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Adverse outcome pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473646/research-review-intergenerational-transmission-of-disadvantage-epigenetics-and-parents-childhoods-as-the-first-exposure
#1
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Alison E Hipwell, Jonathan Posner, Ana Ortin, Glorisa Canino, Catherine Monk
BACKGROUND: For decades, economists and sociologists have documented intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic disadvantage, demonstrating that economic, political, and social factors contribute to 'inherited hardship'. Drawing on biological factors, the developmental origins of adult health and disease model posits that fetal exposure to maternal prenatal distress associated with socioeconomic disadvantage compromises offspring's neurodevelopment, affecting short- and long-term physical and mental health, and thereby psychosocial standing and resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473463/markers-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-associated-with-adverse-clinical-outcome-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Miriam Sjåstad Langseth, Trine Baur Opstad, Vibeke Bratseth, Svein Solheim, Harald Arnesen, Alf Åge Pettersen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Ragnhild Helseth
Background Neutrophil extracellular traps, comprising chromatin and granule proteins, have been implicated in atherothrombosis. Design and methods We investigated whether the circulating neutrophil extracellular traps markers, double-stranded DNA and myeloperoxidase-DNA were associated with clinical outcome and hypercoagulability in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Patients with angiographically verified stable coronary artery disease ( n = 1001) were included. Follow-up was 2 years, recording 106 clinical endpoints (unstable angina, non-haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction or death)...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468771/home-blood-pressure-monitoring-in-a-hypertensive-pregnant-population
#3
H Perry, E Sheehan, B Thilaganathan, A Khalil
OBJECTIVE: The majority of patients with chronic or gestational hypertension do not develop pre-eclampsia. Home blood-pressure monitoring (HBPM) has the potential to offer a more accurate and acceptable means of monitoring hypertensive patients during pregnancy compared with traditional pathways of frequent outpatient monitoring. The aim of this study was to determine whether HBPM reduces visits to antenatal services and is safe in pregnancy. METHODS: This was a case-control study of 166 hypertensive pregnant women, which took place at St George's Hospital, University of London...
February 22, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466966/real-life-patterns-of-care-and-progression-free-survival-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients-retrospective-analysis-of-cross-sectional-data
#4
Rana Maroun, Laura Mitrofan, Laure Benjamin, Gaelle Nachbaur, Franck Maunoury, Philippe Le Jeunne, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski
BACKGROUND: Patient characteristics and survival outcomes in randomized trials may be different from those in real-life clinical practice. The objective of this study was to describe treatment pathways, safety, drug costs and survival in patients with metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) in a real world setting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using IQVIA real world oncology cross-sectional survey data, a retrospective treatment database collecting anonymized patient-level data in Europe...
February 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463194/the-expression-and-prognostic-impact-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-advanced-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Ning Wu, Zunguo Du, Yongjun Zhu, Yang Song, Liewen Pang, Zhiming Chen
The abnormal phosphatase and tensin homolog expression and activated phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway are involved in the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. By assessing the expression pattern of key components in the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway by immunohistochemistry in tumor and nontumor esophageal mucosa from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, we aimed to carefully explore the relationship between the various protein expressions and clinicopathological factors, as well as patient outcome...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460925/clinical-implications-of-pten-loss-in-prostate-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Tamara Jamaspishvili, David M Berman, Ashley E Ross, Howard I Scher, Angelo M De Marzo, Jeremy A Squire, Tamara L Lotan
Genomic aberrations of the PTEN tumour suppressor gene are among the most common in prostate cancer. Inactivation of PTEN by deletion or mutation is identified in ∼20% of primary prostate tumour samples at radical prostatectomy and in as many as 50% of castration-resistant tumours. Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) function leads to activation of the PI3K-AKT (phosphoinositide 3-kinase-RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase) pathway and is strongly associated with adverse oncological outcomes, making PTEN a potentially useful genomic marker to distinguish indolent from aggressive disease in patients with clinically localized tumours...
February 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455116/linking-mode-of-action-of-the-model-respiratory-and-photosynthesis-uncoupler-3-5-dichlorophenol-to-adverse-outcomes-in-lemna-minor
#7
Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Knut Asbjørn Solhaug, You Song, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Standard chemical toxicity testing guidelines using aquatic plant Lemna minor have been developed by several international standardisation organisations. Although being highly useful for regulatory purposes by focusing on traditional adverse endpoints, these tests provide limited information about the toxic mechanisms and modes of action (MoA). The present study aimed to use selected functional assays in L. minor after exposure to 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) as a model to characterise the toxic mechanisms causing growth inhibition and lethality in primary producers...
