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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670873/severe-urban-outdoor-air-pollution-and-children-s-structural-and-functional-brain-development-from-evidence-to-precautionary-strategic-action
#2
Amedeo D'Angiulli
According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667272/different-brain-networks-underlying-intelligence-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Emmanuel Peng Kiat Pua, Charles B Malpas, Stephen C Bowden, Marc L Seal
There has been sustained clinical and cognitive neuroscience research interest in how network correlates of brain-behavior relationships might be altered in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. As previous work has mostly focused on adults, the nature of whole-brain connectivity networks underlying intelligence in pediatric cohorts with abnormal neurodevelopment requires further investigation. We used network-based statistics (NBS) to examine the association between resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) connectivity and fluid intelligence ability in male children (n = 50) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; M = 10...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663335/long-term-efficacy-of-add-on-lacosamide-treatment-in-children-and-adolescents-with-refractory-epilepsies-a-single-center-observational-study
#4
Anna Rosati, Lucrezia Ilvento, Riccardo Rizzi, Viola Doccini, Maria Carmela Leo, Alessandra Pugi, Salvatore De Masi, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide (LCM) as adjunctive treatment through a retrospective study in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsies. METHODS: All patients consecutively treated with LCM as add-on for refractory focal and generalized epilepsy and followed at the Neuroscience Center of Excellence of the Meyer Children's Hospital of Florence between January 2011 and September 2015 were included in the study. Responder rate, relapse-free survival, and retention rate were calculated...
April 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625429/a-latent-variable-approach-to-differentiating-neural-mechanisms-of-irritability-and-anxiety-in-youth
#5
Katharina Kircanski, Lauren K White, Wan-Ling Tseng, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Heather R Frank, Stefanie Sequeira, Susan Zhang, Rany Abend, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Importance: Comorbidity is ubiquitous in psychiatry, but it is unclear how to differentiate neural mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms. Pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Threat orienting is pertinent to both phenotypes and is an ideal context in which to examine their unique and common neural mechanisms. Objectives: To decompose the unique and shared variances of pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms and to determine neural correlates of these differentiated phenotypes during threat orienting...
April 6, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475818/outcome-measures-for-children-with-movement-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Emanuela Pagliano, Giovanni Baranello, Riccardo Masson, Maria Foscan, Maria Teresa Arnoldi, Alessia Marchi, Giorgia Aprile, Chiara Pantaleoni
The huge contribution of advances in the pediatric neurosciences, improvements in clinical practice, and new therapeutic options, has led to the development of new models of treatment and rehabilitation for dystonia in the last decade. It is now generally agreed that a multidimensional therapeutic approach is needed for children with motor disorders, whose motor function-conceived as a complex perceptive, motor and cognitive process - is impaired at a crucial time in their development, with a fall out on how their various adaptive functions evolve...
May 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314142/retinoblastoma-the-visible-cns-tumor-a-review
#7
Helen Dimaras, Timothy W Corson
The pediatric ocular cancer retinoblastoma is the only central nervous system (CNS) tumor readily observed without specialized equipment: it can be seen by, and in, the naked eye. This accessibility enables unique imaging modalities. Here, we review this cancer for a neuroscience audience, highlighting these clinical and research imaging options, including fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss the subtype of retinoblastoma driven by the MYCN oncogene more commonly associated with neuroblastoma, and consider trilateral retinoblastoma, in which an intracranial tumor arises along with ocular tumors in patients with germline RB1 gene mutations...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201120/long-term-video-eeg-monitoring-findings-in-children-and-adolescents-with-intractable-epilepsy
#8
Yasaman Ghazavi, Ebrahim Asayesh Zarchi, Taher Taheri, Mahdi Safiabadi, Elham Rahimian, Susan Amirsalari
Objective: Long Term Video-EEG Monitoring (LTM) may give us important information in the preoperative assessment of these patients. We performed this study for the first time in pediatric age group in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 43 children between 4 to 18 yr, with intractable epilepsy referred to Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Tehran, Iranfrom2007-2012, were enrolled to study in order to evaluate their long-term video EEG findings...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171799/surgical-management-of-cerebellopontine-angle-arachnoid-cysts-associated-with-hearing-deficit-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Mario Giordano, Massimo Gallieni, Amir Samii, Concezio Di Rocco, Madjid Samii
OBJECTIVE Few cases of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) arachnoid cysts in pediatric patients have been described in the literature, and in only 2 of these cases were the patients described as suffering from hearing deficit. In this article, the authors report on 3 pediatric patients with CPA arachnoid cysts (2 with hearing loss and 1 with recurrent headaches) who underwent neurosurgical treatment at the authors' institution. METHODS Four pediatric patients were diagnosed with CPA arachnoid cysts at the International Neuroscience Institute during the period from October 2004 through August 2012, and 3 of these patients underwent surgical treatment...
February 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843663/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-brain-failure-a-novel-end-point
#10
Tarun D Singh, John C O'Horo, Ognjen Gajic, Amra Sakusic, Courtney N Day, Jay Mandrekar, Rahul Kashyap, Dereddi Raja Shekar Reddy, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of acute brain failure (ABF) in a mixed medical and surgical cohort of critically ill patients and its effect on ICU & hospital mortality. DESIGN: Observational electronic medical record (EMR) based retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between 2006 and 2013. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Consecutive adult (>18years) critically ill patients admitted to medical and surgical ICUs...
