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Embryological neuroscience

Frederic Van der Cruyssen, Constantinus Politis
The trigeminal system is one of the most complex cranial nerve systems of the human body. Research on it has vastly grown in recent years and concentrated more and more on molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology, but thorough reviews on this topic are lacking, certainly on the normal physiology of the trigeminal sensory system. Here we review the current literature on neurophysiology of the trigeminal nerve from peripheral receptors up to its central projections toward the somatosensory cortex. We focus on the most recent scientific discoveries and describe historical relevant research to substantiate further...
February 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Robin J Vigouroux, Morgane Belle, Alain Chédotal
For centuries analyses of tissues have depended on sectioning methods. Recent developments of tissue clearing techniques have now opened a segway from studying tissues in 2 dimensions to 3 dimensions. This particular advantage echoes heavily in the field of neuroscience, where in the last several years there has been an active shift towards understanding the complex orchestration of neural circuits. In the past five years, many tissue-clearing protocols have spawned. This is due to varying strength of each clearing protocol to specific applications...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
Teruhiro Okuyama, Saori Yokoi, Hideaki Takeuchi
Oryzias latipes (Medaka) is an established vertebrate model for studying developmental genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology. The physiology, embryology, and genetics of this species have been extensively investigated for centuries. Medaka fish recently attracted attention in the field of social neuroscience. This review introduces recent advances in medaka behavioral studies, focusing on female mating preferences and male mate-guarding behaviors. The medaka female has the ability to discriminate male individuals and prefers to mate with socially familiar males (female mating preference)...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Luis-Alfonso Arráez-Aybar, Pedro Navia-Álvarez, Talia Fuentes-Redondo, José-L Bueno-López
The year 2014 marked the 350th anniversary of the publication in London of Cerebri anatome, a ground-breaking work of neuroscience heavily influenced by the political and cultural context of Baroque Europe and mid-17th century England. This article aims to review the work of the English physician and anatomist Thomas Willis, specifically with regard to the contents of his Cerebri anatome. Willis's academic and professional career was influenced by the turbulent period of the English Civil War during which he studied medicine...
March 2015: Journal of Anatomy
Nicholas G Horton, Ke Wang, Demirhan Kobat, Catharine G Clark, Frank W Wise, Chris B Schaffer, Chris Xu
Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM)(1) enables scientists in various fields including neuroscience(2,3), embryology(4), and oncology(5) to visualize in vivo and ex vivo tissue morphology and physiology at a cellular level deep within scattering tissue. However, tissue scattering limits the maximum imaging depth of 2PM within the mouse brain to the cortical layer, and imaging subcortical structures currently requires the removal of overlying brain tissue(3) or the insertion of optical probes(6,7). Here we demonstrate non-invasive, high resolution, in vivo imaging of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain using three-photon fluorescence microscopy (3PM) at a spectral excitation window of 1,700 nm...
March 1, 2013: Nature Photonics
Iain S Haslam, Eric W Roubos, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Katsutoshi Yoshizato, Hubert Vaudry, Jennifer E Kloepper, David M Pattwell, Paul F A Maderson, Ralf Paus
For over a century, frogs have been studied across various scientific fields, including physiology, embryology, neuroscience, (neuro)endocrinology, ecology, genetics, behavioural science, evolution, drug development, and conservation biology. In some cases, frog skin has proven very successful as a research model, for example aiding in the study of ion transport through tight epithelia, where it has served as a model for the vertebrate distal renal tubule and mammalian epithelia. However, it has rarely been considered in comparative studies involving human skin...
August 2014: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Kavian Ghandehari, Kosar Ghandehari
BACKGROUND: Vertebrobasilar arterial territory nourishes one-quarter of human brain. It constitutes some vital and strategic parts of the central nervous system. METHODS: A number of keywords (vertebral, basilar, artery, and territory) were searched in MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed) as well as Google, ProQuest, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct online databases. Only articles containing all keywords were included. We also reviewed archives of libraries in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran) for all anatomy, embryology, neurology, and neuroscience books and journals about vertebrobasilar arterial territories...
2012: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Georgios K Matis, Danilo O de A Silva, Olga I Chrysou, Michail A Karanikas, Theodossios A Birbilis
BACKGROUND: Giuseppe Gradenigo (1859-1926), a legendary figure of Otology, was born in Venice, Italy. He soon became a pupil to Adam Politzer and Samuel Leopold Schenk in Vienna, demonstrating genuine interest in the embryology, morphology, physiopathology, as well as the clinical manifestations of ear diseases. In this paper, the authors attempt to highlight the major landmarks during Gradenigo's career and outline his contributions to neurosciences, which have been viewed as looking forward to the 20(th) century rather than awkward missteps at the end of the 19(th)...