February 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454581/emerging-roles-of-microglial-cathepsins-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jessica R Lowry, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia, and its prevalence is expected to increase dramatically due to the aging global population. Microglia-driven neuroinflammation may contribute to the progression of AD. Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), become chronically activated by the pathological proteins of AD including amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Such adversely activated microglia secrete mediators that promote inflammation and damage neurons. Cathepsins are proteases that are expressed by all brain cell types, and most of them are found both intra- and extra-cellularly...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454508/the-has-choice-study-utilizing-the-heart-score-an-adp-and-shared-decision-making-to-decrease-admissions-in-chest-pain-patients
#9
Gregory Gafni-Pappas, Susanne D DeMeester, Michael A Boyd, Arun Ganti, Adam M Nicholson, Jeremy Albright, Juan Wu
OBJECTIVE: The HAS-Choice pathway utilizes the HEART Score, an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP), and shared decision-making using a visual aid in the evaluation of chest pain patients. We seek to determine if our intervention can improve resource utilization in a community emergency department (ED) setting while maintaining safe patient care. METHODS: This was a single-center prospective cohort study with historical that included ED patients ≥21years old presenting with a primary complaint of chest pain in two time periods...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454241/frailty-and-life-course-violence-the-international-mobility-in-aging-study
#10
Cristiano Dos Santos Gomes, Catherine McLean Pirkle, Maria Vitoria Zunzunegui, Dimitri Taurino Guedes, Juliana Fernandes De Souza Barbosa, Phoebe Hwang, Ricardo Oliveira Guerra
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of frailty in older adults in the IMIAS population, to examine associations between lifelong domestic violence and frailty and possible pathways to explain these associations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 2002 men and women in the International Mobility in Aging Study, aged between 65 and 74 years old living in five cities of Tirana (Albania), Natal (Brazil), Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), and Manizales (Colombia)...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454060/aop-db-a-database-resource-for-the-exploration-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-through-integrated-association-networks
#11
Maureen E Pittman, Stephen W Edwards, Cataia Ives, Holly M Mortensen
The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework describes the progression of a toxicity pathway from molecular perturbation to population-level outcome in a series of measurable, mechanistic responses. The controlled, computer-readable vocabulary that defines an AOP has the ability to, automatically and on a large scale, integrate AOP knowledge with publically available sources of biological high-throughput data and its derived associations. To support the discovery and development of putative (existing) and potential AOPs, we introduce the AOP-DB, an exploratory database resource that aggregates association relationships between genes and their related chemicals, diseases, pathways, species orthology information, ontologies, and gene interactions...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452666/transformation-of-follicular-lymphoma-why-does-it-happen-and-can-it-be-prevented
#12
REVIEW
Brian K Link
Follicular lymphoma is a clinical disease with a multitude of presentations and behaviors. Although infrequent, transformation of follicular lymphoma to a more aggressive behaving subtype - prototypically diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - confers a substantially adverse prognosis. There is no consensus for optimal management after transformation is recognized. Historically considered a distinct clinical event, this review highlights the multiple subclinical transformational events that either variably or cumulatively result in clinical recognition of transformed follicular lymphoma...
March 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450674/risk-assessment-of-pesticides-in-estuaries-a-review-addressing-the-persistence-of-an-old-problem-in-complex-environments
#13
Nagore Cuevas, Marta Martins, Pedro M Costa
Estuaries, coastal lagoons and other transition ecosystems tend to become the ultimate reservoirs of pollutants transported by continental runoff, among which pesticides constitute the class of most concern. High amounts of dissolved and particulated organic matter greatly contribute to the accumulation of pesticides that eventually become trapped in sediments or find their way along food chains. Perhaps not so surprisingly, it is common to find elevated levels of pesticides in estuarine sediments decades after their embargo...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447091/obesity-in-pregnancy-a-comparison-of-four-national-guidelines
#14
Dana Vitner, Kristin Harris, Cynthia Maxwell, M D Farine
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy has become one of the most important challenges in obstetrical care given its prevalence and potential adverse impact on both mother and fetus. The primary objective of this descriptive review is to identify common themes and distinctions within the current recommendations for maternal obesity in the most updated version of four published national guidelines. METHODS: We reviewed the following guidelines for obesity in pregnancy: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2015, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RANZCOG) 2013, Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (RCOG) 2010, and Society of Obstetrics and Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC) 2010...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443878/skeletal-muscle-pathophysiology-the-emerging-role-of-spermine-oxidase-and-spermidine
#15
REVIEW
Manuela Cervelli, Alessia Leonetti, Guglielmo Duranti, Stefania Sabatini, Roberta Ceci, Paolo Mariottini
Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the total body mass. Preserving muscle health and function is essential for the entire body in order to counteract chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Prolonged physical inactivity, particularly among the elderly, causes muscle atrophy, a pathological state with adverse outcomes such as poor quality of life, physical disability, and high mortality. In murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, increased expression of the spermine oxidase (SMOX) enzyme has been found during cell differentiation...
