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Microcirculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650929/oxygen-flow-pressure-targets-for-resuscitation-in-critical-hemodynamic-therapy
#1
Huaiwu He, Yun Long, Xiang Zhou, Xiaoting Wang, Hongmin Zhang, Wenzhao Chai, Na Cui, Hao Wang, Dawei Liu
Far from traditional "vital signs," the field of hemodynamic monitoring is developing rapidly. However, it is also easy to misunderstand hemodynamic therapy as merely hemodynamic monitoring and some concrete bundles or guidelines for circulation support. Here, we describe the concept of "critical hemodynamic therapy (CHT)" and clarify the concepts of the "therapeutic target" and "therapeutic endpoint" in clinical practice.Three main targets (Oxygen Delivery - Blood Flow - Perfusion Pressure, OFP) for resuscitation are reviewed in critically ill patients according to the sepsis guidelines and hemodynamic consensus...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650926/hypercapnia-induced-amelioration-of-the-intestinal-microvascular-oxygenation-in-sepsis-is-independent-of-the-endogenous-sympathetic-nervous-system
#2
Jan Schulz, Sabrina Schöneborn, Christian Vollmer, Richard Truse, Anna Herminghaus, Inge Bauer, Christopher Beck, Olaf Picker
INTRODUCTION: Insufficient microvascular oxygenation (μHBO2) of the intestinal mucosa worsens outcome of septic patients. Hypercapnia ameliorates μHBO2, mediated via endogenous vasopressin release. Under physiological conditions, blockade of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system abolishes this protective effect of hypercapnia. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the role of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system during hypercapnia on intestinal μHBO2 under septic conditions...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643578/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-in-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Aleksandar Kibel, Kristina Selthofer-Relatic, Ines Drenjancevic, Tatjana Bacun, Ivica Bosnjak, Dijana Kibel, Mario Gros
The significance, mechanisms and consequences of coronary microvascular dysfunction associated with diabetes mellitus are topics into which we have insufficient insight at this time. It is widely recognized that endothelial dysfunction that is caused by diabetes in various vascular beds contributes to a wide range of complications and exerts unfavorable effects on microcirculatory regulation. The coronary microcirculation is precisely regulated through a number of interconnected physiological processes with the purpose of matching local blood flow to myocardial metabolic demands...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643215/relationship-between-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-and-fractional-flow-reserve-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#4
Yuta Morioka, Hiroyuki Arashi, Hisao Otsuki, Junichi Yamaguchi, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free index and is reported to have a good correlation with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Hemodialysis patients exhibit left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced arterial compliance, and impaired microcirculation. Such a coronary flow condition in these patients may influence the relationship between iFR and FFR. This study assessed the impact of hemodialysis on the relationship between iFR and FFR. The study enrolled 196 patients with 265 stenoses who underwent assessment via iFR, FFR assessment, and right heart catheterization...
June 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632914/contrast-enhanced-harmonic-endoscopic-ultrasonography-for-differential-diagnosis-of-localized-gallbladder-lesions
#5
Ken Kamata, Mamoru Takenaka, Masayuki Kitano, Shunsuke Omoto, Takeshi Miyata, Kosuke Minaga, Kentaro Yamao, Hajime Imai, Tosiharu Sakurai, Naoshi Nishida, Hiroshi Kashida, Takaaki Chikugo, Yasutaka Chiba, Takuya Nakai, Yoshifumi Takeyama, Andrea Lisotti, Pietro Fusaroli, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The differential diagnosis of localized gallbladder lesions is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) for diagnosis of localized gallbladder lesions. PATIENTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients with localized gallbladder lesions were evaluated by CH-EUS between March 2007 and February 2014. This was a single-center retrospective study. METHODS: The utilities of fundamental B-mode EUS (FB-EUS) and CH-EUS in the differentiation of gallbladder lesions and sludge plug were initially compared...