2012: Surgical Neurology International
Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Alan Rick Horwitz
Cell migration is a fundamental process that controls morphogenesis and inflammation. Its deregulation causes or is part of many diseases, including autoimmune syndromes, chronic inflammation, mental retardation, and cancer. Cell migration is an integral part of the cell biology, embryology, immunology, and neuroscience fields; as such, it has benefited from quantum leaps in molecular biology, biochemistry, and imaging techniques, and the emergence of the genomic and proteomic era. Combinations of these techniques have revealed new and exciting insights that explain how cells adhere and move, how the migration of multiple cells are coordinated and regulated, and how the cells interact with neighboring cells and/or react to changes in their microenvironment...
2011: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nicholas James Strausfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2010: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Richard L Drake, Jennifer M McBride, Nirusha Lachman, Wojciech Pawlina
At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course hours, hours of lecture, and hours of laboratory, whether the course was part of an integrated program or existed as a stand-alone course, and what type of laboratory experience occurred in the course...
November 2009: Anatomical Sciences Education
Moses V Chao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2010: Annual Review of Physiology
J L Ferran, E Dutra de Oliveira, P Merchán, J E Sandoval, L Sánchez-Arrones, M Martínez-De-La-Torre, L Puelles
Earlier results on molecularly coded progenitor domains in the chicken pretectum revealed an anteroposterior subdivision of the pretectum in precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic areas, each specified differentially (Ferran et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 505:379-403). Here we examined the nuclei derived from these areas with regard to characteristic gene expression patterns and gradual histogenesis (eventually, migration patterns). We sought a genoarchitectonic schema of the avian pretectum within the prosomeric model of the vertebrate forebrain (Puelles and Rubenstein [2003] Trends Neurosci 26:469-476; Puelles et al...
December 1, 2009: Journal of Comparative Neurology
John X J Zhang
At the basis of neuroscience is the correlation between behavior and neural signals. This relationship is studied using a variety of techniques, including fluorescent intensity measurements of genetically encoded calcium indicators. The simple structure and conservation of some basic developmental pathways between vertebrates and Caenorhabditis elegans makes it an ideal model for studies employing this technique, but it has been difficult to apply neural stimuli in a controlled way to such a small organism...
November 2007: HFSP Journal
Blair Paley, Mary J O'Connor, Susan J Baillie, Gretchen Guiton, Margaret L Stuber
OBJECTIVES: This article describes the use of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) as a theme to connect the learning of basic neurosciences with clinical applications across the age span within a systems-based, integrated curricular structure that emphasizes problem-based learning. METHODS: In collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, the Western Regional Training Center for Fetal Alcohol Exposure at UCLA developed and integrated educational materials on FASDs into the curriculum for first-year medical students...
March 2009: Academic Psychiatry
Michael Duchowny
The defining role of language for communicating and forming social bonds has captured the imagination of scientists and scholars throughout the ages, and scientific inquiry into the neural correlates of language is now centuries old. Theories of linguistic structure and function occupy center stage in fields as diverse as neuroscience, embryology, anthropology and evolution. This should come as no surprise as the neural basis of linguistic function holds promise for understanding how the mind works and what makes us uniquely human...
May 2007: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Rich W Clough, Sandra L Shea, William R Hamilton, Jaime A Estavillo, Gerald Rupp, Ronald A Browning, Sumeer Lal
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine recently completed its fourth year of a resource-session-enhanced, case-based, tutor-group-oriented curriculum. As an example of a curricular unit, the authors describe the implementation of the basic and clinical sciences in one of the four units in year one, and detail that unit's organization, logistics, content, rationale, and other characteristics. The Sensorimotor Systems and Behavior (SSB) unit is preceded by a cardio-respiratory-renal unit and is followed by an endocrine-reproductive-gastrointestinal unit...
November 2004: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
R Toni
The neuroendocrine system (NES) of Vertebrates can be defined as a set of cells organized in single organs and diffuse elements, sharing co-production of amine hormone/transmitters, peptide hormone/transmitters and specific markers of neural determination. In this perspective, the hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axis (H-P axis), the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the diffuse neuroendocrine or APUD system contribute to the NES. However, in Mammals and man virtually any compartment of the body harbors elements, often with different embryologic origin, having at least some of the NES features...
2004: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
R Levi-Montalcini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2003: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
L Aloe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2003: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
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