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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110508/on-an-enhanced-rank-preserving-structural-failure-time-model-to-handle-treatment-switch-crossover-and-dropout
#1
Lingling Li, Shijie Tang, Liewen Jiang
It is very challenging to estimate the comparative treatment effect between a treatment therapy and a control therapy on overall survival in the presence of treatment crossover, switch to an alternative non-study therapy, and non-random patient dropout. Existing methods (e.g., intent-to-treat and per-protocol) are known to be biased. We proposed two new estimators to address these analytical challenges and evaluated their performance via a comprehensive simulation study. The new estimators were constructed by combining an enhanced rank-preserving structural failure time model and the inverse probability censoring weighting approach...
January 22, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110016/spatial-characteristics-of-urinary-btex-concentrations-in-the-general-population
#2
Xanthi Tsangari, Xanthi D Andrianou, Agapios Agapiou, Pawel Mochalski, Konstantinos C Makris
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX) are ubiquitous outdoor and indoor air pollutants associated with both environmental and health effects. The objective of this exploratory study was to determine the magnitude and variability of urinary BTEX levels among residents of two areas located in the same city (Nicosia, Cyprus). The two areas differed with respect to their proximity to an industrial cluster and an intercity-highway. First morning urine voids were collected during a random campaign from selected households in the two urban areas (n = 48)...
January 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109221/charge-and-energy-migration-in-molecular-clusters-a-stochastic-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equation-approach
#3
Thomas Plehn, Volkhard May
The performance of stochastic Schrödinger equations for simulating dynamic phenomena in large scale open quantum systems is studied. Going beyond small system sizes, commonly used master equation approaches become inadequate. In this regime, wave function based methods profit from their inherent scaling benefit and present a promising tool to study, for example, exciton and charge carrier dynamics in huge and complex molecular structures. In the first part of this work, a strict analytic derivation is presented...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109060/morphine-pharmacodynamics-in-mechanically-ventilated-preterm-neonates-undergoing-endotracheal-suctioning
#4
P A Välitalo, Ehj Krekels, M van Dijk, Shp Simons, D Tibboel, Caj Knibbe
To date, morphine pharmacokinetics (PKs) are well quantified in neonates, but results about its efficacy are ambiguous. This work presents an analysis of a previously published study on pain measurements in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates who received either morphine or placebo to improve comfort during invasive ventilation. The research question was whether morphine reduces the pain associated with endotracheal or nasal suctioning before, during, and after suctioning. Because these neonates cannot verbalize their pain levels, pain was assessed on the basis of several validated pain measurement instruments (i...
January 21, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108960/dual-acting-biofunctionalised-scaffolds-for-applications-in-regenerative-medicine
#5
Camilo Chaves, Chuanyu Gao, Jerome Hunckler, Moustafa Elsawy, Josette Legagneux, Gilles Renault, Alain Charles Masquelet, Achala de Mel
Off the shelf scaffolds for replacing ultra-small diameter vascular grafts are valuable for reconstruction of diseased or damaged vessels. The limitations for such grafts include optimal handling with ready availability of varied lengths of grafts, graft patency with the ability to replace the function of active cellular mechanisms and adequate mechanical properties to maintain physicochemical function. We used a well-established, solvent casting method for potential tissue replacement scaffold fabrication with incorporated bioactive molecules, which we have previously explored to confer haemocompatibility...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108604/bonding-with-%C3%AE-cells-a-role-for-oxytocin-in-glucose-handling
#6
Maria Julia Scerbo, Jantje Mareike Gerdes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108573/transcatheter-mitral-valve-implantation-a-percutaneous-transapical-system
#7
Huangdong Dai, Katharina Huenges, Saskia Pokorny, Gunther Fischer, Jochen Cremer, Anja Metzner, Derk Frank, Georg Lutter
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent achievements, implantation of a transcatheter mitral valved stent remains challenging. In this study, we present a different approach for implantation of a percutaneous mitral valved stent. METHODS: Percutaneous transapical access is combined with, respectively, a left-transatrial, right-transatrial/transseptal or transfemoral/transseptal approach for mitral valve stent implantation and secure fixation. The apical fixation and occlusion are ensured with an Amplatzer occluder...
