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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110443/aerobic-endurance-training-does-not-protect-bone-against-poorly-controlled-type-1-diabetes-in-young-adult-rats
#1
Tom J Hazell, T Dylan Olver, Hana Kowalchuk, Matthew W McDonald, Adwitia Dey, Kenneth N Grisé, Earl G Noble, C W James Melling, Paula Lavery, Hope A Weiler
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) decreases trabecular bone volume and bone strength in rodents. The current study investigated the potential protective effects of aerobic endurance training (AET) on bone in STZ-induced T1DM young adult rats. Sixty-four 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 16: control non-T1DM sedentary (CS) and exercised (CX), T1DM sedentary (DS) and exercised (DX). Blood glucose was maintained at 9-15 mmol/L using subcutaneously implanted insulin pellets (Linplant, Linshin Canada, Inc...
January 21, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110192/effects-of-osteogenic-protein-1-on-intervertebral-disc-regeneration-a-systematic-review-of-animal-studies
#2
REVIEW
Pei Li, Ruijie Zhang, Yibo Gan, Liyuan Wang, Chen Zhao, Lei Luo, Chengmin Zhang, Qiang Zhou
Osteogenic protein (OP)-1 delivery into discs has achieved some success in disc regeneration in animals, though conflicting outcomes exist. This study aimed to systematically review the animal studies that assessed the effect of OP-1 on disc regeneration. Relevant literature was searched in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) and Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM). Animal species, disc degeneration model, OP-1 delivery method, and follow-up methodology including disc histology, disc matrix alteration, disc height, MRI T2 signal intensity and OP-1 treatment complications were extracted and reviewed...
January 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109985/the-synthetic-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-reduces-status-epilepticus-and-neuronal-cell-death-in-a-rat-model-of-soman-intoxication
#3
Alison L Althaus, Hilary S McCarren, Aymen Alqazzaz, Cecelia Jackson, John H McDonough, Carl D Smith, Ethan Hoffman, Rebecca S Hammond, Albert J Robichaud, James J Doherty
Organophosphorus nerve agents (OPNAs) are irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase that pose a serious threat to public health because of their use as chemical weapons. Exposure to high doses of OPNAs can dramatically potentiate cholinergic synaptic activity and cause status epilepticus (SE). Current standard of care for OPNA exposure involves treatment with cholinergic antagonists, oxime cholinesterase reactivators, and benzodiazepines. However, data from pre-clinical models suggest that OPNA-induced SE rapidly becomes refractory to benzodiazepines...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109911/rho-kinase-inhibitor-prevents-acute-injury-against-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-enhancing-the-expression-and-function-of-gaba-receptors-in-rats
#4
Lin Huang, Qin Li, Ruiting Wen, Zhiying Yu, Na Li, Liping Ma, Wanyu Feng
Studies have shown hydroxyfasudil-mediated inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) has efficacy in rodent models of focal ischemia and in in vitro systems that recapitulate stroke conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of the ROCK inhibitor on stroke are not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons in the effects of hydroxyfasudil on transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) induced acute ischemia-reperfusion injury to explore the mechanisms...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109822/extinction-of-relapsed-fear-does-not-require-the-basolateral-amygdala
#5
Nura W Lingawi, R Fredrick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
It is well established that extinguished fears are restored with the passage of time or a change in physical context. These fear restoration phenomena are believed to mimic the conditions under which relapse occurs in patients that have been treated for anxiety disorders by means of cue-exposure therapy. Here, we used a rodent model to extinguish relapsed fear and assess whether this new extinction prevents further relapse. We found that activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is required to initially extinguish conditioned fear, but this activity was not necessary to subsequently extinguish relapsed fear...
