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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933554/use-of-anticoagulant-rodenticides-by-pest-management-professionals-in-massachusetts-usa
#1
Kristin Memmott, Maureen Murray, Allen Rutberg
Secondary exposure to chemical rodenticides, specifically second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), poses a threat to non-target wildlife including birds of prey. Federal regulations in the United States currently limit homeowner access to SGARs as a way of minimizing this threat. With legal access to SGARs, pest management professionals (PMPs) represent a potential linkage to non-target exposure. There is limited research focused on rodent control practices, chemical rodenticide preferences, level of concern and awareness, or opinions on rodenticide regulations as they relate to PMPs...
December 8, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933541/social-interactions-and-indirect-genetic-effects-on-complex-juvenile-and-adult-traits
#2
David G Ashbrook, Reinmar Hager
Most animal species are social in one form or another, yet many studies in rodent model systems use either individually housed animals or ignore potential confounds caused by group housing. While such social interaction effects on developmental and behavioral traits are well established, the genetic basis of social interactions has not been researched in as much detail. Specifically, the effects of genetic variation in social partners on the phenotype of a focal individual have mostly been studied at the phenotypic level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#3
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933370/doxorubicin-induced-chronic-dilated-cardiomyopathy-the-apoptosis-hypothesis-revisited
#4
REVIEW
Cynthia Kankeu, Kylie Clarke, Egle Passante, Heinrich J Huber
The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) has significantly increased survival rates of pediatric and adult cancer patients. However, 10% of pediatric cancer survivors will 10-20 years later develop severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), whereby the exact molecular mechanisms of disease progression after this long latency time remain puzzling. We here revisit the hypothesis that elevated apoptosis signaling or its increased likelihood after DOX exposure can lead to an impairment of cardiac function and cause a cardiac dilation...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933365/ketamine-decreases-sensitivity-of-male-rats-to-misleading-negative-feedback-in-a-probabilistic-reversal-learning-task
#5
Michal Rychlik, Eva Bollen, Rafal Rygula
RATIONALE: Depression is characterized by an excessive attribution of value to negative feedback. This imbalance in feedback sensitivity can be measured using the probabilistic reversal-learning (PRL) task. This task was initially designed for clinical research, but introduction of its rodent version provides a new and much needed translational paradigm to evaluate potential novel antidepressants. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of a compound showing clear antidepressant properties-ketamine (KET)-on the sensitivity of rats to positive and negative feedback in the PRL paradigm...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933336/shp-1-activation-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-a-rodent-model-of-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes
#6
Weier Qi, Qian Li, Chong Wee Liew, Christian Rask-Madsen, Samuel M Lockhart, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Yu Xia, Xuanchun Wang, Mogher Khamaisi, Kevin Croce, George L King
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Accelerated migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) enhances arterial restenosis after angioplasty in insulin resistance and diabetes. Elevation of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) induces apoptosis in the microvasculature. However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been clarified in insulin resistance and diabetes. METHODS: We used a femoral artery wire injury mouse model, rodent models with insulin resistance and diabetes, and patients with type 2 diabetes...
December 9, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933288/health-complaints-associated-with-poor-rental-housing-conditions-in-arkansas-the-only-state-without-a-landlord-s-implied-warranty-of-habitability
#7
Ashley E Bachelder, M Kate Stewart, Holly C Felix, Neil Sealy
Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord's implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants' perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933176/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia-and-hyperglucagonemia-due-to-a-glucagon-receptor-splice-mutation
#8
Etienne Larger, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Lars H Hansen, Richard W Gelling, Jacqueline Capeau, Carolyn F Deacon, Ole D Madsen, Fumiatsu Yakushiji, Pierre De Meyts, Jens J Holst, Erica Nishimura
: Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3' mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932996/genetic-regulation-of-endothelial-vasomotor-function
#9
REVIEW
Seung Kyum Kim, Michael P Massett
