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Alessandro di Luca, Giuseppe Vetrugno, Vincenzo Lorenzo Pascali, Antonio Oliva, Al Ozonoff
OBJECTIVES: Italy is experiencing a crisis of malpractice litigation with important repercussions on the insurance industry (e.g., lower profits), physicians (e.g., defensive medicine), and the courts (e.g., work backlog, lengthy proceedings). We searched for common ground between legal systems in Italy and the United States and considered the implications for international collaborations in patient safety. METHODS: We examined the judicial frameworks of medical malpractice litigation in two countries with different legal foundations: the United States (a public-private system governed by common law) and Italy (a publicly financed healthcare system governed by civil law)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Ugo Indraccolo, Salvatore Renato Indraccolo, Piergiorgio Fedeli
A new case of a de novo 3q26.33q27.3 microdeletion is reported. The fetus had a sonographically undiagnosable polymalformative syndrome. The case highlights the difficulties of echographic diagnosis of such syndromes and leads to reflection on the difficulties of appropriate counselling in cases of uncertainty.
2018: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Vishaal Bhambhwani, Rasha Al Taie, Judy Ku, Justin Mora
PURPOSE: To analyze the additive effect of supplementing verbal consent with written patient information sheets in optimizing patients' and families' understanding of strabismus surgery. METHODS: A prospective randomized study was conducted with 28 patients for strabismus surgery randomized into two groups: group 1 with standardized oral informed consent, and group 2 with standardized oral consent and a written information sheet. A confidential questionnaire with 13 questions was completed by patients and families before surgery...
March 13, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Timothy Patterson, Peter Currie, Robert Spence, Sinead McNally, Gary Spence
BACKGROUND: Inguinal hernia is a common surgical presentation. Evidence for its causation regarding occupational and recreational physical exposures is limited. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review objectively evaluating the evidence for a causal link between a single strenuous event and the development of an inguinal hernia. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library were searched...
March 10, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Marcus Schiltenwolf
Medicolegal assessments of claimants with chronic muskuloskeletal pain conditions are frequent. The first German guideline published in 2005 for the medicolegal assessment of claimants in chronic pain is now available in its 4th version (AWMF register number 094 - 003). It gives recommendations for the procedure and serves to ensure the quality of expert opinions when complaints about chronic pain are the leading symptom. In the current version, the indications for ordering medical assessments in pain syndromes have been reformulated, the assessment criteria have been adapted to ICF specifications, and an unequivocal distinction has been introduced between questions of state and causal assessment...
March 9, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Amal Nishantha Vadysinghe, Chatula Usari Wickramashinghe, Dineshi Nadira Nanayakkara, Chandishni Ishara Kaluarachchi
Child abuse is a sensitive topic among many medical practitioners and the diagnosis of this entity requires awareness about conditions which can mimic physical child abuse. Here, the authors present a case of a 13-year-old school non-attendee who was referred due to multiple scars, over areas prone to accidental as well as non-accidental injury, who underwent medicolegal examination due to suspicion of physical child abuse. On further inquiry, it was discovered that she had easy bruising and poor wound healing...
January 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Colin Smith, Tracey Millar
Brain banks typically receive donations through premortem consent procedures, often through disease-specific patient cohorts, such as dementia. While some control cases can be obtained through this route, access to age-matched control tissues, and some chronic neurologic conditions, particularly psychiatric disorders, can be challenging. The Edinburgh Sudden Death Brain Bank was established to try and increase access to control cases across all ages, and also access to psychiatric disorders through suicides...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Gil Graziani, Sigal Tal, Adi Adelman, Chen Kugel, Tali Bdolah-Abram, Alon Krispin
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Post-mortem CT (PMCT) is becoming an essential tool available to forensic pathologists worldwide, but its validity with respect to evidence for legal purposes still requires more comprehensive large-scale studies, comparing PMCT to autopsy. This article compares PMCT and autopsy findings of the head, neck, and spine during a period of five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 203 cases for which both autopsy and PMCT were performed...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Lara Olivieri, Debora Mazzarelli, Barbara Bertoglio, Danilo De Angelis, Carlo Previderè, Pierangela Grignani, Annalisa Cappella, Silvano Presciuttini, Caterina Bertuglia, Paola Di Simone, Nicolò Polizzi, Agata Iadicicco, Vittorio Piscitelli, Cristina Cattaneo
Every year thousands of migrants die during the endeavour to reach the Italian coasts, making the Mediterranean the theatre of one of the greatest tragedies of mankind. Over 60% of these victims is buried unidentified: one of the reasons behind this is related to the specific difficulties and lack of strategies concerning AM and PM data collection. The present article describes how Italy is trying to face the problem of migrant identification, thanks to the collaboration between government, the Italian national police and universities...
February 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Nozomi Idota, Mami Nakamura, Misa Tojo, Hiroaki Ichioka, Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
An 11-month-old boy with marked abdominal distension was found dead in the prone position at home. Since there were many bruises in the non-protruding regions of the head, face, and abdomen, a medicolegal autopsy was performed the following day. The boy was smaller than average (height: 68.5 cm; weight: 7.8 kg); his extremities were thin; and his abdomen was remarkably bulging. Chylous ascites (1600 mL) was observed in the peritoneal cavity and chylous pleural effusion (left: 5 mL; right: 10 mL) in the thoracic cavity...
