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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938792/gastrointestinal-microbial-population-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-affected-by-hemorrhagic-enteritis-virus
#1
Sara D'Andreano, Armand Sànchez Bonastre, Olga Francino, Anna Cuscó Martí, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Davide Giovanardi, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#2
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938775/effects-of-different-types-of-dark-brooders-on-injurious-pecking-damage-and-production-related-traits-at-rear-and-lay-in-layers
#3
A B Riber, D A Guzman
Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective was to investigate effects of rearing layer chicks with different management strategies and size allowances of dark brooders on IP and production-related traits during rear and lay. Groups of 100 to 103 Isa Warren chicks were reared either with one of 4 brooder types (n = 4 per treatment) or with whole-house heating (control: n = 6)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938772/susceptibility-to-keel-bone-fractures-in-laying-hens-and-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#4
Laura Candelotto, Ariane Stratmann, Sabine G Gebhardt-Henrich, Christina Rufener, Teun van de Braak, Michael J Toscano
Keel bone fractures are a well-known welfare problem in modern commercial laying hen systems. The present study sought to identify genetic variation in relation to keel bone fracture susceptibility of 4 distinct crossbred and one pure line, and by extension, possible breeding traits. Susceptibility to fractures were assessed using an ex vivo impact testing protocol in combination with a study design that minimized environmental variation to focus on genetic differences. The 5 crossbred/pure lines differed in their susceptibility to keel bone fractures with the greatest likelihood of fracture in one of the 3 commercial lines and the lowest susceptibility to fractures in one of the experimental lines...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938106/assessment-of-a-specifically-developed-bullet-casing-gun-for-the-stunning-of-water-buffaloes
#5
Carmen Meichtry, Urs Glauser, Matthieu Glardon, Steffen G Ross, Isabel Lechner, Beat P Kneubuehl, Dominic Gascho, Claudia Spadavecchia, Alois von Rotz, Ana Stojiljkovic, Michael H Stoffel
Water buffaloes and cattle differ considerably with respect to the anatomy of the head. As a result, captive bolt stunners often fail to reliably produce adequate loss of consciousness in water buffaloes and, thus, do not fulfill animal welfare requirements. The goal of the present study was to assess and validate a new stunning device for water buffaloes meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements. The newly designed bullet casing gun uses .357Mag/10.2g hollow point bullets and has additional safety features...
September 14, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937659/assessing-the-allocation-of-special-elderly-nursing-homes-in-tokyo-japan
#6
Ninglong You, Zhenjiang Shen, Tatsuya Nishino
Social welfare and public health departments require reliable assessments to enhance the rationality of phased construction of special elderly nursing homes (SENHs). This paper aims to assess the allocation of SENHs based on a beds-needed index for SENHs (BNIS). This may help departments determine the priority for approving locations of SENHs more accurately with a limited budget. Traditional assessments in Tokyo use the sphere of welfare, ward, and sphere of daily life as spatial units for estimating beds-to-elderly population ratios...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936597/terminal-weaning-or-immediate-extubation-for-withdrawing-mechanical-ventilation-in-critically-ill-patients-the-arreve-observational-study
#7
René Robert, Amélie Le Gouge, Nancy Kentish-Barnes, Alice Cottereau, Bruno Giraudeau, Mélanie Adda, Djillali Annane, Juliette Audibert, François Barbier, Patrick Bardou, Simon Bourcier, Jeremy Bourenne, Alexandre Boyer, François Brenas, Vincent Das, Arnaud Desachy, Jérôme Devaquet, Marc Feissel, Frédérique Ganster, Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Guillaume Grillet, Olivier Guisset, Rebecca Hamidfar-Roy, Anne-Claire Hyacinthe, Sebastien Jochmans, Mercé Jourdain, Alexandre Lautrette, Nicolas Lerolle, Olivier Lesieur, Fabien Lion, Philippe Mateu, Bruno Megarbane, Sybille Merceron, Emmanuelle Mercier, Jonathan Messika, Paul Morin-Longuet, Bénédicte Philippon-Jouve, Jean-Pierre Quenot, Anne Renault, Xavier Repesse, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, Ségolène Robin, Antoine Roquilly, Amélie Seguin, Didier Thevenin, Patrice Tirot, Isabelle Vinatier, Elie Azoulay, Jean Reignier
PURPOSE: The relative merits of immediate extubation versus terminal weaning for mechanical ventilation withdrawal are controversial, particularly regarding the experience of patients and relatives. METHODS: This prospective observational multicentre study (ARREVE) was done in 43 French ICUs to compare terminal weaning and immediate extubation, as chosen by the ICU team. Terminal weaning was a gradual decrease in the amount of ventilatory assistance and immediate extubation was extubation without any previous decrease in ventilatory assistance...