June 20, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632534/administration-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-bh4-protects-the-renal-microcirculation-from-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#6
Lokmane Rahmania, Diego Orbegozo, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Jean-Louis Vincent, Daniel De Backer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery with suprarenal cross-clamping is often associated with renal injury. Although the mechanism underlying such injury is unclear, tissue ischemia and reperfusion, which induces endothelial dysfunction and decreases the availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), may play a role. We evaluated whether BH4 administration prevents renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in an animal model of aortic cross-clamping. METHODS: Nineteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and invasively monitored adult sheep were randomized into 3 groups: sham animals (n = 5) that underwent surgical preparation but no aortic clamping; an ischemia/reperfusion group (n = 7), where the aorta was clamped above the renal arteries for 1 hour, and a BH4 group (n = 7), in which animals received 20 mg/kg of BH4 followed by aortic cross-clamp for 1 hour...
June 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632503/the-catastrophic-antiphospholipid-syndrome-in-children
#7
Ellen J L Go, Kathleen M O'Neil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the difficult syndrome of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, emphasizing new developments in the diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Few recent publications directly address pediatric catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). Most articles are case reports or are data from adult and pediatric registries. The major factors contributing to most pediatric catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome include infection and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, but complement activation also is important in creating diffuse thrombosis in the microcirculation...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630905/mechanical-deformation-induces-depolarization-of-neutrophils
#8
Andrew E Ekpenyong, Nicole Toepfner, Christine Fiddler, Maik Herbig, Wenhong Li, Gheorghe Cojoc, Charlotte Summers, Jochen Guck, Edwin R Chilvers
The transition of neutrophils from a resting state to a primed state is an essential requirement for their function as competent immune cells. This transition can be caused not only by chemical signals but also by mechanical perturbation. After cessation of either, these cells gradually revert to a quiescent state over 40 to 120 min. We use two biophysical tools, an optical stretcher and a novel microcirculation mimetic, to effect physiologically relevant mechanical deformations of single nonadherent human neutrophils...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628674/hepatic-microvascular-dysfunction-and-increased-advanced-glycation-end-products-are-components-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva Pereira, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita Flores, Karine Lino Rodrigues, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Igor José da Silva, Marcelo Pelajo Machado, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Cassiano F Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Eduardo Tibiriça, Anissa Daliry
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626333/peripheral-circulation-indicators-in-veteran-trail-runners
#10
Alexander Bolotin, Vladislav Bakayev
[Purpose] Competitive sport places strict demands on the cardiovascular systems of veteran trail runners. Our research objective was to evaluate the dynamics of microcirculation parameters of veteran runners in hypoxic and mid-altitude conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Seven male runners from Russia and Italy between the ages of 50 and 60 years were examined whilst competing at mid-altitude (1,500-2,000 m above sea level). The same runners were examined in a simulated mid-altitude hypoxic environment, which was a hypoxic chamber with 16% oxygen concentration, for 720 minutes...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626204/intrapulpal-temperature-changes-during-curing-of-different-bulk-fill-restorative-materials
#11
Elif Yasa, Cigdem Atalayin, Gamze Karacolak, Tugrul Sari, L Sebnem Turkun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrapulpal temperature changes during the curing of different bulk-fill restorative materials. Ten mandibular molar teeth were selected and occlusal surfaces were removed to obtain a standard 0.5 mm occlusal dentin thickness. Five bulk-fill restorative materials and a conventional resin composite (control) were applied. The intrapulpal temperature changes during the curing of these materials were determined by a device simulating pulpal blood microcirculation. The difference between the initial and maximum temperature values (Δt), was recorded...
June 15, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625890/acute-effects-of-coffee-on-skin-blood-flow-and-microvascular-function
#12
Erik Tesselaar, Dzeneta Nezirevic Dernroth, Simon Farnebo
OBJECTIVE: Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. METHODS: We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee...
June 15, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623452/enhanced-visualization-of-the-retinal-vasculature-using-depth-information-in-oct
#13
Joaquim de Moura, Jorge Novo, Pablo Charlón, Noelia Barreira, Marcos Ortega
Retinal vessel tree extraction is a crucial step for analyzing the microcirculation, a frequently needed process in the study of relevant diseases. To date, this has normally been done by using 2D image capture paradigms, offering a restricted visualization of the real layout of the retinal vasculature. In this work, we propose a new approach that automatically segments and reconstructs the 3D retinal vessel tree by combining near-infrared reflectance retinography information with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) sections...
