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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471566/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-chronic-inflammatory-liver-disease
#1
Fabian J Bolte, Barbara Rehermann
The broadening field of microbiome research has led to a substantial reappraisal of the gut-liver axis and its role in chronic liver disease. The liver is a central immunologic organ that is continuously exposed to food and microbial-derived antigens from the gastrointestinal tract. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the human liver and can be activated by inflammatory cytokines and microbial antigens. In chronic inflammatory liver disease, MAIT cells are depleted suggesting an impaired MAIT cell-dependent protection against bacterial infections...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471499/mineral-content-of-eggs-differs-with-hen-strain-age-and-rearing-environment
#2
Laura E Heflin, Ramon Malheiros, Kenneth E Anderson, LuAnn K Johnson, Susan K Raatz
Egg nutrient quality is strongly influenced by hen diet but is also affected by rearing environment, hen strain, and hen age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of: 1) conventional battery cages, 2) enrichable cage systems, 3) enriched colony housing, 4) cage-free, and 5) free-range rearing systems on mineral concentrations of whole, dried egg (yolk and albumen combined) from TA Tetra White (TW) and Hy-Line Brown (HB) hens at 44, 68, and 88 wk of age. We hypothesized that mineral concentration of eggs would differ among rearing systems but not between strains or with hen age...
February 16, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471413/combined-cistrome-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-ski-in-aml-cells-identifies-ski-as-a-co-repressor-for-runx1
#3
Christine Feld, Peeyush Sahu, Miriam Frech, Florian Finkernagel, Andrea Nist, Thorsten Stiewe, Uta-Maria Bauer, Andreas Neubauer
SKI is a transcriptional co-regulator and overexpressed in various human tumors, for example in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). SKI contributes to the origin and maintenance of the leukemic phenotype. Here, we use ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis to identify the epigenetic alterations induced by SKI overexpression in AML cells. We show that approximately two thirds of differentially expressed genes are up-regulated upon SKI deletion, of which >40% harbor SKI binding sites in their proximity, primarily in enhancer regions...
February 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471396/involvement-of-epigenetic-modifications-of-gabaergic-interneurons-in-basolateral-amygdala-in-anxiety-like-phenotype-of-prenatally-stressed-mice
#4
Chunting Zhu, Min Liang, Yingchun Li, Xuejiao Feng, Juan Hong, Rong Zhou
Background: Prenatal stress is considered a risk factor for anxiety disorder. Downregulation in the expression of GABAergic gene, that is, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, associated with DNA methyltransferase overexpression in GABAergic neurons has been regarded as a characteristic component of anxiety disorder. Prenatal stress has an adverse effect on the development of the basolateral amygdala, which is a key region in anxiety regulation. The aim of this study is to analyze the possibility of epigenetic alterations of GABAergic neurons in the basolateral amygdala participating in prenatal stress-induced anxiety...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471358/eif4a-alleviates-the-translational-repression-mediated-by-classical-secondary-structures-more-than-by-g-quadruplexes
#5
Joseph A Waldron, Farheen Raza, John Le Quesne
Increased activity of the mRNA helicase eIF4A drives cellular malignancy by reprogramming cellular translation, and eIF4A activity is the direct or indirect target of many emerging cancer therapeutics. The enriched presence of (GGC)4 motifs, which have the potential to fold into two-layered G-quadruplexes, within the 5'UTRs of eIF4A-dependent mRNAs suggests that eIF4A is required for the unwinding of these structures within these eIF4A-controlled mRNAs. However, the existence of folded G-quadruplexes within cells remains controversial, and G-quadruplex folding is in direct competition with classical Watson-Crick based secondary structures...