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936358/characteristics-of-occupational-musculoskeletal-disorders-of-five-sectors-in-service-industry-between-2004-and-2013
#8
Hyun-Woo Choi, Young-Ki Kim, Dong-Mug Kang, Jong-Eun Kim, Bo-Young Jang
BACKGROUND: 'Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs)' have been mostly reported in the manufacturing industry but recently the occurrence of industrial injuries has been constantly increasing in the service industry. This research is going to analyze the data about workers' compensation for WRMSDs in five different service sectors and identify characteristics of occupations with the highest approved occupations. METHODS: According to the data released from the Korea Worker's Compensation & Welfare Service, the overview of 12,730 cases of workers' compensation for WRMSDs in five service sectors from 2004 to 2013 is going to be analyzed and the source data is going to be classified by the Korean Standard Classification of Occupations to select the top five occupations that have the highest number of approval...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936140/elderly-women-living-alone-in-spain-the-importance-of-having-children
#9
David Reher, Miguel Requena
Our goal in this paper is to analyse the extent to which completed fertility, and in particular childlessness, is a valid predictor of living alone at advanced ages, an increasingly important residential option in advanced societies with crucial implications for social policy design and the organization of welfare services. Based on micro-data from the 2011 Spanish population census, logistic regression techniques are used to assess the impact of fertility on living alone among elderly women net the effect of age, marital status, educational attainment, and other standard population controls...
September 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936133/migrants-decision-process-shaping-work-destination-choice-the-case-of-long-term-care-work-in-the-united-kingdom-and-norway
#10
Karen Christensen, Shereen Hussein, Mohamed Ismail
Escalating demands for formal long-term care (LTC) result in the reliance on migrant workers in many developed countries. Within Europe, this is currently framed by progressive European immigration policies favouring inter-European mobility. Using the UK and Norway as case studies, this article has two main aims: (1) to document changes in the contribution of European Union (EU) migrants to the LTC sectors in Western Europe, and (2) to gain further understanding of migrants' decision-processes relating to destination and work choices...
September 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936018/effects-of-a-video-feedback-parent-training-program-during-child-welfare-visitation
#11
Rhonda N T Nese, Cynthia M Anderson, Traci Ruppert, Philip A Fisher
Behavioral parent training programs have documented efficacy for improving behaviors among parents and their children and are frequently used by child welfare agencies to prevent removal of a child from the parental home or to facilitate reunification. Although an ideal time for parent training might be during supervised visits where parents may practice skills with their children under the guidance and support of a therapist or caseworker, this is not typically the case. Most often, parents within the child welfare system receive parent training in small groups without their children present, and to date, few studies have examined effects of behavioral parent training interventions during supervised visitation...
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935925/interference-of-stress-with-the-somatotropic-axis-in-pigs-lights-on-new-biomarkers
#12
Elisa Wirthgen, Martin Kunze, Sébastien Goumon, Christina Walz, Christine Höflich, Marion Spitschak, Julia Brenmoehl, Ellen Kanitz, Margret Tuchscherer, Winfried Otten, Ulrike Gimsa, Peter Schön, Christian Manteuffel, Armin Tuchscherer, Ralf Pfuhl, Cornelia C Metges, Bernd Stabenow, Sandra Erdmann, Kathleen Schluricke, Luigi Faucitano, Andreas Hoeflich
The acceptance of animal products is increasingly associated with standardized animal welfare, which relates to appropriate animal husbandry from birth to slaughter. In particular, shipment to the slaughterhouse is considered as a critical process exposing the animals to a number of, in part severe, stressors. New biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of animal welfare. The IGF-system has been assessed in a commercial pig transport in conjunction with established markers of stress response. Furthermore, the effect of repeated restraint as an experimental model for repeated acute stress was investigated...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935212/the-value-of-anticoccidials-for-sustainable-global-poultry-production
#13
REVIEW
Stefanie Kadykalo, Tara Roberts, Michelle Thompson, Jeff Wilson, Marcelo Lang, Olivier Espeisse