February 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802366/formula-for-the-prediction-of-apnea-hypopnea-index-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-without-polysomnography-according-to-the-clinical-parameters-is-it-reliable
#11
Zlatko Kljajić, Željka Roje, Kristijan Bečić, Vesna Čapkun, K Vilović, Petar Ivanišević, Eugenija Marušić
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to propose "the risk formula" for obstructive sleep apnea in children according to the general and local clinical parameters and findings relevant for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity. The unmet need for this formula arises from the economic burden of polysomnography (device, staff, training, special sleep centers, etc) as the golden standard for the diagnostics. MATERIALS AND METHODS USED: The study was performed from January 2013 until January 2016 in the Sleep Center, Department for Neuroscience, School of Medicine of the University of Split, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Croatia and ENT Dept...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697264/early-adversity-toxic-stress-and-resilience-pediatrics-for-today
#12
M Denise Dowd
Never before in the history of science have we had better insight into the factors that determine the health and well-being of a person from infancy to adulthood. An expanding body of knowledge is converging from numerous disciplines including neuroscience, education, behavioral science, public health, the social sciences, and medicine. Awareness of the impact of early childhood adversity and toxic stress is growing rapidly among both professionals and the lay public. This calls for a reevaluation of how and what we, as child health care providers, should deliver to maximize our impact on individual health and well-being across the lifespan...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668576/functional-outcomes-following-lesions-in-visual-cortex-implications-for-plasticity-of-high-level-vision
#13
REVIEW
Tina T Liu, Marlene Behrmann
Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes...
October 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654034/use-of-a-piglet-model-for-the-study-of-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity-aidn-a-translational-neuroscience-approach
#14
Emmett E Whitaker, Christopher Z Zheng, Bruno Bissonnette, Andrew D Miller, Tanner L Koppert, Joseph D Tobias, Christopher R Pierson, Fedias L Christofi
Anesthesia cannot be avoided in many cases when surgery is required, particularly in children. Recent investigations in animals have raised concerns that anesthesia exposure may lead to neuronal apoptosis, known as anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Furthermore, some clinical studies in children have suggested that anesthesia exposure may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits later in life. Nonetheless, an ideal animal model for preclinical study has yet to be developed. The neonatal piglet represents a valuable model for preclinical study, as they share a striking number of developmental similarities with humans...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612089/the-intensive-care-delirium-research-agenda-a-multinational-interprofessional-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Pratik P Pandharipande, E Wesley Ely, Rakesh C Arora, Michele C Balas, Malaz A Boustani, Gabriel Heras La Calle, Colm Cunningham, John W Devlin, Julius Elefante, Jin H Han, Alasdair M MacLullich, José R Maldonado, Alessandro Morandi, Dale M Needham, Valerie J Page, Louise Rose, Jorge I F Salluh, Tarek Sharshar, Yahya Shehabi, Yoanna Skrobik, Arjen J C Slooter, Heidi A B Smith
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda...
September 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505989/pediatric-robotic-rehabilitation-current-knowledge-and-future-trends-in-treating-children-with-sensorimotor-impairments
#16
Konstantinos P Michmizos, Hermano Igo Krebs
BACKGROUND: Robot-aided sensorimotor therapy imposes highly repetitive tasks that can translate to substantial improvement when patients remain cognitively engaged into the clinical procedure, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. Knowing that the child's brain is much more plastic than an adult's, it is reasonable to expect that the clinical gains observed in the adult population during the last two decades would be followed up by even greater gains in children. Nonetheless, and despite the multitude of adult studies, in children we are just getting started: There is scarcity of pediatric robotic rehabilitation devices that are currently available and the number of clinical studies that employ them is also very limited...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422632/somatosensory-discrimination-intervention-improves-body-position-sense-and-motor-performance-in-children-with-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy
#17
Belinda McLean, Susan Taylor, Eve Blair, Jane Valentine, Leeanne Carey, Catherine Elliott
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the use of the adult neuroscience-based Sense© intervention with children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) to improve upper-limb somatosensory discrimination, motor function, and goal performance. METHOD: Seventeen children with HCP (9 boys, 8 girls; mean age = 10.2 yr) participated in this pilot matched-pairs trial with random allocation and 6-mo follow-up (intervention, n = 7; control, n = 10). The intervention group received Sense training 3×/wk for 6 wk (18 hr)...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378287/pediatric-thoracic-sciwora-after-back-bend-during-dance-practice-a-retrospective-case-series-and-analysis-of-trauma-mechanisms
#18
Jian Ren, Gao Zeng, Yong-Jie Ma, Nan Chen, Zan Chen, Feng Ling, Hong-Qi Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to describe a unique type of low-energy traumatic pediatric thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) after a back bend during dance practice and analyze the trauma mechanisms and treatment protocols. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series from September 2007 to August 2016. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Beijing, China (Xuanwu Hospital, China International Neuroscience Institute [China-INI], Capital Medical University)...
July 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274677/pediatric-irritability-a-systems-neuroscience-approach
#19
REVIEW
Ellen Leibenluft
Irritability, defined as an increased propensity to exhibit increased anger relative to one's peers, is a common clinical problem in youth. Irritability can be conceptualized as aberrant responses to frustration (where frustration is the emotional response to blocked goal attainment) and/or aberrant 'approach' responses to threat. Irritable youth show hyper-reactivity to threat mediated by dysfunction in amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, and association cortex...
April 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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