January 19, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108373/left-ventricle-segmentation-via-two-layer-level-sets-with-circular-shape-constraint
#8
Cong Yang, Weiguo Wu, Yuanqi Su, Shaoxiang Zhang
This paper proposes a circular shape constraint and a novel two-layer level set method for the segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) from short-axis magnetic resonance images without training any shape models. Since the shape of LV throughout the apex-base axis is close to a ring shape, we propose a circle fitting term in the level set framework to detect the endocardium. The circle fitting term imposes a penalty on the evolving contour from its fitting circle, and thereby handles quite well with issues in LV segmentation, especially the presence of outflow track in basal slices and the intensity overlap between TPM and the myocardium...
January 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108173/broach-handle-design-changes-force-distribution-in-the-femur-during-total-hip-arthroplasty
#9
Dustin A Greenhill, Pooyan Abbasi, Kurosh Darvish, Andrew M Star
BACKGROUND: Curved broach handles were developed to overcome limited surgical exposures during total hip arthroplasty. Some authors report increased intraoperative fracture rates during limited exposures. This study evaluates mechanical force ratios transmitted to the bone while broaching with curved vs straight handles. METHODS: An experimental model utilized a 6-axis load cell to measure force distributions produced by 4 different broach handles, each with increasing offset and curvature...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107564/tattoo-removal-by-q-switched-yag-laser-client-satisfaction
#10
K Hutton Carlsen, J Esmann, J Serup
BACKGROUND: Tattoo removal by Q-switched lasers is golden standard; however, clients' satisfaction with treatment is little known. OBJECTIVE: To determine clients' satisfaction with tattoo removal. METHODS: 154 tattoo removal clients who had attended the private clinic "Centre for Laser Surgery", Hellerup, Denmark from 2001-2013 completed a questionnaire concerning outcome expectations, level of pain experiences and satisfaction with tattoo removal...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107395/prevalence-of-pre-analytical-errors-in-clinical-chemistry-diagnostic-labs-in-sulaimani-city-of-iraqi-kurdistan
#11
Dereen Najat
BACKGROUND: Laboratory testing is roughly divided into three phases: a pre-analytical phase, an analytical phase and a post-analytical phase. Most analytical errors have been attributed to the analytical phase. However, recent studies have shown that up to 70% of analytical errors reflect the pre-analytical phase. The pre-analytical phase comprises all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the specimen is analyzed at the lab. Generally, the pre-analytical phase includes patient preparation, specimen transportation, specimen collection and storage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107333/u-s-pharmacopeial-chapter-800-be-ready-to-comply-by-july-2018-%C3%A2
#12
Martha Polovich
The U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention's "Chapter <800> Hazardous Drugs-Handling in Healthcare Settings" is a new part of the National Formulary that describes standards-expectations for practice-for all aspects of handling and administering hazardous drugs (HDs). Some of the standards will require changes in policies, procedures, and practices for nurses. This article provides an overview of the new standards and the impact they will have on nurses who prepare and administer chemotherapy and other HDs.
...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107320/chemotherapy-safe-handling-limiting-nursing-exposure-with-a-hazardous-drug-control-program
#13
Rachael Crickman
BACKGROUND: Nurses and other healthcare workers are at risk for adverse health consequences from occupational exposure to hazardous drugs. 
. OBJECTIVES: An evidence-based program for nurses was implemented to improve safe handling practices and reduce exposure to hazardous drugs. 
. METHODS: A quasiexperimental design was used, with pre- and post-tests of knowledge about chemotherapy exposure and pre- and post-test observations of compliance with donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106963/wire-skills-for-the-surgeon-femoral-access-safety-net-and-vascular-closure-devices-in-transfemoral-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-procedures
#14
Simon Sndermann, Axel Unbehaun, Alexander Meyer, Volkmar Falk, Jrg Kempfert
Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures are widely used to treat patients with aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. Major vascular complications are common and are associated with higher mortality rates. We describe the use of vascular access site closure systems and a safety net to prevent and handle these complications.