February 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471322/whole-body-nitrogen-utilization-and-tissue-protein-and-casein-synthesis-in-lactating-primiparous-sows-fed-low-and-high-protein-diets
#6
Lee-Anne Huber, Marko Rudar, Nathalie L Trottier, John P Cant, Cornelis F M de Lange
Twenty-eight lactating Yorkshire and Yorkshire × Landrace primiparous sows were used to test the hypothesis that feeding a diet with reduced CP concentration and supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAA) does not decrease milk protein yield and litter growth but improves apparent N utilization for milk protein production. Sows were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: [1] Control (CON; 16.2% CP; analyzed content) or [2] Low CP with CAA to meet estimated requirements of limiting amino acids (LCP; 12...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471254/uplc-ms-ms-assay-validation-for-tacrolimus-quantitative-determination-in-peripheral-blood-t-cd4-and-b-cd19-lymphocytes
#7
Paschoalina Romano, Maria da Luz Fernandes, Pérsio de Almeida Rezende Ebner, Nayara Duarte de Oliveira, Larissa Mitsue Okuda, Fabiana Agena, Maria Elizabete Mendes, Nairo Massakazu Sumita, Verônica Coelho, Elias David-Neto, Nelson Zocoler Galante
Monitoring tacrolimus (Tac) exposure in cell matrices enriched with lymphocytes can improve Tac therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in solid organ transplant recipients. An UPLC-MS/MS based assay for Tac quantification in peripheral blood T CD4+ and B CD19+ lymphocytes was developed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained by density gradient centrifugation and highly purified (purity >90%) T CD4+ and B CD19+ cell suspensions were acquired by magnetic negative selection from whole blood of 6 healthy volunteers...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471125/biochar-activation-with-exoenzymes-induced-by-earthworms-a-novel-functional-strategy-for-soil-quality-promotion
#8
Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez
The activation of biochar (carbonaceous material generated by pyrolysis of biomass) with extracellular enzymes generated from soil biological processes was studied via a 2-month microcosm using earthworms. The isolation of biochar particles (post-incubated biochar) from earthworm-treated soils allowed to confirm an enrichment of biochar with extracellular enzymes associated to biogeochemical (alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase) and bioremediation pathways (carboxylesterase). The hydrolytic activity of this biochar incubated with earthworms was up to 8 times higher compared with that of control biochar (incubated in earthworm-free soils)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471022/temporal-lobe-epilepsy-induced-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-aging
#9
REVIEW
Vrinda M, Arun S, Srikumar B N, Bindu M Kutty, Shankaranarayana Rao B S
Epilepsy is a neurological condition associated with seizures, neurodegeneration, circuit reorganization, and other structural and functional abnormalities. These elements ultimately lead to behavioural alterations such as anxiety, depression, and importantly cognitive impairment like learning disability and memory impairment. These factors can attribute to acceleration of aging and cognitive impairment in middle-aged people, which is otherwise evident in dementia and Alzheimer's disease among elderly people...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470979/transcriptional-information-revealed-differentially-expressed-circular-rnas-in-facet-joint-osteoarthritis
#10
Chen Chu, Wu Chunshuai, Chen Jiajia, Zhang Jinlong, Xue Pengfei, Jiang Jiawei, Cui Zhiming
Circular RNAs are newly identified RNAs that regulate gene expression and execute various biological activities. Facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) is a severe facet joint cartilage degeneration disease that induces chronic low back pain to a larger population. The molecular mechanisms of FJOA, especially the presence and changes of circular RNAs in FJOA have not been investigated. In the current study, we analyzed RNA deep sequencing outcomes from healthy control group and FJOA group, identified and annotated circular RNAs, and determined the expressions of circular RNAs...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470816/hepatic-subcellular-distribution-of-squalene-changes-according-to-the-experimental-setting
#11
Roberto Martínez-Beamonte, Olga Alda, Teresa Sanclemente, María J Felices, Sara Escusol, Carmen Arnal, Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Sonia Gascón, Joaquín C Surra, Jesús Osada, Mª Jesús Rodríguez-Yoldi
Squalene is the main unsaponifiable component of virgin olive oil, the main source of dietary fat in Mediterranean diet, traditionally associated with a less frequency of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, two experimental approaches were used. In the first, New Zealand rabbits fed for 4 weeks with a chow diet enriched in 1% sunflower oil for the control group, and in 1% of sunflower oil and 0.5% squalene for the squalene group. In the second, APOE KO mice received either Western diet or Western diet enriched in 0...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470784/identification-of-novel-autophagy-inhibitors-via-cell-based-high-content-screening
#12
Georgios Konstantinidis, Sonja Sievers, Yao-Wen Wu
Autophagy is a fundamental cellular catabolic pathway mediating the recycling of cellular components. Autophagy has been implicated in pathogenesis of diverse diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. Due to the therapeutic potential, the autophagy-modulating agents have profoundly enriched the spectrum of tools used to investigate autophagy. However, many of these compounds have additional off-target effects that may confound elucidation of autophagy in certain contexts. There remains high demand for highly specific and novel chemotypes that can be used to study the regulation mechanism of autophagy and contribute novel pharmacophores for therapeutic purposes...
