Read by QxMD icon Read

Pediatric neuroscience

Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Hannah Robins, Victoria Perron, Lauren C Heathcote, Laura E Simons
Chronic pain is a widespread problem in the field of pediatrics. Many interventions to ameliorate pain-related dysfunction have a biobehavioral focus. As treatments for chronic pain (e.g., increased movement) often stand in stark contrast to treatments for an acute injury (e.g., rest), providing a solid rationale for treatment is necessary to gain patient and parent buy-in. Most pain treatment interventions incorporate psychoeducation, or pain neuroscience education (PNE), as an essential component, and in some cases, as a stand-alone approach...
December 21, 2016: Children
Suparna Choudhury, Sheehan Moore
Technological developments in neuroscience over the last 20 years have generated excitement about the potential of neuroscientific insights for the understanding of and intervention in children's and adolescents' behavior. This article introduces some ways in which new results from developmental cognitive neuroscience have been appropriated in the context of adolescent mental health. We also consider social and interpersonal factors that drive the use of neurobiological markers of mental disorders in pediatric psychiatry...
December 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Virginia Way Tong Chu
Proprioception is the subconscious and conscious awareness of the spatial and mechanical status of the musculoskeletal framework. When working with children with motor delays and sensory integrative dysfunction, occupational therapists routinely assess the client's proprioceptive system. However, currently available assessments for occupational therapists are primarily observer-based and concerns have been raised about the reliability of observer-based assessments of sensation. The author's purpose was to review measures of proprioception currently available to occupational therapists and explore direct measures of proprioception from neuroscience and rehabilitation that can be adapted for pediatric clinical use...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yoshio Okada, Matti Hämäläinen, Kevin Pratt, Anthony Mascarenas, Paul Miller, Menglai Han, Jose Robles, Anders Cavallini, Bill Power, Kosal Sieng, Limin Sun, Seok Lew, Chiran Doshi, Banu Ahtam, Christoph Dinh, Lorenz Esch, Ellen Grant, Aapo Nummenmaa, Douglas Paulson
We developed a 375-channel, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system ("BabyMEG") for studying the electrophysiological development of human brain during the first years of life. The helmet accommodates heads up to 95% of 36-month old boys in the USA. The unique two-layer sensor array consists of: (1) 270 magnetometers (10 mm diameter, ∼15 mm coil-to-coil spacing) in the inner layer, (2) thirty-five three-axis magnetometers (20 mm × 20 mm) in the outer layer 4 cm away from the inner layer. Additionally, there are three three-axis reference magnetometers...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: Neuroethics describes several interdisciplinary topics exploring the application and implications of engaging neuroscience in societal contexts. To explore this topic, we present Part 3 of a four-part bibliography of neuroethics' literature focusing on the "ethics of neuroscience." METHODS: To complete a systematic survey of the neuroethics literature, 19 databases and 4 individual open-access journals were employed. Searches were conducted using the indexing language of the U...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Natalya Lisovska, Zholtay Daribayev, Yevgeny Lisovskyy, Kenzhe Kussainova, Lana Austin, Sholpan Bulekbayeva
BACKGROUND: The cerebral palsy is highly actual issue of pediatrics, causing significant neurological disability. Though the great progress in the neuroscience has been recently achieved, the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy is still poorly understood. METHODS: In this work, we reviewed available experimental and clinical data concerning the role of immune cells in pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. Maintaining of homeostasis in nervous tissue and its transformation in case of periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed...
November 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
C J Westmark, D K Sokol, B Maloney, D K Lahiri
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and is associated with up to 5% of autism cases. Several promising drugs are in preclinical testing for FXS; however, bench-to-bedside plans for the clinic are severely limited due to lack of validated biomarkers and outcome measures. Published work from our laboratories has demonstrated altered levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) and its metabolites in FXS and idiopathic autism. Westmark and colleagues have focused on β-secretase (amyloidogenic) processing and the accumulation of Aβ peptides in adult FXS models, whereas Lahiri and Sokol have studied α-secretase (non-amyloidogenic or anabolic) processing and altered levels of sAPPα and Aβ in pediatric autism and FXS...
October 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Nora D Volkow
Unaccounted temporal dynamics of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics challenges their potential as biomarkers for clinical applications in neuroscience. Here we studied the scan time required to reach stable values for various FC metrics including seed-voxel correlations and spatial independent component analyses (sICA), and for the local functional connectivity density (lFCD), a graph theory metric. By increasing the number of time points included in the analysis, we assessed the effects of scan time on convergence of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and reliability of these FC metrics...
August 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Margaret C Grabb, Jogarao V S Gobburu
Many psychiatric and behavioral disorders manifest in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, etc.) and the opportunity for intervening early may attenuate full development of the disorder and lessen long term disability. Yet, pediatric drug approvals for CNS indications are limited, and pediatric testing generally occurs only after establishing adult efficacy, more as an afterthought rather than with the initial goal of developing the medication for a pediatric CNS indication...
May 20, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Janhvi Jaiswal, Arun H Shastry, Arvind Ramesh, Yasha T Chickabasaviah, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, Vani Santosh
BACKGROUND: Hospital-based cancer registries (HBCRs) provide information on the magnitude and distribution of cancers in a given hospital. Hospital-based brain tumor registry (HBBTR) data on primary intracranial tumors from a tertiary care neurological center is presented. This is compared with related national and international data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients operated for brain tumors at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India, between January 2010 and December 2014 was collected...
