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Microcirculation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106129/retooling-laser-speckle-contrast-analysis-algorithm-to-enhance-non-invasive-high-resolution-laser-speckle-functional-imaging-of-cutaneous-microcirculation
#1
Surya C Gnyawali, Kevin Blum, Durba Pal, Subhadip Ghatak, Savita Khanna, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen
Cutaneous microvasculopathy complicates wound healing. Functional assessment of gated individual dermal microvessels is therefore of outstanding interest. Functional performance of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) systems is compromised by motion artefacts. To address such weakness, post-processing of stacked images is reported. We report the first post-processing of binary raw data from a high-resolution LSCI camera. Sharp images of low-flowing microvessels were enabled by introducing inverse variance in conjunction with speckle contrast in Matlab-based program code...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104277/microcirculatory-monitoring-in-septic-patients-where-do-we-stand
#2
G Gruartmoner, J Mesquida, C Ince
Microcirculatory alterations play a pivotal role in sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. However, since the microcirculation has been a "black box", current hemodynamic management of septic patients is still guided by macrocirculatory parameters. In the last decades, the development of several technologies has shed some light on microcirculatory evaluation and monitoring, and the possibility of incorporating microcirculatory variables to clinical practice no longer seems to be beyond reach. The present review provides a brief summary of the current technologies for microcirculatory evaluation, and attempts to explore the potential role and benefits of their integration to the resuscitation process in critically ill septic patients...
January 16, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103890/the-association-between-diabetes-and-dermal-microvascular-dysfunction-non-invasively-assessed-by-laser-doppler-with-local-thermal-hyperemia-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Dagmar Fuchs, Pepijn P Dupon, Laura A Schaap, Richard Draijer
BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: Diabetes and cardiovascular disease develop in concert with metabolic abnormalities mirroring and causing changes in the vasculature, particularly the microcirculation. The microcirculation can be affected in different parts of the body of which the skin is the most easily accessible tissue. PURPOSE: The association between diabetes and dermal microvascular dysfunction has been investigated in observational studies. However, the strength of the association is unknown...
January 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103461/-hashimoto-thyroiditis-and-periodontal-disease-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Ana Morais, Marta Resende, José Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Currently there is a growing interest in studying systemic conditions with impact on the periodontium. The aim of this article is to determinate if there is a relation between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and periodontal disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Founded on periodontology based on evidence and in the combination of the keywords: 'Hashimoto disease'; 'Hypothyroidism'; 'Periodontal disease'; 'Systemic Diseases'; a search and evaluation of articles was conducted in Medline, Scopus and Thomson Reuters databases, selecting 30 articles for integral analysis...
October 31, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102536/evaluation-of-iris-functional-capillary-density-in-experimental-local-and-systemic-inflammation
#5
N Arora, S Islam, K Wafa, J Zhou, J T Toguri, V Cerny, C Lehmann
The ocular microcirculation represents an important target to treat inflammatory diseases of eye, where impairment of microvascular blood flow plays key role as, for example, in anterior uveitis. To evaluate novel interventions targeting the microcirculation, appropriate and reliable tools to study this particular microvascular bed are needed. Intravital microscopy (IVM) belongs to several methods allowing evaluation of microcirculation experimentally, even in small animals. The aim of our study was to examine the iridial microcirculation (IMIC) in uveitis induced by local or systemic endotoxin administration in rats and mice by IVM and to propose new parameters to quantify the changes within the IMIC...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101534/pathogenicity-determinants-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum-have-ancient-origins
#6
Andrew J Brazier, Marion Avril, Maria Bernabeu, Maxwell Benjamin, Joseph D Smith
Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly of the human malaria parasites, is a member of the Laverania subgenus that also infects African Great Apes. The virulence of P. falciparum is related to cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes in microvasculature, but the origin of dangerous parasite adhesion traits is poorly understood. To investigate the evolutionary history of the P. falciparum cytoadhesion pathogenicity determinant, we studied adhesion domains from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi. We demonstrate that the P...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101186/comparative-analysis-of-signaling-pathways-in-peripheral-blood-from-patients-with-kashin-beck-disease-and-osteoarthritis
#7
