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Cardiovascular risk factor

Amy M Kilbourne, Michelle M Barbaresso, Zongshan Lai, Kristina M Nord, Margretta Bramlet, David E Goodrich, Edward P Post, Daniel Almirall, Mark S Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Persons with chronic mental disorders are disproportionately burdened with physical health conditions. We determined whether Life Goals Collaborative Care compared to usual care improves physical health in patients with mental disorders within 12 months. METHODS: This single-blind randomized controlled effectiveness study of a collaborative care model was conducted at a midwestern Veterans Affairs urban outpatient mental health clinic. Patients (N = 293 out of 474 eligible approached) with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder and at least 1 cardiovascular disease risk factor provided informed consent and were randomized (February 24, 2010, to April 29, 2015) to Life Goals (n = 146) or usual care (n = 147)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Masaya Kozono, Hirofumi Uto, Rie Ibusuki, Shiho Arima, Kohei Oda, Hiroki Taguchi, Fumisato Sasaki, Yuichiro Nasu, Shinichi Hashimoto, Hitoshi Setoyama, Shuji Kanmura, Masatsugu Numata, Hirohito Tsubouchi, Akio Ido
Metabolic syndrome based on insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension is a risk factor for advanced liver disease and cardiovascular disease in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The present study investigated the effects of severe hypertension induced by a high‑salt (HS) diet and antihypertensive therapy on the pathophysiological condition of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis was induced using a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet (CDAA)...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lisa Gallicchio, Carla Calhoun, David Riseberg, Kathy Helzlsouer
The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular health of Black and White breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant treatment. Baseline data from a cohort study of Black (n = 45) and White (n = 101) breast cancer patients initiating aromatase inhibitor treatment were analyzed. Participants had a cardiovascular health assessment, including carotid intimal medial thickness measurement, donated a blood sample, and completed a questionnaire. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event risk scores were calculated...
October 25, 2016: Breast Journal
Yintang Wang, Yang Wang, Shijie You, Hongjian Wang, Dong Yin, Kefei Dou, Weihua Song
BACKGROUND: Despite its severity, coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is still poorly understood. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been recognized as a prognostic factor in some cardiovascular diseases but not assessed in CAE. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the prognostic value of hs-CRP in CAE. METHODS: Our analysis evaluated the effect of the baseline hs-CRP on cardiovascular events (CVs) (cardiac death and nonfetal myocardial infarction) in consecutively enrolled stable CAE patients...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Arshag D Mooradian
The availability of effective drugs targeting the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has reduced morbidity and mortality. Cumulative relative risk of CVD events can be reduced by 75 % with a combination of aspirin, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (β-blocker), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The principal pharmacodynamics of these drugs cannot explain the entirety of their cardioprotective action, as other drugs with similar pharmacologic targets have not been associated with favorable clinical effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Ryszard Grenda
Delayed graft function (DGF) is commonly defined as the requirement for dialysis within the first 7 days following renal transplantation. The major underlying mechanism is related to ischaemia/reperfusion injury, which includes microvascular inflammation and cell death and apoptosis, and to the regeneration processes. Several clinical factors related to donor, recipient and organ procurement/transplantation procedures may increase the risk of DGF, including donor cardiovascular instability, older donor age, donor creatinine concentration, long cold ischaemia time and marked body mass index of both the donor and recipient...
October 24, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
B Büttner, A Mansur, M Bauer, J Hinz, I Bergmann
Unilateral spinal anesthesia is a cost-effective and rapidly performed anesthetic technique. An exclusively unilateral block only affects the sensory, motor and sympathetic functions on one side of the body and offers the advantages of a spinal block without the typical adverse side effects seen with a bilateral block. The lack of hypotension, in particular, makes unilateral spinal anesthesia suitable for patients with cardiovascular risk factors e. g. aortic valve stenosis or coronary artery disease. Increasing numbers of surgical procedures are now being performed on an outpatient basis...