December 14, 2016: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery: MMCTS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106916/a-bayesian-analysis-of-quantal-bioassay-experiments-incorporating-historical-controls-via-bayes-factors
#15
Luis G León Novelo, Andrew Womack, Hongxiao Zhu, Xiaowei Wu
This paper addresses model-based Bayesian inference in the analysis of data arising from bioassay experiments. In such experiments, increasing doses of a chemical substance are given to treatment groups (usually rats or mice) for a fixed period of time (usually 2 years). The goal of such an experiment is to determine whether an increased dosage of the chemical is associated with increased probability of an adverse effect (usually presence of adenoma or carcinoma). The data consists of dosage, survival time, and the occurrence of the adverse event for each unit in the study...
January 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106764/effective-alternating-direction-optimization-methods-for-sparsity-constrained-blind-image-deblurring
#16
Naixue Xiong, Ryan Wen Liu, Maohan Liang, Di Wu, Zhao Liu, Huisi Wu
Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel...
January 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105772/reversing-the-regioselectivity-of-halofunctionalization-reactions-through-cooperative-photoredox-and-copper-catalysis
#17
Jeremy D Griffin, Cortney L Cavanaugh, David A Nicewicz
Halofunctionalization of alkenes is a classical method for olefin difunctionalization. It gives rise to adducts which are found in many natural products and biologically active molecules, and offers a synthetic handle for further manipulation. Classically, this reaction is performed with an electrophilic halogen source and leads to regioselective formation of the halofunctionalized adducts. Herein, we demonstrate a reversal of the native regioselectivity for alkene halofunctionalization through the use of an acridinium photooxidant in conjunction with a copper cocatalyst...
January 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105748/silicone-based-organic-inorganic-hybrid-aerogels-and-xerogels
#18
REVIEW
Taiyo Shimizu, Kazuyoshi Kanamori, Kazuki Nakanishi
Aerogels are attracting increasing attention due to their high thermal insulation ability as well as unique properties such as high porosity, surface area, and transparency. However, low mechanical strengths, originating from their unique porous structure, impede handling, formability, mass production, and extended applications. This minireview focuses on the strengthening of aerogels by several organic-inorganic hybridization strategies. In particular, successful strengthening methodologies, which employ organo-substituted alkoxysilanes as the single precursor for the sol-gel preparations, developed by the authors are highlighted...
January 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105584/awareness-of-paid-sick-leave-among-new-york-city-restaurant-workers
#19
Emma K Tsui, Madeline Duffy, Sherry Baron
Restaurant workers are less likely to have paid sick leave (PSL) benefits than other professions, despite the fact that they handle food and interact with the public. In this study, we collected and analyzed quantitative and qualitative data on PSL awareness among New York City's restaurant workers and the factors that produced these levels of awareness. We found that 62% of surveyed workers were aware of NYC's law, and that successful outreach requires building broad awareness and ensuring trustworthy sources of information with multiple points of contact...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104735/initial-severity-of-depression-and-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis-of-pill-placebo-controlled-trials
#20
REVIEW
Toshi A Furukawa, Erica S Weitz, Shiro Tanaka, Steven D Hollon, Stefan G Hofmann, Gerhard Andersson, Jos Twisk, Robert J DeRubeis, Sona Dimidjian, Ulrich Hegerl, Roland Mergl, Robin B Jarrett, Jeffrey R Vittengl, Norio Watanabe, Pim Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: The influence of baseline severity has been examined for antidepressant medications but has not been studied properly for cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in comparison with pill placebo. AIMS: To synthesise evidence regarding the influence of initial severity on efficacy of CBT from all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which CBT, in face-to-face individual or group format, was compared with pill-placebo control in adults with major depression...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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