January 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108376/emodin-a-compound-with-putative-antidiabetic-potential-deteriorates-glucose-tolerance-in-rodents
#6
Sameer Abu Eid, Michael Adams, Thomas Scherer, Héctor Torres-Gómez, Martina Theresa Hackl, Mairam Kaplanian, Rainer Riedl, Anton Luger, Clemens Fürnsinn
Emodin is found in remedies from Traditional Chinese Medicine. Since antihyperglycaemic action was observed in rodents, non-scientific sources advertise emodin intake as a natural cure for diabetes. Emodin was admixed to high fat-food of obese mice at two doses (2 and 5g/kg; daily emodin uptake 103 and 229mg/kg). Comparison was made to ad libitum fed and to food restricted control groups, the latter showing the same weight gain as the corresponding emodin-treated groups. Emodin blunted food intake by 6% and 20% for the low and high dose, which was accompanied by proportionate reductions in weight gain...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108330/pleiotropic-responses-to-methionine-restriction
#7
Gene Ables, Jay Johnson
Methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan across different species. The main responses of rodent models to MR are well-documented in adipose tissue (AT) and liver, which have reduced mass and improved insulin sensitivity, respectively. Recently, molecular mechanisms that improve healthspan have been identified in both organs during MR. In fat, MR induced a futile lipid cycle concomitant with beige AT accumulation, producing elevated energy expenditure. In liver, MR upregulated fibroblast growth factor 21 and improved glucose metabolism in aged mice and in response to a high-fat diet...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108216/the-phenomenon-of-atherosclerosis-reversal-and-regression-lessons-from-animal-models
#8
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Victor V Revin, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Studies in non-rodent and murine models showed that atherosclerosis can be reversed. Atherosclerosis progression induced by high-fat or cholesterol-rich diet can be reduced and reversed to plaque regression after switching to a normal diet or through administration of lipid-lowering agents. The similar process should exist in humans after implementation of lipid-lowering therapy and as a result of targeting of small rupture-prone plaques that are major contributors for acute atherosclerotic complications. Lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the activation of reverse cholesterol transport lead to a decline in foam cell content, to the depletion of plaque lipid reservoirs, a decrease in lesional macrophage numbers through the activation of macrophage emigration and, probably, apoptosis, dampening plaque inflammation, and the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in clearance of the necrotic core and plaque healing...
January 17, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108062/chronic-vortioxetine-treatment-in-rodents-modulates-gene-expression-of-neurodevelopmental-and-plasticity-markers
#9
Jessica A Waller, Joseph A Tamm, Aicha Abdourahman, Alan L Pehrson, Yan Li, Manuel Cajina, Connie Sánchez
The multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine displays an antidepressant profile distinct from those of conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and possesses cognitive-enhancing properties in preclinical and clinical studies. Recent studies have begun to investigate molecular mechanisms that may differentiate vortioxetine from other antidepressants. Acute studies in adult rats and chronic studies in a middle-aged mouse model reveal upregulation of several markers that play a central role in synaptic plasticity...
January 17, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107864/evaluating-the-safety-of-forsythin-from-forsythia-suspensa-leaves-by-acute-and-sub-chronic-oral-administration-in-rodent-models
#10
Zhong Han, Xia-Ling Lei, Hong Zhang, Lu Liu, Zhi-Sen Chen, Wei Yang, Zhao-Rong Lun
OBJECTIVE: To access the toxicity of forsythin from Forsythia suspensa leaves and evaluate its safety. METHODS: Acute toxicity was determined by oral administration of a single dose of 18100 mg/kg forsythin in NIH mice. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by oral administration of several doses of forsythin for 30 days at does of 0, 540, 1620, and 6480 mg/kg in SD rats. RESULTS: In the acute toxicity study, mortality was not observed after 14 days...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107590/endocannabinoid-activation-of-cb1-receptors-contributes-to-long-lasting-reversal-of-neuropathic-pain-by-repetitive-spinal-cord-stimulation
#11
L Sun, L Tai, Q Qiu, R Mitchell, S Fleetwood-Walker, E A Joosten, C W Cheung
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to be effective in the management of certain neuropathic pain conditions, however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated repetitive SCS in a rodent neuropathic pain model, revealing long-lasting and incremental attenuation of hyperalgesia and a mechanism of action involving endocannabinoids. METHOD: Animals were implanted with monopolar electrodes at the time of partial sciatic nerve injury...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107177/antinociceptive-effect-of-aristolochia-trilobata-stem-essential-oil-and-6-methyl-5-hepten-2yl-acetate-its-main-compound-in-rodents
#12
Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Rafael Dos Santos Alves, Darlisson de Alexandria Santos, Mairim Russo Serafini, Péricles Barreto Alves, Emmanoel Vilaça Costa, Gokhan Zengin, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Adriana Gibara Guimarães
Aristolochia trilobata L. is an aromatic plant, popularly known as "mil-homens", and its essential oil (EO) is generally used to treat colic, diarrhea and dysentery disorders. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect of A. trilobata stem EO and of its major compound, the (R)-(-)-6-methyl-5-hepten-2-yl acetate (sulcatyl acetate: SA), using acetic acid (0.85%)-induced writhing response and formalin-induced (20 μL of 1%) nociceptive behavior in mice. We also evaluated the EO and SA effect on motor coordination, using the rota-rod apparatus...