The endothelium plays an important role in the regulation of vasomotor tone and the maintenance of vascular integrity. Endothelial dysfunction, i.e., impaired endothelial dependent dilation, is a fundamental component of the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Although endothelial dysfunction is associated with a number of cardiovascular disease risk factors, those risk factors are not the only determinants of endothelial dysfunction. Despite knowing many molecules involved in endothelial signaling pathways, the genetic contribution to endothelial function has yet to be fully elucidated...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932994/comparative-mrna-and-microrna-profiling-during-acute-myocardial-infarction-induced-by-coronary-occlusion-and-ablation-radio-frequency-currents
#10
Eduardo T Santana, Regiane Dos Santos Feliciano, Andrey J Serra, Eduardo Brigidio, Ednei L Antonio, Paulo J F Tucci, Lubov Nathanson, Mariana Morris, José A Silva
The ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery is the most commonly used experimental model to induce myocardial infarction (MI) in rodents. A high mortality in the acute phase and the heterogeneity of the size of the MI obtained are drawbacks recognized in this model. In an attempt to solve the problem, our group recently developed a new MI experimental model which is based on application of myocardial ablation radio-frequency currents (AB-RF) that yielded MI with homogeneous sizes and significantly reduce acute mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932989/hypoxic-living-and-exercise-training-alter-adipose-tissue-leptin-leptin-receptor-in-rats
#11
Yingli Lu, Lianshi Feng, Minhao Xie, Li Zhang, Jianfang Xu, Zihong He, Tongjian You
Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932977/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-cognitive-defects-in-app-ps1-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-enhancing-neuronal-connectivity-and-metabolic-activity
#12
Xueyuan Li, Hua Zhu, Xicai Sun, Fuxing Zuo, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Xinjie Bao, Renzhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is featured by Aβ pathology, neural degeneration and cognitive decline. To date, there is no cure for this disease. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation provides new promise for treating AD. Many studies report that intra-hippocampal transplantation of murine NSCs improved cognition in rodents with AD by alleviating neurodegeneration via neuronal complement or replacement. However, few reports examined the potential of human NSC transplantation for AD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932683/survival-of-bacteria-of-laboratory-animal-origin-on-cage-bedding-and-inactivation-by-hydrogen-peroxide-vapour
#13
Laurentiu Benga, W Peter M Benten, Eva Engelhardt, Christina Gougoula, Roland Schulze-Röbbecke, Martin Sager
This study aims to determine the ability of laboratory animal bacteria to resist desiccation and inactivation by hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) on paper bedding pieces. Bedding pieces were saturated with bacterial suspensions in water or 2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water, and held in a mouse facility. Viable counts showed variable survival rates over time for the bacterial species used ([Pasteurella] pneumotropica, Muribacter muris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter redioresistens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Enterococcus faecalis, β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932582/translational-safety-genetics-leveraging-genetic-variation-for-enhanced-safety-assessment
#14
Priyasma Bhoumik, Alberto Del Rio-Espinola, Florian Hahne, Jonathan Moggs, Olivier Grenet
The emerging field of translational safety genetics is providing new opportunities to enhance drug discovery and development. Genetic variation in therapeutic drug targets, off-target interactors and relevant drug metabolism/disposition pathways can contribute to diverse drug pharmacologic and toxicologic responses between different animal species, strains and geographic origins. Recent advances in the sequencing of rodent, canine, nonhuman primate, and minipig genomes have dramatically improved the ability to select the most appropriate animal species for preclinical drug toxicity studies based on genotypic characterization of drug targets/pathways and drug metabolism and/or disposition, thus avoiding inconclusive or misleading animal studies, consistent with the principles of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement)...
December 8, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932249/toxicologic-effects-of-28-day-dietary-exposure-to-the-flame-retardant-1-2-dibromo-4-1-2-dibromoethyl-cyclohexane-tbech-in-fischer-rats
#15
Ivan H A Curran, Virginia Liston, Andrée Nunnikhoven, Don Caldwell, Matthew J S Scuby, Peter Pantazopoulos, Dorothea F K Rawn, Laurie Coady, Cheryl Armstrong, David E Lefebvre, Genevieve S Bondy
The brominated flame retardant TBECH is used as an additive to delay ignition and inhibit fires in construction materials and consumer goods. Trends in human exposure are not clear, although humans may be exposed to TBECH via indoor dust and air. In birds and fish there is some evidence of disruption in endocrine and reproductive parameters due to TBECH. In vitro studies indicate that TBECH is an androgen receptor agonist. In this study rats were exposed to 0, 10, 50, 250, 1250 or 5000mg/kg technical TBECH for 28days in diet, corresponding to 0, 0...
