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Active release technique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791835/nicotinic-cholinergic-receptors-in-vta-glutamate-neurons-modulate-excitatory-transmission
#1
Yijin Yan, Can Peng, Matthew C Arvin, Xiao-Tao Jin, Veronica J Kim, Matthew D Ramsey, Yong Wang, Sambashiva Banala, David L Wokosin, J Michael McIntosh, Luke D Lavis, Ryan M Drenan
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate neurons are important components of reward circuitry, but whether they are subject to cholinergic modulation is unknown. To study this, we used molecular, physiological, and photostimulation techniques to examine nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in VTA glutamate neurons. Cells in the medial VTA, where glutamate neurons are enriched, are responsive to acetylcholine (ACh) released from cholinergic axons. VTA VGLUT2+ neurons express mRNA and protein subunits known to comprise heteromeric nAChRs...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786849/isolation-and-characterization-of-wheat-derived-nonspecific-lipid-transfer-protein-2-nsltp2
#2
Sara Bosi, Jessica Fiori, Giovanni Dinelli, Neil Rigby, Emanuela Leoncini, Cecilia Prata, Valeria Bregola, Ilaria Marotti, Roberto Gotti, Marina Naldi, Luca Massaccesi, Marco Malaguti, Paul Kroon, Silvana Hrelia
Numerous studies support the protective role of bioactive peptides against cardiovascular diseases. Cereals represent the primary source of carbohydrates, but they also contain substantial amounts of proteins, therefore representing a potential dietary source of bioactive peptides with nutraceutical activities. The analysis of wheat extracts purified by chromatographic techniques by means of HPLC-UV/nanoLC-nanoESI-QTOF allowed the identification of a signal of about 7 kDa which, following data base searches, was ascribed to a nonspecific lipid-transfer protein (nsLTP) type 2 from Triticum aestivum (sequence coverage of 92%)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786429/development-of-a-nanostructured-%C3%AE-mno2-carbon-paper-composite-for-removal-of-ni2-mn2-ions-by-electrosorption
#3
Pengju Li, Yang Gui, Daniel John Blackwood
Toxic metal ions, such as Ni2+ and Mn2+, in industrial waste streams are non-biodegradable and can cause damage to the human body. Electrochemical cleaning techniques are attractive as they offer more control and produce less sludge than chemical / biological approaches without the high pressures needed for membranes. Here nanoneedle structured α-MnO2/carbon fiber paper (CFP) composites were synthesized by a hydrothermal approach and used as electrodes for combined electro-adsorption and capacitive deionization removal of nickel and manganese ions from pseudo industrial waste streams...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780921/is-it-melanoma-associated-retinopathy-or-drug-toxicity-bilateral-cystoid-macular-edema-posing-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-dilemma
#4
Sachi R Patel, Stavros N Moysidis, Nicole Koulisis, Philip P Storey, Amir H Kashani, Narsing A Rao, Damien C Rodger
Purpose: To report the clinical presentation, multimodal imaging, and management of a patient with metastatic melanoma who presented with cystoid macular edema (CME). Observations: We report a case of a 71-year-old Caucasian male with metastatic melanoma who presented with bilateral cystoid macular edema after being on treatment with a programmed T cell death ligand 1 inhibitor, MPDL3280, for 1 year. Multimodal imaging techniques, including color fundus photographs, autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography (Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany), and spectral-domain OCT angiography (Zeiss; California, USA) were performed to evaluate the etiology of his CME and to monitor his response to treatment...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779839/distal-radius-fracture-fixation-with-a-volar-locking-plate-and-endoscopic-carpal-tunnel-release-using-a-single-15mm-approach-feasibility-study
#5
A Zemirline, C Taleb, K Naito, P Vernet, P Liverneaux, F Lebailly
Distal radius fractures (DRF) may trigger, reveal or decompensate acute carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in 0.5-21% of cases. Internal fixation and median nerve release must then be carried out urgently. Less invasive approaches have been described for both the median nerve release using an endoscopic device and for the DRF fixation using a volar locking plate. We assessed the feasibility of DRF fixation and median nerve release through a single, minimally-invasive 15mm approach on a series of 10 cases. We reviewed retrospectively 10 consecutive cases of DRF associated with symptomatic CTS in 8 women and 2 men, aged 57 years on average...