February 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438001/association-between-shiftwork-and-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-females-a-population-based-case-control-study
#16
Wa Mwenga Walasa, Renee N Carey, Si Si, Lin Fritschi, Jane S Heyworth, Renae C Fernandez, Terry Boyle
OBJECTIVE: Research indicates that shiftwork may be associated with increased risks of adverse health outcomes, including some cancers. However, the evidence of an association between shiftwork and colorectal cancer risk is limited and inconclusive. Further, while several possible pathways through which shiftwork might result in cancer have been proposed, few studies have taken these factors into account. We investigated the association between two types of shiftwork (graveyard shiftwork and early-morning shiftwork) and six mechanistic shiftwork variables (including light at night and phase shift) and the risk of colorectal cancer among females in an Australian population-based case-control study...
February 3, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435741/the-pivotal-role-of-imaging-in-tavr-procedures
#17
REVIEW
Caroline Bleakley, Mark J Monaghan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is underpinned by an array of imaging techniques designed to not only select an appropriately sized implant but also to identify potential obstacles to procedural success. This review presents currently important aspects of TAVR imaging, describing the salient features of each modality as well as recent developments in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest data on TAVR outcomes reflects the increasing experience of operators and the significant role of pre-procedural imaging...
February 12, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435357/right-from-the-start-protocol-for-a-pilot-study-for-a-randomised-trial-of-the-new-baby-programme-for-improving-outcomes-for-children-born-to-socially-vulnerable-mothers
#18
Geraldine Macdonald, Fiona Alderdice, Mike Clarke, Oliver Perra, Fiona Lynn, Theresa McShane, Sharon Millen
Background: Children born to mothers who experience social complexity (e.g. substance misuse, intimate partner violence, mental ill health, a history of maltreatment) are at increased risk for a range of adverse outcomes at birth and during development. Home visiting programmes have been advocated as a strategy for improving outcomes for disadvantaged mothers and children, such as the Nurse-Family Partnership for young, socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. However, no evidence-based programme is available for multiparous women or older first-time mothers...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432759/bisphenol-a-exposure-disturbs-the-bone-metabolism-an-evolving-interest-towards-an-old-culprit
#19
REVIEW
Zar Chi Thent, Gabriele Ruth Anisah Froemming, Suhaila Muid
Bisphenol A (BPA) (2,2,-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane), a well-known endocrine disruptor (ED), is the exogenous chemical that mimic the natural endogenous hormone like oestrogen. Due to its extensive exposure to humans, BPA is considered to be a major toxicological agent for general population. Environmental exposure of BPA results in adverse health outcomes including bone loss. BPA disturbs the bone health by decreasing the plasma calcium level and inhibiting the calcitonin secretion. BPA also stimulated differentiation and induced apoptosis in human osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
February 9, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431554/development-of-an-adverse-outcome-pathway-for-chemically-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-case-study-of-afb1-a-human-carcinogen-with-a-mutagenic-mode-of-action
#20
Martha M Moore, Rita S Schoeny, Richard A Becker, Kimberly White, Lynn H Pottenger
Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are frameworks starting with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by key events (KEs) linked by KE relationships (KERs), ultimately resulting in a specific adverse outcome. Relevant data for the pathway and each KE/KER are evaluated to assess biological plausibility, weight-of-evidence, and confidence. We aimed to describe an AOP relevant to chemicals directly inducing mutation in cancer critical gene(s), via the formation of chemical-specific pro-mutagenic DNA adduct(s), as an early critical step in tumor etiology...
February 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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