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R Perlstein, S McCoombe, C Shaw, C Nowson
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. RESULTS: A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire...
October 13, 2016: Public Health
Lori A Stolz, Uwe Stolz, J Matthew Fields, Turandot Saul, Michael Secko, Matthew J Flannigan, Johnathan M Sheele, Robert P Rifenburg, Anthony J Weekes, Elaine B Josephson, John Bedolla, Dana M Resop, Jonathan Dela Cruz, Megan Boysen-Osborn, Terrell Caffery, Charlotte Derr, Rimon Bengiamin, Gerardo Chiricolo, Brandon Backlund, Jagdipak Heer, Robert J Hyde, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
N V Todd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Jaclyn Yoong, Aleece MacPhail, Gael Trytel, Prashanti Yalini Rajendram, Margaret Winbolt, Joseph E Ibrahim
Objective Limitation of Medical Treatment (LMT) forms are an essential element of end-of-life care. Decision making around LMT is complex and often involves patients with dementia. Despite the complexity, junior doctors frequently play a central role in completing LMT forms. The present study sought perspectives from a range of stakeholders (hospital clinicians, medical education personnel, legal and advocacy staff) about junior doctors' roles in completing LMT forms in general and for patients with dementia...
October 14, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
James Conniff
A transformation in legal and cultural attitudes toward same-sex relationships is under way nationwide. As same-sex marriage has become legal, the unique social and medicolegal issues faced by individuals in same-sex relationships are evolving rapidly. National organizations have published recommendations for making clinical environments more inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) individuals and their families. Medical issues for patients in same-sex relationships include a higher risk of HIV infection for men who have sex with men (a majority of new cases of HIV infection occur within relationships), higher rates of obesity among women who have sex with women, and disproportionately high rates of mental health issues and alcohol and drug use...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Asad J Choudhry, Nadeem N Haddad, Matthew Martin, Cornelius A Thiels, Elizabeth B Habermann, Martin D Zielinski
OBJECTIVE: Given the current rate of obesity in the USA, it has been estimated that close to half of the US adult population could be obese by 2030, resulting in greater demand for bariatric procedures. Our objective was to analyze malpractice litigation related to bariatric surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of Westlaw (Thompson Reuters) of all bariatric operations that resulted in the filing of a malpractice claim. Each case was reviewed for pertinent medicolegal information related to the procedure, claim, and trial...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
J V Turner, S Agatonovic-Kustrn, Hrg Ward
Clinical use of drugs is approved for specified clinical indication, route of administration, dose and population group. Off-label prescribing of a registered medicine occurs outside of these parameters and may be justified by pharmacology and physiology, as well as sufficient evidence from published clinical trials and reviews. Misoprostol and mifepristone in combination have recently been registered in Australia for medical termination of pregnancy in women of child-bearing age. There is good clinical evidence for efficacy and safety of misoprostol in uterine evacuation in both miscarriage and termination of pregnancy...
December 28, 2015: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
J Liebenberg, L Du Toit-Prinsloo, V Steenkamp, G Saayman
BACKGROUND: Globally, illicit drugs are responsible for many fatalities annually, yet accurate data on the nature and extent of these deaths in South Africa (SA) are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and profile of illicit drugs detected in deceased persons who were subjected to medicolegal autopsies and upon whom analyses were carried out in search of illicit drugs in their body fluids at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL), SA, over a 10-year period...
September 7, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
B S Van Deventer, S H Rossouw, L Du Toit-Prinsloo
BACKGROUND:  Sudden and unexpected death is well known to occur in infants, and although sudden deaths are less frequent after the first birthday, they still account for a significant proportion of childhood deaths. In 2009, 1.9% of the total deaths in the USA were childhood deaths. In South Africa (SA) this proportion was much higher at 11.85%. According to the law, sudden and unexpected deaths are generally investigated as unnatural deaths. Establishing an exact underlying anatomical cause of death will depend on available resources and can be difficult in a substantial proportion of cases...
September 6, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
C Bass, P Halligan
Interest in malingering has grown in recent years, and is reflected in the exponential increase in academic publications since 1990. Although malingering is more commonly detected in medicolegal practice, it is not an all-or-nothing presentation and moreover can vary in the extent of presentation. As a nonmedical disorder, the challenge for clinical practice remains that malingering by definition is intentional and deliberate. As such, clinical skills alone are often insufficient to detect it and we describe psychometric tests such as symptom validity tests and relevant nonmedical investigations...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Xiangdi Yu, Fangxiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pain during cesarean delivery is one of the more common reasons for a successful medicolegal claim. However, creating an extensive block area can result in hypotension, so determining the precise dose of local anesthetic is critical. OBJECTIVES: Investigate effects of parturient height on the median effective dose (ED50) of intrathecally-administered ropivacaine. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional analytic study. SETTING: Anesthesiology department in a provinicial hospital in China...