May 17, 2018: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778503/autoinflammatory-mutation-in-nlrc4-reveals-an-lrr-lrr-oligomerization-interface
#6
Fiona Moghaddas, Ping Zeng, Yuxia Zhang, Heike Schützle, Sebastian Brenner, Sigrun R Hofmann, Reinhard Berner, Yuanbo Zhao, Bingtai Lu, Xiaoyun Chen, Li Zhang, Suyun Cheng, Stefan Winkler, Kai Lehmberg, Scott W Canna, Peter E Czabotar, Ian P Wicks, Dominic De Nardo, Christian M Hedrich, Huasong Zeng, Seth L Masters
BACKGROUND: Monogenic autoinflammatory disorders are characterised by dysregulation of the innate immune system, for example by gain-of-function mutations in inflammasome forming proteins such as NLRC4. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigate the mechanism by which a novel mutation in the leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain of NLRC4 (c.G1965C, p.W655C) contributes to autoinflammatory disease. METHODS: We studied two unrelated patients with early onset macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) harboring the same de novo mutation in NLRC4...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778035/formation-of-contact-active-antimicrobial-surfaces-by-covalent-grafting-of-quaternary-ammonium-compounds
#7
REVIEW
Poverenov Elena, Klein Miri
Different synthetic strategies for the formation of contact active antimicrobial materials utilizing covalent linkage of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were reviewed. There is a demand to find methods that will prevent bacterial fouling without the release of antimicrobial agents, because biocides cause environment pollution and promote the development of bacteria resistance mechanisms. The contact active antimicrobial surfaces may provide a useful tool for this purpose. The covalent surface grafting of QACs seems to be a feasible and promising approach for the formation of safe and effective antimicrobial materials that could be utilized for medical devices, food industry, water treatment systems and other applications...
May 16, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775225/cytokines-and-chemokines-differentially-regulate-innate-immune-cell-trafficking-during-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#8
Ashish K Singh, Vidya N R Das, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Vijaya Mahantesh, Shubhankar K Singh, Shyam Naryan, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das, Neena Verma, Sanjiva Bimal
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is often considered to be the anthroponotic reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. A better understanding of the host immune-response in dermal lesions of PKDL patients is therefore of utmost significance to minimize such patients and to restrict VL transmission. Although the innate immune response is known to play an important role in parasite clearance from dermal lesions, the actual contribution of innate cells to the pathogenicity of PKDL is poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773802/cd4-t-cells-are-activated-in-regional-lymph-nodes-and-migrate-to-skin-to-initiate-lymphedema
#9
Gabriela D García Nores, Catherine L Ly, Daniel A Cuzzone, Raghu P Kataru, Geoffrey E Hespe, Jeremy S Torrisi, Jung Ju Huang, Jason C Gardenier, Ira L Savetsky, Matthew D Nitti, Jessie Z Yu, Sonia Rehal, Babak J Mehrara
T cell-mediated responses have been implicated in the development of fibrosis, impaired lymphangiogenesis, and lymphatic dysfunction in secondary lymphedema. Here we show that CD4+ T cells are necessary for lymphedema pathogenesis by utilizing adoptive transfer techniques in CD4 knockout mice that have undergone tail skin and lymphatic excision or popliteal lymph node dissection. We also demonstrate that T cell activation following lymphatic injury occurs in regional skin-draining lymph nodes after interaction with antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768271/direct-potentiation-of-capsaicin-current-by-histamine-and-its-effect-by-suplatast-on-rat-trigeminal-ganglia-neurons
#10
Jian-Rong Zhou, Tetsuya Shirasaki, Fumio Soeda, Kazumi Yokomizo, Kazuo Takahama
In this study, we investigated the effect of histamine on capsaicin-induced current and its influence by suplatast in rat trigeminal ganglia neurons using a patch-clamp technique. We found that histamine directly potentiated capsaicin-induced currents in rat sensory neurons, and suplatast had little effect on this potentiation. Since it has been known that suplatast suppresses histamine release from mast cells, it is possible that suplatast inhibits the activation of nociceptive fibers in the pathological condition via prevention of histamine-induced potentiation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor-mediated currents...