Coccidiosis is a self-limiting disease that is universally present in poultry operations, causing extensive damage to the intestinal lining of the bird. Global economic losses from coccidiosis are estimated to be $3 billion per year. In-feed anticoccidial use has been the predominant form of coccidiosis control. However, due to widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of anticoccidials and potential impact on human, animal, and environmental health. To investigate the alternatives, risks, and benefits to anticoccidial use, a comprehensive review of recent literature was conducted...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935005/sequelae-of-occult-aggression-disqualifying-young-socially-housed-female-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-from-participation-in-dermal-toxicology-studies
#14
Jeffrey D Wyatt, Diane M Moorman-White, Donnalee Ventura, Brett W Schneider, Thomas W Bittner
International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934330/an-analysis-of-beak-shape-variation-in-two-ages-of-domestic-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-using-landmark-based-geometric-morphometrics
#15
Hillary A Dalton, Benjamin J Wood, Tina M Widowski, Michele T Guerin, Stephanie Torrey
The objective of this study was to assess beak shape variation in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and determine the effects of age, sex, and beak size on beak shape variation using geometric morphometrics. Dorsal and right lateral images were taken of 2442 turkeys at 6 and 18.5 weeks of age. Landmarks were digitized in tpsDig in three analyses of the dorsal upper mandible, lateral upper mandible, and lateral lower mandible shape of each turkey at both ages. The coordinate data were then subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate regression, and a canonical variates analysis (CVA) with a Procrustes ANOVA in MorphoJ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934262/effects-of-eimeria-tenella-infection-on-chicken-caecal-microbiome-diversity-exploring-variation-associated-with-severity-of-pathology
#16
Sarah E Macdonald, Matthew J Nolan, Kimberley Harman, Kay Boulton, David A Hume, Fiona M Tomley, Richard A Stabler, Damer P Blake
Eimeria species cause the intestinal disease coccidiosis, most notably in poultry. While the direct impact of coccidiosis on animal health and welfare is clear, its influence on the enteric microbiota and by-stander effects on chicken health and production remains largely unknown, with the possible exception of Clostridium perfringens (necrotic enteritis). This study evaluated the composition and structure of the caecal microbiome in the presence or absence of a defined Eimeria tenella challenge infection in Cobb500 broiler chickens using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934020/research-methods-in-child-welfare-by-baker-a-j-l-charvat-b-j
#17
Christopher J Wretman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933932/enrollment-in-california-s-medicaid-program-after-the-affordable-care-act-expansion
#18
Jing Wang, Amal N Trivedi
OBJECTIVES: To determine enrollment rates and predictors of enrollment for newly eligible low-income adults in California following the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion. METHODS: We used data from the 2014 to 2015 California Health Interview Survey to examine post-ACA Medicaid enrollment rates and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association of demographic factors, income, and health with enrollment. RESULTS: We found a 78...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933586/parents-in-adult-psychiatric-care-and-their-children-a-call-for-more-interagency-collaboration-with-social-services-and-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#19
Maria Afzelius, Margareta Östman, Maria Råstam, Gisela Priebe
BACKGROUND: A parental mental illness affects all family members and should warrant a need for support. AIM: To investigate the extent to which psychiatric patients with underage children are the recipients of child-focused interventions and involved in interagency collaboration. METHODS: Data were retrieved from a psychiatric services medical record database consisting of data regarding 29,972 individuals in southern Sweden and indicating the patients' main diagnoses, comorbidity, children below the age of 18, and child-focused interventions...
September 21, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933508/-skills-lab-training-in-veterinary-medicine-effective-preparation-for-clinical-work-at-the-small-animal-clinic-of-the-university-for-veterinary-medicine-hannover-foundation-effektive-vorbereitung-auf-die-klinische-t%C3%A3-tigkeit-am-beispiel-der-kleintierklinik
#20
Simon Engelskirchen, Jan Ehlers, Ansgar T Kirk, Andrea Tipold, Marc Dilly
OBJECTIVE: During five and a half years of studying veterinary medicine, students should in addition to theoretical knowledge acquire sufficient practical skills. Considering animal welfare and ethical aspects, opportunities for hands-on learning on living animals are limited because of the high annual number of students. The first German veterinary clinical-skills lab, established in 2013 at the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation (TiHo), offers opportunities for all students to learn, train and repeat clinical skills on simulators and models as frequently as they would like, until they feel sufficiently confident to transfer these skills to living animals...
September 20, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
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