February 16, 2018: Legal Medicine
Leonard Berlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Antonio Malvasi, Simona Zaami, Andrea Tinelli, Giuseppe Trojano, Gianluca Montanari Vergallo, Enrico Marinelli
AIM: A significant amount of data concerning maternal-fetal damage arising from the exertion of Kristeller maneuvers (KMs) or fundal pressure (FP) go unreleased due to medicolegal implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this reason, the paper gathers information as to the real magnitude of litigation related to FP-induced damages and injuries. The authors have undertaken a research in order to include general search engines (PubMed-Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Google, GyneWeb) and legal databases (De Jure, Italian database of jurisprudence daily update; Westlaw, Thomson Reuters, American ruling database and Bailii, UK Court Ruling Database)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Shojiro Takasu, Sari Matsumoto, Yuko Kanto, Kimiharu Iwadate
PURPOSE: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major cause of death in developed countries. Postmortem IHD diagnosis using biochemical markers is difficult because of the postmortem changes. In the present study, we investigated the utility of soluble lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) in body fluids obtained from forensic autopsy cases. METHODS: We measured pericardial fluid, urine, and serum sLOX-1 levels; these samples were obtained from medicolegal autopsy cases (n = 149, postmortem interval <72 h), and the utility of these biomarkers postmortem acute IHD diagnosis was evaluated...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Bernard Pawlowicz, John Fernandes, Vidhya Nair
In this case series, we delve into the database of medicolegal cases of the Forensic Pathology Department at Hamilton Health Sciences in Hamilton Ontario from the last 20 years (1996-2017), and review cases of sudden cardiac death due to coronary artery abnormalities. We found 17 cases that fit the criteria, which gave us an incidence of 1.34 per 1000 cases. These cases were further audited for age, sex, type of coronary artery abnormality, symptoms before demise, circumstances of death, presence of significant atherosclerotic disease, and toxicology...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Amal Nishantha Vadysinghe, Prabath Senasinghe, Murugupillai Sivasubramanium, Pemasiri Jayasooriya, Bhatiya G Premarathna, Rathnayake Mudiyanselage Isuri Saumya D Rathnayake, Wickramasinghe Mudiyanselage Medhani Hasanthika P Wickramasinghe
As people age, they may become more vulnerable to injury because of frailty, ill health, or dependency on others. Data from medicolegal death investigation including autopsy and statements from cases reported to 3 medicolegal units in Sri Lanka were analyzed in this study under the strict ethical framework. Of the study population, 265 were male and 75 were female. Mean age was 71.14 years. Commonest manner of death was accidental (62.1%) followed by suicide (32.1%) and homicide (5.6%). Commonest types of incidents were road traffic accidents (26...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, David O Carter, Stephanie Regan
The feeding patterns of species of large sharks on human corpses are well documented in the literature however, that of smaller sharks are less known. This may introduce uncertainty in the medicolegal conclusions. For that reason, accurate identification of patterns of shark predation is very relevant, specifically in areas bordered by the sea. In the case described here, an unidentified lesion was noted on the body of a victim of a scuba diving accident off the island of Kauai, in Hawaii. The aim of this study was to identify the origin of the lesion and investigate its potential to inform on the context of death and/or decomposition...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Wendy Z W Teo, Lawrence H Brenner, B Sonny Bal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Luzia Michelle Santos, Italo M Bernardino, Alysson Vinicius Ferreira Porto, Kevan Guilherme Nórbrega Barbosa, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Sérgio d'Avila
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the profile of victims of interpersonal physical violence (IPV) caused by a knife or other sharp instrument, identify the factors associated with maxillofacial trauma, and examine the incidence of maxillofacial trauma over time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 569 medicolegal and social records of IPV victims by knife or other sharp instruments treated at a forensic medicine and dentistry center in Brazil during a 4-year consecutive period...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Patrizia Gualniera, Serena Serena
Retained surgical sponge events continue to occur despite the implementation of preventive surgical count policies, procedures, and adjunct technologies to manual counting. Such intraoperative mistakes can cause chronic nonspecific symptoms during the early postoperative period. When discovered years after surgery, they raise thorny medicolegal questions. We describe two cases from our practice that illustrate the need to identify the responsibility of the surgical team, as delineated in ministerial directives and the current legal framework, as well as the difficulty in evaluating clinical actions taken at different times and in different settings, with regard to the permanent health damage incurred by sponge retention...
February 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Randolph W Evans, Kamalika Ghosh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) has been controversial for more than 150 years. As there have not been any surveys of PCS among neurologists in the United States since 1992, another was performed using most of the prior items to assess current opinions and practices and whether there have been any changes since 1992. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-nine neurologists attending the Texas Neurological Society 20th Annual Winter Conference continuing medical education meeting in 2017 were supplied the survey instrument with registration materials...
February 7, 2018: Headache
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