June 17, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623080/increased-constitutive-nitric-oxide-production-by-whole-body-periodic-acceleration-ameliorates-alterations-in-cardiomyocytes-associated-with-utrophin-dystrophin-deficiency
#14
Jose R Lopez, Juan Kolster, Rui Zhang, Jose Adams
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) cardiomyopathy is a progressive lethal disease caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein in the heart. The most widely used animal model of DMD is the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse; however, these mice exhibit a mild dystrophic phenotype with heart failure only late in life. In contrast, mice deficient for both dystrophin and utrophin (mdx/utrn(-/-), or dKO) can be used to model severe DMD cardiomyopathy where pathophysiological indicators of heart failure are detectable by 8-10weeks of age...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619664/nailfold-capillaroscopic-changes-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-systemic-sclerosis-related-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#16
A Corrado, M Correale, N Mansueto, I Monaco, A Carriero, A Mele, R Colia, M Di Biase, F P Cantatore
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) represents one of the main clinical expressions of the vascular changes in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Lung microvascular changes can play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PAH (IPAH) also. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of capillaroscopic abnormalities in patients with IPAH and to evaluate the differences in capillary nailfold changes between patients with IPAH and patients with SSc with and without PAH. METHODS: 39 SSc patients (19 with PAH - SSc-PAH and 20 without - SSc-noPAH), 21 subjects with IPAH and 20 healthy subjects were recruited...
June 12, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617696/should-hyperoxia-be-avoided-during-sepsis-an-experimental-study-in-ovine-peritonitis
#17
Xinrong He, Fuhong Su, Keliang Xie, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Katia Donadello, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Optimizing oxygen delivery is an important part of the hemodynamic resuscitation of septic shock, but concerns have been raised over the potentially deleterious effects of hyperoxia. We evaluated the impact of hyperoxia on hemodynamics, the microcirculation, and cerebral and renal metabolism in an ovine model of septic shock. DESIGN: Randomized animal study. SETTING: University hospital animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Fourteen adult female sheep...
June 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616394/new-method-of-sudomotor-function-measurement-to-detect-microvascular-disease-and-sweat-gland-nerve-or-unmyelinated-c-fiber-dysfunction-in-adults-with-retinopathy
#18
John E Lewis, Steven E Atlas, Ammar Rasul, Ashar Farooqi, Laura Lantigua, Oscar L Higuera, Andrea Fiallo, Lianette Laria, Renata Picciani, Ken Wals, Zohar Yehoshua, Armando Mendez, Janet Konefal, Sharon Goldberg, Judi Woolger
BACKGROUND: Diabetes-associated microvascular complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy often lead to end-organ and tissue damage. Impaired skin microcirculation often precedes the detection of other advanced diabetic complications. The ANS-1 system contains a redesigned sympathetic skin response (ANS-1 SSR) device that measures sudomotor function, a photoplethysmography sensor, and a blood pressure device to comprehensively assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614837/renal-oxygenation-and-hemodynamics-in-kidney-injury
#19
Alexander Bullen, Zhi Zhao Liu, Mark Hepokoski, Ying Li, Prabhleen Singh
Acute kidney injury (AKI) continues to be a major therapeutic challenge. Despite significant advances made in cellular and molecular pathophysiology of AKI, major gaps in knowledge exist regarding the changes in renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in the early stages and through the continuum of AKI. Particular features of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation increase the susceptibility of the kidney to sustain injury due to oxygen demand-supply mismatch and also play an important role in the recovery and repair from AKI as well as the transition of AKI to chronic kidney disease...
June 15, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613418/differences-in-optic-nerve-head-microcirculation-between-evening-and-morning-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#20
Tomoaki Shiba, Mao Takahashi, Tadashi Matsumoto, Yuichi Hori
PURPOSE: To determine whether differences or variation of blood flow in the optic nerve head (ONH) are independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We studied 144 consecutive patients whose ocular blood flow in the ONH was measured in the evening and morning by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). We analysed the mean blur rate (MBR) throughout the ONH (MBR-A) and in the tissue (MBR-T) and vessels (MBR-V) in the ONH. We also evaluated the MBR-T, -V and -A values obtained in the evening and morning and the variation (Δ) between evening and morning values in each group...
June 14, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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