January 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107094/dynamic-volume-assessment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-rat-livers-using-a-clinical-3t-mri-and-novel-segmentation
#13
Lorenzo A Orci, Graziano Oldani, Stephanie Lacotte, Florence Slits, Iris Friedli, Wolfgang Wirth, Christian Toso, Jean-Paul Vallée, Lindsey A Crowe
PURPOSE: In vivo liver cancer research commonly uses rodent models. One of the limitations of such models is the lack of accurate and reproducible endpoints for a dynamic assessment of growing tumor nodules. The aim of this study was to validate a noninvasive, true volume segmentation method using two rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models, correlating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histological volume measurement, and with blood levels of α-fetoprotein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 3T clinical MRI to quantify tumor volume with follow-up over time...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106872/creation-of-resin-rodent-skulls-to-reduce-animal-numbers-for-stereotactic-surgery-practice
#14
Megan M Haney, Cameron Hinkel, Aaron Thiessen, Jakob Allen, Ian Deninger, Daniel Ohlhausen, Teresa Lever
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106813/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-lungs-reveals-molecular-clock-genes-expression-changes-after-chronic-exposure-to-ambient-air-particles
#15
Pengcheng Song, Zhigang Li, Xiaoqian Li, Lixin Yang, Lulu Zhang, Nannan Li, Chen Guo, Shuyu Lu, Yongjie Wei
The symptoms of asthma, breathlessness, insomnia, etc. all have relevance to pulmonary rhythmic disturbances. Epidemiology and toxicology studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient air particles can result in pulmonary dysfunction. However, there are no data directly supporting a link between air pollution and circadian rhythm disorder. In the present study, we found that breathing highly polluted air resulted in changes of the molecular clock genes expression in lung by transcriptome profiling analyses in a rodent model...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106531/preclinical-characterization-of-the-novel-hcv-ns3-protease-inhibitor-gs-9256
#16
Huiling Yang, Chris Yang, Yujin Wang, Gerry Rhodes, Margaret Robinson, Guofeng Cheng, Xiaoping Qi, Hongmei Mo, Yang Tian, Rowchanak Pakdaman, X Christopher Sheng, Choung U Kim, William E Delaney
BACKGROUND: GS-9256 is an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease with a macrocyclic structure and novel phosphinic acid pharmacophore. METHODS: Key preclinical properties of GS-9256 including in vitro antiviral activity, cross-resistance, and pharmacokinetic properties were investigated in non-human species. RESULTS: In genotype (GT) 1b Huh-luc cells with a replicon encoding luciferase, GS-9256 had a mean EC50 value of 20.0 nM, with minimal cytotoxicity...
January 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106092/pharmacological-characterisation-of-the-highly-nav1-7-selective-spider-venom-peptide-pn3a
#17
Jennifer R Deuis, Zoltan Dekan, Joshua S Wingerd, Jennifer J Smith, Nehan R Munasinghe, Rebecca F Bhola, Wendy L Imlach, Volker Herzig, David A Armstrong, K Johan Rosengren, Frank Bosmans, Stephen G Waxman, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Pierre Escoubas, Michael S Minett, Macdonald J Christie, Glenn F King, Paul F Alewood, Richard J Lewis, John N Wood, Irina Vetter
Human genetic studies have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. A novel peptide, μ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a, isolated from venom of the tarantula Pamphobeteus nigricolor, potently inhibits NaV1.7 (IC50 0.9 nM) with at least 40-1000-fold selectivity over all other NaV subtypes. Despite on-target activity in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia, spinal slices, and in a mouse model of pain induced by NaV1.7 activation, Pn3a alone displayed no analgesic activity in formalin-, carrageenan- or FCA-induced pain in rodents when administered systemically...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106040/the-effects-of-prior-stress-on-anxiety-like-responding-to-intra-bnst-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-in-male-and-female-rats
#18
S Bradley King, Kim R Lezak, Micaela O'Reilly, Donna J Toufexis, William A Falls, Karen Braas, Victor May, Sayamwong E Hammack
Chronic or repeated exposure to stressful stimuli can result in several maladaptive consequences, including increased anxiety-like behaviors and altered peptide expression in anxiety-related brain structures. Among these structures, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in emotional behaviors as well as regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In male rodents, chronic variate stress (CVS) has been shown to increase BNST pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its cognate PAC1 receptor transcript, and BNST PACAP signaling may mediate the maladaptive changes associated with chronic stress...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105850/next-generation-tau-models-in-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease-research-virus-based-gene-delivery-systems
#19
V Cubinková, B Valachová, V Brezovaková, R Szabó, I Zimová, Z Kostecká, S Jadhav
Alzheimer's disease (AD) the most common form of dementia is characterized by cognitive decline and progressive loss of neurons in the central nervous system. Despite huge scientific progress, there are only few animal models that recapitulate at least majority of the AD pathology and related symptomatology. Therefore, alternative methods to develop animal models for neurodegenerative diseases are constantly explored. Recently, recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are widely used viral vectors in development of novel models for neurodegenerative diseases...
January 19, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105568/koumine-exhibits-anxiolytic-properties-without-inducing-adverse-neurological-effects-on-functional-observation-battery-open-field-and-vogel-conflict-tests-in-rodents
#20
Chao-Jie Chen, Zhi-Feng Zhong, Zhi-Ming Xin, Long-Hui Hong, Yan-Ping Su, Chang-Xi Yu
Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
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