May 16, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758522/flavonoid-alkaloids-from-scutellaria-moniliorrhiza-with-anti-inflammatory-activities-and-inhibitory-activities-against-aldose-reductase
#11
Qing-Tong Han, Yan Ren, Gui-Sheng Li, Kang-Lin Xiang, Sheng-Jun Dai
Four undescribed flavonoid alkaloids, as two pairs of enantiomers, were initially isolated as a racemate from the whole plant of Scutellaria moniliorrhiza. By means of chiral HPLC, four isomers, named scumonilines A-D, were successfully separated, and their chemical structures including absolute configurations were established by mass as well as NMR spectroscopy and CD technique. In vitro, four flavonoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activities, with IC50 values against the release of β-glucuronidase from polymorphonuclear leukocytes of rats being in the range 5...
May 11, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758001/an-antimicrobial-peptide-loaded-gelatin-chitosan-nanofibrous-membrane-fabricated-by-sequential-layer-by-layer-electrospinning-and-electrospraying-techniques
#12
Yuzhu He, Yahui Jin, Xiumei Wang, Shenglian Yao, Yuanyuan Li, Qiong Wu, Guowu Ma, Fuzhai Cui, Huiying Liu
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique is widely used in the treatment of bone defects caused by peri-implantitis, periodontal disease, etc. However, the GBR membranes commonly used in clinical treatments currently have no antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this study, sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning and electrospraying techniques were utilized to prepare a gelatin (Gln) and chitosan (CS) composite GBR membrane containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) and antimicrobial peptide (Pac-525)-loaded PLGA microspheres (AMP@PLGA-MS), which was supposed to have osteogenic and antibacterial activities...
May 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757956/osteogenic-differentiation-modulates-the-cytokine-chemokine-and-growth-factor-profile-of-ascs-and-shed
#13
Federico Mussano, Tullio Genova, Sara Petrillo, Ilaria Roato, Riccardo Ferracini, Luca Munaron
Great efforts have been made to improve bone regeneration techniques owing to a growing variety of sources of stem cells suitable for autologous transplants. Specifically, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and stems cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) hold great potential for bone tissue engineering and cell therapy. After a preliminary characterization of the main biomolecules ASCs and SHED released in their conditioned media, cells were kept both in normal and osteo-inducing conditions. Conventional assays were performed to prove their osteogenic potential such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (for RUNX-2, collagen type I, osteopontin and osteonectin), alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin production, and von Kossa staining...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754752/hippocampal-5-ht-input-regulates-memory-formation-and-schaffer-collateral-excitation
#14
Catia M Teixeira, Zev B Rosen, Deepika Suri, Qian Sun, Marc Hersh, Derya Sargin, Iva Dincheva, Ashlea A Morgan, Stephen Spivack, Anne C Krok, Tessa Hirschfeld-Stoler, Evelyn K Lambe, Steven A Siegelbaum, Mark S Ansorge
The efficacy and duration of memory storage is regulated by neuromodulatory transmitter actions. While the modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in implicit forms of memory in the invertebrate Aplysia, its function in explicit memory mediated by the mammalian hippocampus is less clear. Specifically, the consequences elicited by the spatio-temporal gradient of endogenous 5-HT release are not known. Here we applied optogenetic techniques in mice to gain insight into this fundamental biological process...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752983/orexin-b-modulates-spontaneous-excitatory-and-inhibitory-transmission-in-lamina-ii-neurons-of-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#15
Chong Wang, Tsugumi Fujita, Eiichi Kumamoto
Cellular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive properties of orexins, a group of neuropeptides produced by the hypothalamus, in the spinal dorsal horn have not been thoroughly investigated. We examined how orexin B affects spontaneous synaptic transmission in lamina II neurons, which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission, by applying a whole-cell patch-clamp technique to lamina II neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices. In 66% of neurons tested, bath-applied orexin B concentration-dependently produced an inward current at -70 mV and/or increased the frequency of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) without changing its amplitude, in a manner resistant to the voltage-gated Na+ -channel blocker tetrodotoxin...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752763/cofactor-biogenesis-in-cysteamine-dioxygenase-c-f-bond-cleavage-with-genetically-incorporated-unnatural-tyrosine
#16
Yifan Wang, Wendell P Griffith, Jiasong Li, Teruaki Koto, Daniel J Wherritt, Elizabe Fritz, Aimin Liu
Cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO) is a thiol dioxygenase whose study has been stagnated by ambiguity as to whether or not it possesses an anticipated protein-derived cofactor. Herein, we report the discovery and elucidation of a Cys-Tyr cofactor in human ADO, crosslinked between Cys220 and Tyr222 through a thioether (C-S) bond. By genetically incorporating an unnatural amino acid 3,5-difluoro-tyrosine (F2-Tyr) specifically into Tyr222 of human ADO, we identified an autocatalytic oxidative carbon-fluorine bond activation and fluoride release by mass spectrometry and 19F NMR spectroscopy...
