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Active release technique

Amandine Bastide, Jonathan W Yewdell, Alexandre David
While isotopic labeling of amino acids remains the reference method in the field for quantifying translation rate, it does not provide any information on spatial localization of translation sites. The rationale behind developing the ribopuromycylation method (RPM) was primarily to map translation sites at the sub-cellular level while avoiding detection of newly synthesized proteins released from ribosomes. RPM visualizes actively translating ribosomes in cells via standard immunofluorescence microscopy in fixed and permeabilized cells using a puromycin-specific monoclonal antibody to detect puromycylated nascent chains trapped on ribosomes treated with a chain elongation inhibitor...
January 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Babak Barati, Firouz Ebrahimi, Shahram Nazarian
BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin (CT), responsible for the harmful effects of cholera infection, is made up of one A subunit (enzymatic), and five B subunits (cell binding). The release of cholera toxin is the main reason for the debilitating loss of intestinal fluid. Inhibition of the B subunit (CTB) may block CT activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of anti CTB-IgY against oral challenge with V. cholera in suckling infant mice. METHODS: The binding domain of cholera toxin was amplified and ligated into pET28a vector...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Jialiang Liang, Fuyang Liu, Mian Li, Wen Liu, Meiping Tong
Magnetic Fe3 O4 @BiOI@AgI (FBA) spheres were synthesized through a multi-step process. The fabricated photocatalysts were characterized by different techniques. To testify the visible light driven photocatalytic activity of FBA, Rhodamine B and Bisphenol A were chosen as model common and emerging organic contaminants, respectively. While, gram-negative strain Escherichia coli was selected as model waterborne bacteria. The results showed that under visible light irradiation, FBA contained strong photocatalytic degradation capacity towards both RhB and BPA...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Ankita Sharma, Navneet Kaur, Saurabh Sharma, Amit Sharma, M S Rathore, Kumar Ajay, Neeraj Mishra
The aim of the present study is to develop embelin loaded guar gum microparticles through emulsification technique. The in vitro release of the optimized formulation was found to be 88.5±3.8% in 24 hr, have exhibit remarkably sustain and delayed the release of embelin at a specific site. Embelin loaded microparticles showed average particle size of 12.9± 0.75 µm. The statistical analysis was carried out by one way anova followed by comparison test of Bonferroni. P values<0.05 were considered as significant...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Aurore Quinault, Corinne Leloup, Geoffrey Denwood, Coralie Spiegelhalter, Marianne Rodriguez, Philippe Lefebvre, Nadia Messaddeq, Quan Zhang, Catherine Dacquet, Luc Pénicaud, Stephan C Collins
The rhythmic nature of insulin secretion over the 24h cycle in pancreatic islets has been mostly investigated using transcriptomics studies showing that modulation of insulin secretion over this cycle is achieved via distal stages of insulin secretion. We set out to measure β-cell exocytosis using in depth cell physiology techniques at several time points. In agreement with the activity and feeding pattern of nocturnal rodents, we find that C57/Bl6J islets in culture for 24h exhibit higher insulin secretion during the corresponding dark phase than in the light phase (Zeitgeber Time ZT20 and ZT8, respectively, in vivo)...
2018: PloS One
Martin Eckardt, Annemarie Greb, Thomas J Simat
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) is a new material for the production of baby bottles. PPSU is a polyether plastic formally composed of bisphenol S (BPS) and 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl (DHBP), which both have slight endocrine activities in in-vitro-tests. So far, little is known about the presence and the release of potentially hazardous substances from PPSU baby bottles. In our present study, we present a three step approach for the analysis of PPSU starting with polymer characterization in terms of chemical structure, total oligomer content and hydrolytic stability...