February 23, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470608/bacterial-communities-inhabiting-the-sponge-biemna-fortis-sediment-and-water-in-marine-lakes-and-the-open-sea
#13
Daniel F R Cleary, Ana R M Polónia, Nicole J de Voogd
Marine lakes are small bodies of landlocked seawater that are isolated from the open sea and have been shown to house numerous rare and unique taxa. The environmental conditions of the lakes are also characterised by lower pH and salinity and higher temperatures than generally found in the open sea. In the present study, we used a 16S rRNA gene barcoded pyrosequencing approach and a predictive metagenomic approach (PICRUSt) to examine bacterial composition and function in three distinct biotopes (sediment, water and the sponge species Biemna fortis) in three habitats (two marine lakes and the open sea) of the Berau reef system, Indonesia...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470597/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-malignancies-a-faithful-friend-or-formidable-foe
#14
REVIEW
S M Mansour Haeryfar, Christopher R Shaler, Patrick T Rudak
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of innate-like T lymphocytes known for their ability to respond to MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted stimuli and select cytokine signals. They are abundant in humans and especially enriched in mucosal layers, common sites of neoplastic transformation. MAIT cells have been found within primary and metastatic tumors. However, whether they promote malignancy or contribute to anticancer immunity is unclear. On the one hand, MAIT cells produce IL-17A in certain locations and under certain circumstances, which could in turn facilitate neoangiogenesis, intratumoral accumulation of immunosuppressive cell populations, and cancer progression...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470552/increased-hiv-1-transcriptional-activity-and-infectious-burden-in-peripheral-blood-and-gut-associated-cd4-t-cells-expressing-cd30
#15
Louise E Hogan, Joshua Vasquez, Kristen S Hobbs, Emily Hanhauser, Brandon Aguilar-Rodriguez, Rajaa Hussien, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Alexander B Carvidi, Louis C B Smith, Shahzada Khan, Martin Trapecar, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Ma Somsouk, Cheryl A Stoddart, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich
HIV-1-infected cells persist indefinitely despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and novel therapeutic strategies to target and purge residual infected cells in individuals on ART are urgently needed. Here, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell-associated HIV-1 RNA is often highly enriched in cells expressing CD30, and that cells expressing this marker considerably contribute to the total pool of transcriptionally active CD4+ lymphocytes in individuals on suppressive ART. Using in situ RNA hybridization studies, we show co-localization of CD30 with HIV-1 transcriptional activity in gut-associated lymphoid tissues...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470549/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-events-in-bovine-by-transcriptome-sequencing
#16
Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Abdolreza Salehi, Rocío Melissa Rivera
RNA editing increases the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is the predominant type of RNA editing in mammals and it is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) family. Here, we used a largescale computational analysis of transcriptomic data from brain, heart, colon, lung, spleen, kidney, testes, skeletal muscle and liver, from three adult animals in order to identify RNA editing sites in bovine. We developed a computational pipeline and used a rigorous strategy to identify novel editing sites from RNA-Seq data in the absence of corresponding DNA sequence information...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470489/integration-of-machine-learning-and-meta-analysis-identifies-the-transcriptomic-bio-signature-of-mastitis-disease-in-cattle
#17
Somayeh Sharifi, Abbas Pakdel, Mansour Ebrahimi, James M Reecy, Samaneh Fazeli Farsani, Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) are assumed to be among the main agents that cause severe mastitis disease with clinical signs in dairy cattle. Rapid detection of this disease is so important in order to prevent transmission to other cows and helps to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics. With the rapid progress in high-throughput technologies, and accumulation of various kinds of '-omics' data in public repositories, there is an opportunity to retrieve, integrate, and reanalyze these resources to improve the diagnosis and treatment of different diseases and to provide mechanistic insights into host resistance in an efficient way...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470400/ramp-a-comprehensive-relational-database-of-metabolomics-pathways-for-pathway-enrichment-analysis-of-genes-and-metabolites
#18
Bofei Zhang, Senyang Hu, Elizabeth Baskin, Andrew Patt, Jalal K Siddiqui, Ewy A Mathé
The value of metabolomics in translational research is undeniable, and metabolomics data are increasingly generated in large cohorts. The functional interpretation of disease-associated metabolites though is difficult, and the biological mechanisms that underlie cell type or disease-specific metabolomics profiles are oftentimes unknown. To help fully exploit metabolomics data and to aid in its interpretation, analysis of metabolomics data with other complementary omics data, including transcriptomics, is helpful...
February 22, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470394/a-novel-early-warning-system-based-on-a-sediment-microbial-fuel-cell-for-in-situ-and-real-time-hexavalent-chromium-detection-in-industrial-wastewater
#19
Shuai Zhao, Pu Liu, Yongyan Niu, Zhengjun Chen, Aman Khan, Pengyun Zhang, Xiangkai Li
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-known toxic heavy metal in industrial wastewater, but in situ and real time monitoring cannot be achieved by current methods used during industrial wastewater treatment processes. In this study, a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC) was used as a biosensor for in situ real-time monitoring of Cr(VI), which was the organic substrate is oxidized in the anode and Cr(VI) is reduced at the cathode simultaneously. The pH 6.4 and temperature 25 °C were optimal conditions for the operation...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470389/a-walnut-enriched-diet-affects-gut-microbiome-in-healthy-caucasian-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Charlotte Bamberger, Andreas Rossmeier, Katharina Lechner, Liya Wu, Elisa Waldmann, Sandra Fischer, Renée G Stark, Julia Altenhofer, Kerstin Henze, Klaus G Parhofer
Regular walnut consumption is associated with better health. We have previously shown that eight weeks of walnut consumption (43 g/day) significantly improves lipids in healthy subjects. In the same study, gut microbiome was evaluated. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (eight weeks each); 96 subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet, while 98 subjects followed the diets in reverse order...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
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