Yujie Ning, Xi Wang, Sen Wang, Xiong Guo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the early diagnostic biomarkers of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), and to compare the common signaling pathways of peripheral mononuclear cells between patients with KBD and those with osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 20 and 12 peripheral blood samples were separately collected from KBD patients and normal control subjects, respectively, in an endemic area according to the diagnosis criteria. Total RNAs were extracted and gene expression levels were determined using an Agilent whole genome expression microarrays...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100502/rack1-regulates-angiotensin-ii-induced-contractions-of-shr-preglomerular-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#8
Xiao Zhu, Edwin K Jackson
The preglomerular microcirculation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) is hypersensitive to angiotensin II, and studies show that this is likely due to enhanced convergent signaling between G-protein subunits αq (Gαq; released by angiotensin II) and G-protein subunits βγ (Gβγ; released by Gi-coupled receptors) to active phospholipase C (PLC). Here we investigated the molecular basis for the enhanced convergent signaling between Gβγ and Gαq in SHR preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (PGVSMCs)...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097506/bioequivalence-methodologies-for-topical-drug-products-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-studies-with-a-corticosteroid-and-an-anti-fungal-drug
#9
Leila Bastos Leal, Sarah F Cordery, M Begoña Delgado-Charro, Annette L Bunge, Richard H Guy
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in vitro and ex vivo measurements of topical drug product performance correlate with in vivo outcomes, such that more efficient experimental approaches can be reliably and reproducibly used to establish (in)equivalence between formulations for skin application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro drug release through artificial membranes, and drug penetration into porcine skin ex vivo, were compared with published human in vivo studies...
January 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094311/evidence-of-microvascular-changes-in-the-retina-following-kawasaki-disease
#10
Katherine Y H Chen, David P Burgner, Tien Y Wong, Seang Mei Saw, Swee Chye Quek, Audrey Y C Pang, Seo Wei Leo, Inez B Wong, Diana Zannino, Nigel Curtis, Michael Cheung, Carol Y Cheung, Terence C W Lim
It is unclear whether all children with Kawasaki disease (KD) have increased later cardiovascular risk. The retinal microvasculature reflects changes in the microcirculation and is associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and events. The aim of this study was to investigate retinal microvascular parameters in two populations of patients with previous KD and control participants. We performed case-control studies of 116 (57 patients and 59 control participants) Australian and 156 (78 patients and 78 control participants) Singaporean individuals, at least two years since their acute illness...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092011/microbubble-moving-in-blood-flow-in-microchannels-effect-on-the-cell-free-layer-and-cell-local-concentration
#11
David Bento, Lúcia Sousa, Tomoko Yaginuma, Valdemar Garcia, Rui Lima, João M Miranda
Gas embolisms can hinder blood flow and lead to occlusion of the vessels and ischemia. Bubbles in microvessels circulate as tubular bubbles (Taylor bubbles) and can be trapped, blocking the normal flow of blood. To understand how Taylor bubbles flow in microcirculation, in particular, how bubbles disturb the blood flow at the scale of blood cells, experiments were performed in microchannels at a low Capillary number. Bubbles moving with a stream of in vitro blood were filmed with the help of a high-speed camera...
March 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091915/wavelet-analysis-of-cerebral-microcirculation-in-hypovolemic-shock
#12
V V Aleksandrin, A A Kubatiev
Hypovolemic shock leads to severe cerebral ischemia and increases spectral amplitudes of cerebral blood flow oscillations in respiratory frequency range.
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089921/penehyclidine-hydrochloride-prevents-anoxia-reoxygenation-injury-and-induces-h9c2-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-a-mitochondrial-pathway
#13
Zhaoqi Wang, Duomao Lin, Liang Zhang, Wenjun Liu, Hongbao Tan, Jun Ma
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is an anticholinergic drug that has been widely used in the clinic for years, evaluating for anesthetic premedication, anti-muscarinic, or improving microcirculation. However, very little is known about its protective effects against anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury in myocardiocytes. The aim of our study was to investigate the protective effects of PHC pretreatment on A/R injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. To investigate apoptosis, we used the cell viability assay, Annexin-V/PI assay, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activity measurements...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079842/increased-erythrocyte-aggregation-and-oxidative-stress-in-patients-with-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonia
#14
Erhan Ugurlu, Emine Kilic-Toprak, Goksel Altinisik, Ozgen Kilic-Erkek, Betul Cengiz, Vural Kucukatay, Hande Senol, Ismail Hakki Akbudak, Yusuf Ekbic, Melek Bor-Kucukatay
BACKGROUND: Hemorheological properties are important determinants of tissue oxygenation. Although hemorheological alterations in various lung diseases have been well-defined, no information is available about the effects of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) on hemorheological parameters. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate hemorheological parameters (erythrocyte deformability, aggregation, and plasma viscosity -PV) and associated oxidative stress indices in patients with IIP...