May 2016: Neurology India
Sara B Johnson, Jenna L Riis, Kimberly G Noble
In the United States, >40% of children are either poor or near-poor. As a group, children in poverty are more likely to experience worse health and more developmental delay, lower achievement, and more behavioral and emotional problems than their more advantaged peers; however, there is broad variability in outcomes among children exposed to similar conditions. Building on a robust literature from animal models showing that environmental deprivation or enrichment shapes the brain, there has been increasing interest in understanding how the experience of poverty may shape the brain in humans...
April 2016: Pediatrics
Erik H Hoyer, Charles A Odonkor, Sumit N Bhatia, Curtis Leung, Amy Deutschendorf, Daniel J Brotman
OBJECTIVE: Hospital discharge summaries can provide valuable information to future providers and may help to prevent hospital readmissions. We sought to examine whether the number of days to complete hospital discharge summaries is associated with 30-day readmission rate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on 87,994 consecutive discharges between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014, in a large urban academic hospital. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between days to complete the discharge summary and hospital readmissions while controlling for age, gender, race, payer, hospital service (gynecology-obstetrics, medicine, neurosciences, oncology, pediatrics, and surgical sciences), discharge location, length of stay, expected readmission rate in Maryland based on diagnosis and illness severity, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Comorbidity Index...
June 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Elizabeth J Siembida, Keith M Bellizzi
Several national reports and many individuals in the clinical oncology community have defined the adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer population as individuals diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39. However, neuroscience and developmental research have identified important decision-making skills (e.g., information processing, reasoning, emotion regulation) that are not fully developed during adolescence, making general, AYA-focused doctor-patient interaction guidelines potentially questionable for the adolescent cancer population...
September 2015: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Robert W Block
All adults once were children, and children exposed to unrelenting adversities or toxic stress are at risk for developing a multitude of health conditions that threaten their development and eventual adult health status. Pediatricians and their pediatric surgeon colleagues can help families and their children develop resiliency by properly addressing the needs of families and their children and by participating in advocacy opportunities related to federal, state, and local policies affecting children. Evolving neuroscience that expands our knowledge of brain health and the relatively new field of epigenetics continue to contribute scientific information that underscores the need for attention to the health and wellbeing of the developing child in order to prevent many diseases and conditions among adults that continue to escalate healthcare costs...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Prabha S Chandra, Geetha Desai, Dharma Reddy, Harish Thippeswamy, Gayatri Saraf
BACKGROUND: Several Western countries have established mother-baby psychiatric units for women with mental illness in the postpartum; similar facilities are however not available in most low and medium income countries owing to the high costs of such units and the need for specially trained personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first dedicated inpatient mother-baby unit (MBU) was started in Bengaluru, India, in 2009 at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in response to the growing needs of mothers with severe mental illness and their infants...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Intrauterine methamphetamine exposure adversely affects the neurofunctional profile of exposed children, leading to a variety of higher order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments (Kiblawi et al. in J Dev Behav Pediatr 34:31-37, 2013; Piper et al. in Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:432-439 2011; Roussotte et al. in Neuroimage 54:3067-3075, 2011; Twomey et al. in Am J Orthopsychiatry 83:64-72, 2013). In animal models of developmental methamphetamine, both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes critically depend on the timing of methamphetamine administration...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sabina Jagdevan, Kamath Sriganesh, Paritosh Pandey, Madhusudan Reddy, G S Umamaheswara Rao
BACKGROUND: Moya Moya disease (MMD) is one of the most common cerebro-vascular diseases in children resulting in stroke. Surgical revascularization aims at improving the perfusion to the 'at-risk' ischemic brain. Several factors including peri-operative anesthetic related ones, affect the outcome in these children. This study was performed with the aim to explore the role of anesthetic techniques, pharmacological agents and perioperative management strategies on the neurological outcome following an indirect revascularization procedure for the treatment of MMD...
September 2015: Neurology India
Terry L Jernigan, Timothy T Brown, Hauke Bartsch, Anders M Dale
Based on the Huttenlocher lecture, this article describes the need for a more integrative scientific paradigm for addressing important questions raised by key observations made over 2 decades ago. Among these are the early descriptions by Huttenlocher of variability in synaptic density in cortex of postmortem brains of children of different ages and the almost simultaneous reports of cortical volume reductions on MR imaging in children and adolescents. In spite of much progress in developmental neurobiology, developmental cognitive neuroscience, and behavioral and imaging genetics, we still do not know how these early observations relate to each other...
April 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Peiman Haddad, Sohrab Shazadi, Farhad Samiei, Homayoun Hadizadeh Kharrazi, Morteza Tabatabaeefar, Afshin Rakhsha, Mohammad Faranoosh, Mohammad Torabi-Nami, Ali Dadras, Atieh Liaghi, Leila Nafarieh
Research and practice of neuro-oncology compiles clinical neuroscience expertise from neurosurgery, radiation oncology, neuroradiology, medical oncology, neuropathology and related disciplines to optimize planning and therapy in central nervous system malignancies. Such an interdisciplinary context prompted health-care providers from all related disciplines to establish the Neuro-Oncology Scientific Club (NOSC) in Iran and let it flourish since 3 years ago. With the advent of advanced technologies and through continued share of experience, NOSC members have tried to provide more integrated diagnoses and therapeutic care to brain tumor patients across the country...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"