October 24, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Diana Golden, Antonina Kolmakova, Sunitha Sura, Anthony T Vella, Ani Manichaikul, Xin-Qun Wang, Suzette J Bielinski, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Stephen S Rich, Annabelle Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: The lipoprotein scavenger receptor BI (SCARB1) rs10846744 noncoding variant is significantly associated with atherosclerotic disease independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We identified a potentially novel connection between rs10846744, the immune checkpoint inhibitor lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3), and atherosclerosis. METHODS: In vitro approaches included flow cytometry, lipid raft isolation, phosphosignaling, cytokine measurements, and overexpressing and silencing LAG3 protein...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Xuwei Zheng, Hongyu Peng, Donghui Zhao, Qin Ma, Kun Fu, Guo Chen, Qian Fan, Jinghua Liu
Aim. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The implications of a diagnosis of DM are as severe as the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. For many patients with complex coronary artery disease, optimal revascularization strategy selection and optimal medical therapy are equally important. In this study, we compared the hemodynamic results of different stenting techniques for Medina 0,1,0 left main bifurcation lesions. Methods. We use idealized left main bifurcation models and computational fluid dynamics analysis to evaluate hemodynamic parameters which are known to affect the risk of restenosis and thrombosis at stented bifurcation...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Hossein Fakhrzadeh, Shirin Djalalinia, Mojdeh Mirarefin, Tahereh Arefirad, Hamid Asayesh, Saeid Safiri, Elham Samami, Morteza Mansourian, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Mostafa Qorbani
Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Mashael K Alshaikh, Filippos T Filippidis, Juren P Baldove, Azeem Majeed, Salman Rawaf
Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Mauricio Zambrano, Victor J Del Brutto
BACKGROUND: There is no information on stroke incidence in rural areas of Latin America, where living conditions and cardiovascular risk factors are different from urban centers. AIM: Using a population-based prospective cohort study design, we aimed to assess risk factors influencing stroke incidence in community-dwelling adults living in rural Ecuador. METHODS: First-ever strokes occurring from 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2016, in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, were identified from yearly door-to-door surveys and other overlapping sources...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Samantha G Bromfield, Daichi Shimbo, John N Booth, Adolfo Correa, Gbenga Ogedegbe, April P Carson, Paul Muntner
Masked hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Identifying modifiable risk factors for masked hypertension could provide approaches to reduce its prevalence. Life's Simple 7 is a measure of cardiovascular health developed by the American Heart Association that includes body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, and glucose. We examined the association between cardiovascular health and masked daytime hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black cohort...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Chao-Qiang Lai, Mary K Wojczynski, Laurence D Parnell, Bertha A Hidalgo, Marguerite Ryan Irvin, Stella Aslibekyan, Michael A Province, Devin M Absher, Donna K Arnett, Jose M Ordovas
Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the increased plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration after consuming a high-fat meal, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Individual responses to a meal high in fat vary greatly, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors. However, only a few loci have been associated with TG-PPL response. Heritable epigenomic changes may be significant contributors to the unexplained inter-individual PPL variability. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on 979 subjects with DNA methylation measured from CD4+ T cells, who were challenged with a high-fat meal as a part of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Julia Nicolau, Thierry Lequerré, Hélène Bacquet, Olivier Vittecoq
Recent progress in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is turning attention toward comorbidities, such as diabetes. The objectives of this review are to clarify the links between RA and diabetes and to assess potential effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on diabetes. The increased insulin resistance seen in RA is closely linked to the systemic inflammation induced by certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in patients with RA...
October 21, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
M Luconi, L Raimondi, A Di Franco, E Mannucci
BACKGROUND: The results of the EMPA-REG-OUTCOME trial on type 2 diabetic patients at high risk for prior cardiovascular events showed that empagliflozin produces a remarkable reduction in the rates of hospitalization for heart failure (35%), cardiovascular death (38%), and all-cause death (32%). This unexpected cardio-protective action cannot be accounted for by the improvement of "classical" cardiovascular risk factors. AIMS: This review aims at summarizing current knowledge on the cardiovascular action of SGLT2 inhibitors and discuss the different hypotheses formulated to explain the results of the EMPA-REG-OUTCOME-study...
September 10, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Nicola Riccardo Pugliese, Iacopo Fabiani, Salvatore La Carrubba, Lorenzo Conte, Francesco Antonini-Canterin, Paolo Colonna, Pio Caso, Frank Benedetto, Veronica Santini, Scipione Carerj, Maria Francesca Romano, Rodolfo Citro, Vitantonio Di Bello
Patients with asymptomatic heart failure (HF; stage A and B) are characterized by maladaptive left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Classic 4-group classification of remodeling considers only LV mass index and relative wall thickness as variables. Complex remodeling classification (CRC) includes also LV end-diastolic volume index. Main aim was to assess the prognostic impact of CRC in stage A and B HF. A total of 1,750 asymptomatic subjects underwent echocardiographic examination as a screening evaluation in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Philip A Mackowiak
Booker T. Washington rose from slavery to become one of the most admired Americans of his time. He died of long-standing malignant hypertension on November 14, 1915. At that time the medical profession was just beginning to recognize the importance of hypertension as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In spite of intensive research fueled by ongoing speculation, why Washington might have been predisposed to the ravages of hypertension, and African Americans continue to be so predisposed, is a secret yet to be told...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Markolf Hanefeld, Denis Raccah, Louis Monnier
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with hyperglycemia, which can lead to serious vascular complications. Current treatment guidelines place particular emphasis on personalization of therapy. Within this guidance, the use of various second-line therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), is recommended under certain circumstances. Areas covered: Factors influencing glucose homeostasis, including gastric emptying and the associated cardiovascular (CV) risk when homeostasis is not maintained, are reviewed...
October 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Ebru Fındıklı, Mustafa Gökçe, Vedat Nacitarhan, Mehmet Akif Camkurt, Hüseyin Avni Fındıklı, Selçuk Kardaş, Merve Coşgun Şahin, Mehmet Fatih Karaaslan
Objective: That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods: Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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