March 14, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Yankai Jia, Yukun Ren, Likai Hou, Weiyu Liu, Tianyi Jiang, Xiaokang Deng, Ye Tao, Hongyuan Jiang
Controlled release of multiple actives after encapsulation in a microenvironment is significant for various biological and chemical applications such as controlled drug delivery and transplantation of encapsulated cells. However, traditional systems often lack efficient encapsulation and release of multiple actives, especially when incorporated substances must be released at a targeted location. Here, we present a straightforward approach to release multiple actives at a prescribed position in microfluidic systems; one or two actives are encapsulated in water-in-oil-in-water emulsion droplets, followed by controlled release of the actives via an alternating current electric field...
March 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Tara Baldacchino, William R Jacobs, Sean R Anderson, Keith Worden, Jennifer Rowson
This contribution presents a novel methodology for myolectric-based control using surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals recorded during finger movements. A multivariate Bayesian mixture of experts (MoE) model is introduced which provides a powerful method for modeling force regression at the fingertips, while also performing finger movement classification as a by-product of the modeling algorithm. Bayesian inference of the model allows uncertainties to be naturally incorporated into the model structure. This method is tested using data from the publicly released NinaPro database which consists of sEMG recordings for 6 degree-of-freedom force activations for 40 intact subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Oliver Grünvogel, Ombretta Colasanti, Ji-Young Lee, Volker Klöss, Sandrine Belouzard, Anna Reustle, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Jasper Hesebeck-Brinckmann, Pascal Mutz, Katrin Hoffmann, Arianeb Mehrabi, Ronald Koschny, Florian W R Vondran, Daniel Gotthardt, Paul Schnitzler, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme, Marco Binder, Ralf Bartenschlager, Jean Dubuisson, Alexander H Dalpke, Volker Lohmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections most often result in chronic outcomes, although the virus constantly produces replication intermediates, in particular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), representing potent inducers of innate immunity. We aimed to characterize the fate of HCV dsRNA in hepatocyte cultures to identify mechanisms contributing to viral persistence in presence of an active innate immune response. METHODS: We analyzed hepatocyte-based culture models for HCV for induction of innate immunity, secretion of virus positive- or negative-strand RNA, and viral replication using different quantification methods and microscopy techniques...
March 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
Zhi-Mei Li, Xiao Zhang, Ru-Ping Liang, Xiang-Juan Zheng, Jian-Ding Qiu
In this work, a newly developed surface plasma resonance (SPR) system for the sensitive detection of M.SssI activity has been designed based on double signal amplification with DNA chain cyclic reactions and AuNPs. In the absence of M.SssI, hairpin DNA 1 (HP1) can be cleaved into s1 fragments catalyzed by HpaII. The s1 fragments can then trigger a recycling process of hairpin DNA 2 (HP2) hybridization and subsequently release massive s2 and s3 in the solution of Nt.AlwI and HPII. AuNPs-DNA can be captured on gold film by the released s2 and s3 to produce a strong SPR signal...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Poonam Parashar, Meena Rathor, Monika Dwivedi, Shubhini A Saraf
Lung carcinoma is the most common cancer in men and second in women (preceded by breast cancer) worldwide. Around 1 in 10 of all cancers diagnosed in men, lung cancer contributed to a total fraction of 20% cancer deaths. Naringenin (NAR) is well known for its chemopreventive properties since ancient times but lacks an appropriate delivery carrier. The objective of present study was to expand the functionality of naringenin loaded poly caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles in terms of release, chemoprevention and therapeutics...