December 5, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932058/tnap-stimulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-trans-differentiation-into-chondrocytes-through-calcium-deposition-and-bmp-2-activation-possible-implication-in-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability
#16
Maya Fakhry, Monika Roszkowska, Anne Briolay, Carole Bougault, Alain Guignandon, Juan Ignacio Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel Diaz-Hernandez, Slawomir Pikula, René Buchet, Eva Hamade, Bassam Badran, Laurence Bessueille, David Magne
Atherosclerotic plaque calcification varies from early, diffuse microcalcifications to a bone-like tissue formed by endochondral ossification. Recently, a paradigm has emerged suggesting that if the bone metaplasia stabilizes the plaques, microcalcifications are harmful. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an ectoenzyme necessary for mineralization by its ability to hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), is stimulated by inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Our objective was to determine the role of TNAP in trans-differentiation of VSMCs and calcification...
December 5, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931819/results-of-rat-pig-a-pigret-assay-with-a-single-dose-regimen-of-1-3-propane-sultone-and-2-acetyl-aminofluorene
#17
Miyuki Shigano, Nana Ishii, Rie Takashima, Hideki Harada, Hironao Takasawa, Shuichi Hamada
The Pig-a assay is a useful in vivo mutation detecting test and is easier to perform than the in vivo transgenic mutation assay. This assay is now recognized to be able to detect a number of mutagenic chemicals administered to rats in sub-acute or sub-chronic dose studies. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of peripheral blood Pig-a assays with total red blood cells (RBC Pig-a assay) and with reticulocytes (PIGRET assay) using two genotoxic rodent carcinogens, 1,3-propane sultone (1,3-PS) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931816/red-blood-cell-pig-a-assay-and-pigret-assay-in-rats-with-azathioprine
#18
Ikuma Yoshida, Akemi Matsumoto, Yumi Sakai, Yumiko Harada, Tsuneo Hashizume
A new in vivo gene mutation assay has been developed based on the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, Class A gene (Pig-a in rodents) as an endogenous reporter. Using this Pig-a assay, the in vivo mutagenicity of a single dose of azathioprine (Aza) was investigated in red blood cells (RBC Pig-a assay) and reticulocytes (PIGRET) of rats. Eight-week old male rats were orally dosed once with Aza at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) at 10 and 40mg/kg as a positive control. Because 4 out of 6 animals at 200mg/kg of Aza died 3days after the dosing, this dose group was excluded for analyses...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931814/pyrene-did-not-induce-gene-mutation-in-red-blood-cell-pig-a-assay-and-pigret-assay-in-rats
#19
Ikuma Yoshida, Akemi Matsumoto, Yumi Sakai, Yumiko Harada, Tsuneo Hashizume
A new in vivo gene mutation assay has been developed based on the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, Class A gene (Pig-a in rodents) as an endogenous reporter. Although a large number of chemicals have been evaluated in the rat Pig-a assay in 28-day repeat dose regimens, there was limited reporting of rat Pig-a assay after a single dose. A collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, was conducted to verify the usefulness of the rat Pig-a assay after a single dose as a short-term genotoxicity test...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931811/the-pigret-assay-a-method-for-measuring-pig-a-gene-mutation-in-reticulocytes-is-reliable-as-a-short-term-in-vivo-genotoxicity-test-summary-of-the-mms-jems-collaborative-study-across-16-laboratories-using-24-chemicals
#20
Takafumi Kimoto, Katsuyoshi Horibata, Daishiro Miura, Satsuki Chikura, Yuki Okada, Akiko Ukai, Satoru Itoh, Shiho Nakayama, Hisakazu Sanada, Naomi Koyama, Shigeharu Muto, Yoshifumi Uno, Mika Yamamoto, Yuta Suzuki, Takayuki Fukuda, Ken Goto, Kunio Wada, Takahiro Kyoya, Miyuki Shigano, Hironao Takasawa, Shuichi Hamada, Hideki Adachi, Yasuaki Uematsu, Eri Tsutsumi, Hisako Hori, Ryuta Kikuzuki, Yosuke Ogiwara, Ikuma Yoshida, Akihisa Maeda, Kazunori Narumi, Yohei Fujiishi, Takeshi Morita, Masami Yamada, Masamitsu Honma
The in vivo mutation assay using the X-linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (Pig-a in rodents, PIG-A in humans) is a promising tool for evaluating the mutagenicity of chemicals. Approaches for measuring Pig-a mutant cells have focused on peripheral red blood cells (RBCs) and reticulocytes (RETs) from rodents. The recently developed PIGRET assay is capable of screening >1×10(6) RETs for Pig-a mutants by concentrating RETs in whole blood prior to flow cytometric analysis. Additionally, due to the characteristics of erythropoiesis, the PIGRET assay can potentially detect increases in Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) sooner after exposure compared with a Pig-a assay targeting total RBCs (RBC Pig-a assay)...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
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