May 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752124/fabrication-of-hyaluronidase-responsive-biocompatible-multilayers-on-bmp2-loaded-titanium-nanotube-for-the-bacterial-infection-prevention
#17
Linawati Sutrisno, Yan Hu, Xinkun Shen, Menghuan Li, Zhong Luo, Liangliang Dai, Sixiang Wang, Julia Li Zhong, Kaiyong Cai
Infection associated with orthopedic implants is the chief cause of implant failure. An important consideration to prevent the infection at implants is to inhibit the biofilm formation for the initial 6 h. Therefore, we fabricated hyaluronidase-sensitive multilayers of chitosan (Chi)/sodium hyaluronate-lauric acid (SL) onto the surface of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) loaded titanium nanotube (TNT) via spin-assisted layer-by-layer technique. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) confirmed the successful synthesis of SL...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752122/strontium-modified-chitosan-montmorillonite-composites-as-bone-tissue-engineering-scaffold
#18
Aysel Koç Demir, Ayşe Eser Elçin, Yaşar Murat Elçin
The objective of this study is to develop chitosan/montmorillonite (C/MMT) composite scaffolds based on improved properties for bone tissue engineering applications. With the freeze-drying technique, strontium (Sr2+ ) modified C/MMT composite scaffold with an interconnected porous structure was produced. X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the structural properties, surface morphology and porosity of the composite scaffold...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744882/evaluation-of-cytotoxic-immunomodulatory-and-antibacterial-activities-of-aqueous-extract-from-leaves-of-conocarpus-erectus-linnaeus-combretaceae
#19
Dayane Kelly Dias do Nascimento Santos, Vanessa Silva de Almeida, Daniel Rodrigo Cavalcante de Araujo, Wolfgang Harand, Ana Karine de Araújo Soares, Leyllane Rafael Moreira, Virgínia Maria Barros de Lorena, Lucimeri Paulino Machado Magalhães, Rafael Matos Ximenes, Kêsia Xisto da Fonseca Ribeiro de Sena, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos de Melo, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Cláudia Sampaio de Andrade Lima, Ricardo Yara, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira
OBJECTIVES: This work evaluated the antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) promoted by aqueous extract from Conocarpus erectus leaves (AELCe). METHODS: The extract was characterized by thin layer chromatography and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Cytotoxicity of AELCe (6.25-50 μg/ml) was investigated using annexin V and propidium iodide. Cytokine and nitric oxide levels in PBMCs culture supernatants exposed or not to AELCe (12...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744462/polyethylene-glycol-functionalized-carbon-nanotubes-gelatin-chitosan-nanocomposite-an-approach-for-significant-drug-release
#20
Sadia Sharmeen, A F M Mustafizur Rahman, Mostakima M Lubna, Kh Samaher Salem, Rafiqul Islam, Mubarak A Khan
This research work blooms the new idea of developing a safe and controlled drug releasing matrix using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In aqueous solution, uniform and highly stable dispersion of MWCNTs was obtained after secondary functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) which was studied by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Solution casting method was used to prepare MWCNTs/gelatin-chitosan nanocomposite films and the effect of MWCNTs on physico-mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the nanocomposites were evaluated...
September 2018: Bioactive Materials
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