March 12, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Yi Zhao, Marcus J C Long, Yiran Wang, Sheng Zhang, Yimon Aye
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are the lingua franca of cellular communication. Most PTMs are enzyme-orchestrated. However, the reemergence of electrophilic drugs has ushered mining of unconventional/non-enzyme-catalyzed electrophile-signaling pathways. Despite the latest impetus toward harnessing kinetically and functionally privileged cysteines for electrophilic drug design, identifying these sensors remains challenging. Herein, we designed "G-REX"-a technique that allows controlled release of reactive electrophiles in vivo...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Takeshi Sakaba
Synaptic contacts mediate information transfer between neurons. The calyx of Held, a large synapse in the mammalian auditory brainstem, has been used as a model system for the mechanism of transmitter release from the presynaptic terminal for the last 20 years. By applying simultaneous recordings from pre- and postsynaptic compartments, the calcium-dependence of the kinetics of transmitter release has been quantified. A single pool of readily releasable vesicles cannot explain the time course of release during repetitive activity...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Yousif A Al Dulaijan, Lei Cheng, Michael D Weir, Mary Anne S Melo, Huaibing Liu, Thomas W Oates, Lin Wang, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVE: Rechargeable calcium phosphate (CaP) composites were developed recently. However, none of the rechargeable CaP composites was antibacterial. The objectives of this study were to develop the first rechargeable CaP composite that was antibacterial, and to investigate the effects of adding dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) into rechargeable CaP composite on ion rechargeability and re-release as well as biofilm properties. METHODS: DMAHDM was synthesized via a Menschutkin reaction...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Javed Nawab, Junaid Ghani, Sardar Khan, Wang Xiaoping
Mining activity releases toxic metals (TMs) into the soil ecosystem and creates serious problems for the environment and human beings due to their adverse eco-toxilogical impacts. Currently, several remediation techniques can be used to immobilize TMs within contaminated soil. The present study focuses on the application of different organic amendments biochar (B), farmyard manure (FYM) and peat moss (PTM) - at different application rates (1%, 2% and 5%) in mining-impacted agricultural soil to immobilize TMs (Ni, Cr, As, Zn, Cd and Pb) and minimize their bioaccumulation in pea (Pisum sativum) and chili (Capsicum annuum) and the associated human health risk...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Øivind Torkildsen, Trygve Holmøy, Kjell-Morten Myhr
Several reports indicate increased disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART), in the form of gonadtopin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Other forms of ART treatments, like gonadotropin-treatment, have therefore been considered a safer option for MS-patients. We present a patient who despite being completely clinically and radiologically stable for eight years during disease modifying therapy experienced a nearly fulminant disease course almost immediately after starting gonadotropin-treatment, indicating that this form of follicle stimulating treatment could also be a major risk factor for MS disease activity...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Matthew L Neal, Alexa M Boyle, Kevin M Budge, Fayez F Safadi, Jason R Richardson
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Activation of glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, is a characteristic of the inflammatory response. Glycoprotein non-metastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that releases a soluble signaling peptide when cleaved by ADAM10 or other extracellular proteases. GPNMB has demonstrated a neuroprotective role in animal models of ALS and ischemia...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Samira Malekmohammadi, Hassan Hadadzadeh, Hossein Farrokhpour, Zahra Amirghofran
In the present study, a new sandwich-like nanocomposite as a multifunctional smart nanocarrier for curcumin (Cur) targeted delivery and cell imaging was prepared by immobilization of gold nanoparticles on folic acid-modified dendritic mesoporous silica-coated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (AuNPs@GFMS). The physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis...
March 7, 2018: Soft Matter
Jacob A Martin, Christopher R Mayhew, Amanda J Morris, Angela M Bader, Mitchell H Tsai, Richard D Urman
Background: Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is a methodology that calculates the costs of healthcare resources consumed as a patient moves along a care process. Limited data exist on the application of TDABC from the perspective of an anesthesia provider. We describe the use of TDABC, a bottom-up costing strategy and financial outcomes for three different medical-surgical procedures. Methods: In each case, a multi-disciplinary team created process maps describing the care delivery cycle for a patient encounter using the TDABC methodology...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Christine Sundgot-Borgen, Solfrid Bratland-Sanda, Kethe M E Engen, Gunn Pettersen, Oddgeir Friborg, Monica Klungland Torstveit, Elin Kolle, Niva Piran, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Jan H Rosenvinge
BACKGROUND: Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating. METHODS AND DESIGN: Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition...
March 6, 2018: BMC Psychology
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