December 23, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079524/spatial-heterogeneity-in-the-time-and-frequency-properties-of-skin-perfusion
#15
Michele Sorelli, Zlatka Stoyneva, Irina Mizeva, Leonardo Bocchi
Pathological alterations of the microcirculatory system can be identified by measuring the temporal and spectral properties of Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) signals acquired on the skin, and their changes following physiological stimulation. A wide range of stimulation protocols and measurement locations are observed in literature. Researchers often use non-invasive stimulation techniques, such as post-occlusive hyperaemia, cold tests, and local heating. As concerns the stimulation/recording sites, the forearm, fingers, and toes are typically selected to conduct microcirculation studies...
January 12, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078225/testicular-compartment-syndrome-an-overview-of-pathophysiology-etiology-evaluation-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Yefim R Sheynkin, Noel L Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
Testicular compartment syndrome (TCS) refers to the impairment of microcirculation in the testicle due to either increased venous resistance or extraluminal compression, which leads to hypoxia. TCS releases oxidants through hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). The pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management of TCS are reviewed. Based on the properties of TCS, specific causes, e.g., varicocele, hydrocele, orchitis, cryptorchidism, and scrotal hernia, are suggested and categorized. The oxidant-induced stress from TCS may explain the correlations between these causes and infertility...
December 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077312/the-effect-of-calf-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-and-intermittent-pneumatic-compression-on-thigh-microcirculation
#17
Shayan Bahadori, Tikki Immins, Thomas W Wainwright
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effectiveness of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) device and an intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) device on enhancing microcirculatory blood flow in the thigh of healthy individuals, when stimulation is carried out peripherally at the calf. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood microcirculation of ten healthy individuals was recorded using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique. A region of interest (ROI) was marked on each participant thigh...
January 8, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073175/post-reperfusion-microcirculatory-derangements-after-liver-transplantation-relationship-to-hemodynamics-serum-mediators-and-outcome
#18
Carlo Pulitano, David Joseph, Charbel Sandroussi, Deborah Verran, Phong Ho, Ashe Debiasio, Adriano Luongo, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Nicholas Shackel, Michael Crawford
INTRODUCTION: Despite the growing data supporting the role of microcirculation in regulating liver function, little of this knowledge has been translated into clinical practice. The aim of this study is to quantify hepatic microcirculation in-vivo using sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging and correlate these finding with hepatic blood flow, hemodynamic parameters, and soluble mediators. METHODS: Post-reperfusion hepatic microcirculation was assessed using SDF imaging...
January 10, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071761/plasma-heme-induced-renal-toxicity-is-related-to-a-capillary-rarefaction
#19
Nahid Tabibzadeh, Céline Estournet, Sandrine Placier, Joëlle Perez, Héloïse Bilbault, Alexis Girshovich, Sophie Vandermeersch, Chantal Jouanneau, Emmanuel Letavernier, Nadjib Hammoudi, François Lionnet, Jean-Philippe Haymann
Severe hypertension can lead to malignant hypertension (MH) with renal thrombotic microangiopathy and hemolysis. The role of plasma heme release in this setting is unknown. We aimed at evaluating the effect of a mild plasma heme increase by hemin administration in angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertensive rats. Prevalence of MH and blood pressure values were similar in AngII and AngII + hemin groups. MH rats displayed a decreased renal blood flow (RBF), increased renal vascular resistances (RVR), and increased aorta and interlobar arteries remodeling with a severe renal microcirculation assessed by peritubular capillaries (PTC) rarefaction...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068189/intrapulpal-temperature-increase-during-er-yag-laser-aided-debonding-of-ceramic-brackets
#20
Hilal Yilanci, Zeynep Beyza Yildirim, Sabri Ilhan Ramoglu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber while using a newly introduced application of Er:YAG laser to debond ceramic brackets in a study model with a pulpal circulation with and without thermocycled samples. BACKGROUND DATA: An esthetic alternative to stainless steel brackets, ceramic brackets have been proposed. However, because of their low fracture resistance and high bond strengths, ceramic brackets can cause a problem when they are being removed using conventional techniques...
January 9, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
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