-sense-making-of-the-concept-and-in-practice-when-multiple-institutional-logics-are-at-play
#11
Ylva Ulfsdotter Eriksson, Karin Berg, Ulla Wide Boman, Magnus Hakeberg
In 2009 contract dental care was introduced into Sweden's Public Dental Service under a programme called Dental Care for Health (DCH). Previous research has revealed a possible dilemma whereby dental care professionals had the role of insurance agent foisted upon them, as they were assigned the task of 'selling contracts'. Using qualitative interviews, this study explores how these professionals make sense of contract dental care today. Drawing on the concepts of occupational and organisational professionalism, in combination with the institutional logics perspective, we discern that dental care professionals are entangled in multiple rationalities when reasoning about and dealing with DCH...
March 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332069/dairy-cows-change-locomotion-score-and-sensitivity-to-pain-with-trimming-and-infectious-or-non-infectious-lesions
#12
L T Passos, E A da Cruz, V Fischer, G C da Porciuncula, D Werncke, A G C Dalto, M T Stumpf, E F Vizzotto, I D B da Silveira
Lameness can negatively affect production, but there is still controversy about the perception of pain in dairy cows. This study aimed to verify the effects of hoof affections in dairy cows on locomotion score, physiological attributes, pressure nociceptive threshold, and thermographic variables, as well as assess improvement on these variables after corrective trimming and treatment. Thirty-four lame lactating cows were gait-scored, and all cows with locomotion score ≥4 were retained for this study 1 day before trimming...
March 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331111/longitudinal-monitoring-of-tree-airborne-pollen-in-japan
#13
Reiko Kishikawa, Eiko Kotoh, Chie Oshikawa, Nobuo Soh, Terufumi Shimoda, Akemi Saito, Norio Sahashi, Tadao Enomoto, Atsushi Usami, Hidetoyo Teranishi, Yohko Fujisaki, Toshitaka Yokoyama, Kohji Murayama, Tohru Imai, Yuma Fukutomi, Masami Taniguchi, Tomoaki Iwanaga
RATIONAL: In Japan patients with Japanese Cedar (JC) pollinosis have increased nation widely since the latter of 1970's. The Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japanese Governments has begun to take preventive measures against JC pollinosis and airborne pollen monitoring has begun to investigate as a causative agent since 1986. We have estimated the longitudinal investigation result for successful prevention and treatment against pollinosis in Japan. METHOD: We have monitored airborne pollen all year around since July 1986 by gravitational pollen sampler, Durham's sampler, at more than 20 locations in the Japanese Islands...
2017: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328893/improving-quality-of-science-through-better-animal-welfare-the-nc3rs-strategy
#14
Mark J Prescott, Katie Lidster
Good animal welfare is linked to the quality of research data derived from laboratory animals, their validity as models of human disease, the number of animals required to reach statistical significance and the reproducibility of in vivo studies. Identifying new ways of understanding and improving animal welfare, and promoting these in the scientific community, is therefore a key part of the work of the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). Our strategy for animal welfare includes funding research to generate an evidence base to support refinements, office-led data sharing to challenge existing practices, events and networks to raise awareness of the evidence base, and the creation of online and other resources to support practical implementation of refinement opportunities...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328884/aggression-in-group-housed-laboratory-mice-why-can-t-we-solve-the-problem
#15
Elin M Weber, Jamie Ahloy Dallaire, Brianna N Gaskill, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning, Joseph P Garner
Group housing is highly important for social animals. However, it can also give rise to aggression, one of the most serious welfare concerns in laboratory mouse husbandry. Severe fighting can lead to pain, injury and even death. In addition, working with animals that are severely socially stressed, wounded or singly-housed as a result of aggression may compromise scientific validity. Some general recommendations on how to minimize aggression exist, but the problem persists. Thus far, studies attempting to find solutions have mainly focused on social dominance and territorial behavior, but many other aspects of routine housing and husbandry that might influence aggressive behavior have been overlooked...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328870/the-effect-of-early-life-experience-environment-and-genetic-factors-on-spontaneous-home-cage-aggression-related-wounding-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Brianna N Gaskill, Aurora M Stottler, Joseph P Garner, Christina W Winnicker, Guy B Mulder, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
Aggression is a major welfare issue in mice, particularly when mice unfamiliar to each other are first placed in cages, as happens on receipt from a vendor, and following cage cleaning. Injuries from aggression are the second leading cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice, following ulcerative dermatitis. Commonly employed strategies for reducing aggression-related injury are largely anecdotal, and may even be counterproductive. Here we report a series of experiments testing potential explanations and interventions for post-shipping aggression-related injuries in C57BL/6 mice...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328477/health-welfare-and-the-state-the-dangers-of-forgetting-history
#17
Simon Szreter, Ann Louise Kinmonth, Natasha M Kriznik, Michael P Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 3, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327255/the-interplay-of-ethics-animal-welfare-and-iacuc-oversight-on-the-reproducibility-of-animal-studies
#18
Stacy L Pritt And Robert E Hammer
Reproducibility in animal studies has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experimentswithin the same or among different laboratories. Over the past few years, much has been written and said about the lack of reproducibility of animal studies. Reasons that are commonly cited for this lack of reproducibility include inappropriate study design,errors in conducting the research, and potential fraud. In the quest to understand the basis for this lack of reproducibility, scientists have not fully considered the potential ramifications on ethical constructs for animal research, animal welfare considerations in animal research programs, the regulatory environment, and oversight by IACUCs...
March 21, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327208/practical-report-on-long-term-disaster-mental-health-services-following-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-psychological-and-social-background-of-evacuees-in-sendai-city-in-the-mid-to-long-term-post-disaster-period
#19
Masatsugu Orui, Shuichiro Harada, Mizuho Hayashi
OBJECTIVE: The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused unprecedented damage. To address evacuees' psychosocial issues, our disaster mental health team provided psychosocial support in the form of careful listening and providing information for reconstruction. METHODS: To summarize evacuees' psychosocial issues, we reviewed records of our daily activities and analyzed factors related to continuation or termination of support. Terminated support was defined as the resolution or improvement of psychological issues relative to the time of initial support...
March 22, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327184/catestatin-vasostatin-cortisol-and-pain-assessments-in-dogs-suffering-from-traumatic-bone-fractures
#20
Thanikul Srithunyarat, Ragnvi Hagman, Odd V Höglund, Mats Stridsberg, Ulf Olsson, Jeanette Hanson, Chalermkwan Nonthakotr, Anne-Sofie Lagerstedt, Ann Pettersson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic bone fractures cause moderate to severe pain, which needs to be minimized for optimal recovery and animal welfare, illustrating the need for reliable objective pain biomarkers for use in a clinical setting. The objectives of this study were to investigate catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS) concentrations as two new potential biomarkers, and cortisol concentrations, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF), and visual analog scale (VAS) in dogs suffering from traumatic bone fractures before and after morphine administration in comparison with healthy dogs...
March 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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