September 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Syril Keena T Que, Jane M Grant-Kels, Caterina Longo, Giovanni Pellacani
The use of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and other noninvasive imaging devices can potentially streamline clinical care, leading to more precise and efficient management of skin cancer. This article explores the potential role of RCM in cutaneous oncology, as an adjunct to more established techniques of detecting and monitoring for skin cancer, such as dermoscopy and total body photography. Discussed are current barriers to the adoption of RCM, diagnostic workflows and standards of care in the United States and Europe, and medicolegal issues...
October 2016: Dermatologic Clinics
Andrew D Seidman, Darius K Amjadi, Tammy De La Melena, Darren Wheeler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Population Health Management
R Riepl, U Friebe-Hoffmann
The majority of women take at least one form of medication during pregnancy. Due to often discrepant information about the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals during pregnancy, physicians are often beset by uncertainty with respect to prescription and the fear of medicolegal consequences is high. As prospective clinical trials on drug safety during pregnancy are prohibited due to ethical reasons and animal studies are of limited applicability to humans, drug recommendations often only rely on observational data...
September 28, 2016: HNO
Hans Peter Dietz, Lynda Exton
Natural childbirth ideology has become dominant across much of the developed world. This ideology increasingly clashes with the reality of modern obstetrics, which is dealing with a demographic that is getting older and more obese, hence more complicated, and it has become a danger to the health of women and babies. The most visible expression of these trends is the focus on caesarean section rates which have become a key performance indicator of obstetric services. This trend is resulting in increasingly obvious negative consequences for morbidity and mortality, as chronicled in the Morecambe Bay Report, published in the UK last year...
October 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Homer Yang
PURPOSE: Is professionalism in medicine just another bureaucratic imposition on our practice or a fundamental concept for physicians at all stages in their career? In this review, the historical perspectives of professionalism are explored as well as the what, why, and how questions concerning this topic. SOURCE: The key words "professionalism" and "anesthesia" were used to conduct a search of the PubMed database, the policies and publications of relevant Canadian and international physician regulatory bodies and organizations, historical documents, and other internet publications...
September 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Sheldon H Preskorn
Suicide is a staggering, tragic, and growing cause of death in the United States. Despite a government-led 20-year effort, the suicide rate increased by 25% between 1999 and 2014. To prevent suicide, it is essential to understand the biological factors-genetic and epigenetic-and environmental factors that underlie it. To gain this increased understanding, the equivalent of the "War on Cancer" initiative is needed. The War on Cancer initiative, which began in the 1970s, has transformed the treatments and outcomes of cancer, and the same could occur with a similar initiative on suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Huitong Liu, Qiaofeng Wang, Ze Zhao, Yanan Xie, Suzhen Ding, Zhenyuan Wang
This research was aimed at discovering the serological and histological changes in cardiac and hepatic tissue after electric shock. The CK-MB, ALT, and AMS indexes were tested with serological methods. Moreover, the Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60 expression levels were carefully measured. An electrical injury model was established by giving rats electric shocks at 110 V with alternating electric current. Blood samples from the rats were analyzed for the biochemical indexes. The degrees of pathological changes in the heart and liver were evaluated using IHC staining for Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60...
2016: BioMed Research International
Zanthé Kotzé, Martin H Villet, Christopher W Weldon
Blowfly larvae aggregate on exposed carcasses and corpses and pass through three instars before wandering from the carcass and pupating. The developmental landmarks in this process can be used by forensic entomologists to estimate the time since the insects colonised the carcass, which sets a minimum post mortem interval. Large aggregations of feeding larvae generate a microclimate with temperatures up to 15°C above ambient conditions, which may accelerate larval development and affect forensic estimates of post-mortem intervals...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mazda K Turel, Mark Bernstein
The current trend in all fields of surgery is towards less invasive procedures with shorter hospital stays. The reasons for this change include convenience to patients, optimal resource utilization, and cost saving. Technological advances in neurosurgery, aided by improvements in anesthesia, have resulted in surgery that is faster, simpler, and safer with excellent perioperative recovery. As a result of improved outcomes, some centers are performing brain tumor surgery on an outpatient basis, wherein patients arrive at the hospital the morning of their procedure and leave the hospital the same evening, thus avoiding an overnight stay in the hospital...
September 2016: Neurology India
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